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Hydrostatic, Aerostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123969941, 9780123972392

Hydrostatic, Aerostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design

1st Edition

Author: W. Brian Rowe
eBook ISBN: 9780123972392
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123969941
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 28th March 2012
Page Count: 352
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Solve your bearing design problems with step-by-step procedures and hard-won performance data from a leading expert and consultant

Compiled for ease of use in practical design scenarios, Hydrostatic, Aerostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design provides the basic principles, design procedures and data you need to create the right bearing solution for your requirements.

In this valuable reference and design companion, author and expert W. Brian Rowe shares the hard-won lessons and figures from a lifetime’s research and consultancy experience. Coverage includes:

  • Clear explanation of background theory such as factors governing pressure, flow and forces, followed by worked examples that allow you to check your knowledge and understanding
  • Easy-to-follow design procedures that provide step-by-step blueprints for solving your own design problems
  • Information on a wide selection of bearing shapes, offering a range and depth of bearing coverage not found elsewhere
  • Critical data on optimum performance from load and film stiffness data to pressure ratio considerations
  • Operating safeguards you need to keep in mind to prevent hot-spots and cavitation effects, helping your bearing design to withstand the demands of its intended application

Aimed at both experienced designers and those new to bearing design, Hydrostatic, Aerostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design provides engineers, tribologists and students with a one-stop source of inspiration, information and critical considerations for bearing design success.

Key Features

  • Structured, easy to follow design procedures put theory into practice and provide step-by-step blueprints for solving your own design problems.
  • Covers a wide selection of bearing shapes, offering a range and depth of information on hydrostatic, hybrid and aerostatic bearings not found elsewhere.
  • Includes critical data on optimum performance, with design specifics from load and film stiffness data to pressure ratio considerations that are essential to make your design a success.


Designers and engineers involved in mechanical and machinery design; Tribologists and lubrication engineers; Engineering undergraduates studying tribology and bearing design

Table of Contents


Usual Meaning of Symbols

Chapter 1. Application

1.1 Introduction

1.2 What are Hydrostatic, Hybrid, and Aerostatic Bearings?

1.3 When are Hydrostatic, Hybrid, and Aerostatic Bearings Employed?

1.4 Bearing Selection

1.5 Bearing Categories

1.6 Commercial Applications

1.7 Materials and Manufacture

1.8 Aerostatic Bearings

1.9 How to Read and Use the Book


Chapter 2. Basic Flow Theory

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Viscosity

2.3 Density and Consistent Units

2.4 Compressibility

2.5 Viscous Flow Between Parallel Plates

2.6 Combined Pressure- and Velocity-Induced Viscous Flow in a Two-Dimensional Nonparallel Film

2.7 Flow Through Restrictors

2.8 Recess Pressure and Pressure Ratio

2.9 Bearing Load

2.10 Use of Normalized Data

2.11 Aerostatic Bearings—Summary of Relationships


Further Reading

Chapter 3. Power, Temperature Rise, and Shape Optimization

Summary of Key Design Formulae

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Pumping Power Hp

3.3 Friction Power Hf

3.4 Power Ratio K

3.5 Temperature Rise ΔT

3.6 Minimum Power as an Optimization Criterion

3.7 Minimum Power for Low-Speed Bearings (K = 0)

3.8 Minimum Power for High-Speed Recessed Bearings

3.9 Speed Parameter Sh and Optimum Value Sho

3.10 Optimization of Plain Nonrecessed Hybrid Bearings


Chapter 4. Pads

Summary of Key Design Formulae

4.1 Pad Shapes and Shape Factors

4.2 Virtual Recesses and Dispersion Losses

4.3 Circular Pads

4.4 Square Pad Data

4.5 Rectangular Pad Data

4.6 Annular Recess Circular Pad Data

4.7 Conical Pad Data

4.8 Spherical Pad Data

4.9 Multi-Recess Circular Pad Data

4.10 Multi-Recess Rectangular Pad Data

4.11 Data for Rectangular Pad with Radiussed Recess Corners

4.12 Data for Any Shape with Thin Constant Land Width

4.13 Annular Multi-Recess Pad Data

Chapter 5. Flow Control and Restrictors

Summary of Key Design Formulae

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Bearing Film Stiffness

5.3 Hydrostatic Circuit Design and Sealing

5.4 Load and Stiffness of Capillary-Controlled Pads

5.5 Flow Control Mechanisms

5.6 General Stiffness Laws for Hydrostatic and Aerostatic Bearing Pads

5.7 Aerostatic Bearings and Flow Control


Appendix Tabular Design Procedures for Restrictors and Worked Examples

Chapter 6. Basis of Design Procedures

6.1 Introduction

6.2 An Acceptable Range for Design Pressure Ratio

6.3 Zero- and Low-Speed Hydrostatic Bearings

6.4 Zero- and Low-Speed Aerostatic Bearings

6.5 Optional Size Limits and Tolerances for Film Thickness

6.6 High-Speed Bearings

6.7 Specification for ISO Limits and Fits

6.8 Tolerance Grades for Hydrostatic and Aerostatic Bearings


Chapter 7. Plane Hydrostatic and Aerostatic Bearings

Summary of Key Design Formulae

7.1 Use of the Design Charts

7.2 Choice of Land Width

7.3 Flow Variation with Film Thickness

7.4 Load Variation with Film Thickness

7.5 Stiffness Variation with Film Thickness

7.6 Single-Pad Bearings

7.7 Equal Opposed-Pad Bearings

7.8 Unequal Opposed-Pad Bearings

7.9 Complex Arrangements of Pads (Capillary Controlled)

Appendix Tabular Design Procedures

Chapter 8. Partial Journal Bearings

Summary of Key Design Formulae

8.1 Recessed Partial Journal Bearings

8.2 Partial Journal Bearings with a High-Pressure Supply Groove


Chapter 9. Recessed Hydrostatic Journal Bearings

Summary of Key Design Formulae

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Flow

9.3 Load

9.4 Power, Power Ratio, and Temperature Rise

9.5 Land-Width Ratios and Concentric Pressure Ratio

9.6 Selection of Tolerances for Bearing Film Clearance

9.7 Selection of Supply Pressure, Viscosity, and Clearance

9.8 Bearing Film Stiffness


Appendix 1 Derivation of Journal Bearing Stiffness by an Approximate Analytical Method

Appendix 2 Tabular Design Procedure

Chapter 10. Plain Journal Bearings

Summary of Key Design Formulae

Part A Hydrostatic/Hybrid Plain Journal Bearings

10.2 Selection of Bearing Configuration

10.3 Power Ratio, K

10.4 Concentric Hydrostatic Pressure Ratio, β

10.5 Bearing Clearance and Clearance Limits

10.6 Hydrostatic Load Support

10.7 Hybrid Slot-Entry Bearings

10.8 Hybrid Hole-Entry Bearings

10.9 Size of Slot and Hole-Entry Ports

10.10 Summary of Hydrostatic and Hybrid Load Support

10.11 Concentric Hydrostatic/Hybrid Flow

10.12 Power and Temperature Rise

Part B Aerostatic Plain Journal Bearings

10.14 Concentric Aerostatic Pressure Ratio, Kgo

10.15 Aerostatic Clearance and Clearance Limits

10.16 Aerostatic Load Support

10.17 Concentric Aerostatic Flow

10.18 Hybrid Aerostatic Journal Bearings

10.19 Materials and Surface Texture for Journal Bearings


Appendix Tabular Design Procedures

Chapter 11. The Yates Bearing

Summary of Key Design Formulae

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Principle of Operation

11.3 Basic Parameters for the Yates Bearing

11.4 Hydrostatic Design Procedure

11.5 Aerostatic Yates Bearings

11.6 Aerostatic Design Procedure


Chapter 12. Conical Journal Bearings

Summary of Key Design Formulae

12.1 Application

12.2 Basic Parameters

12.3 Single-Cone Bearings

12.4 Complementary-Cone Spindle Bearings

12.5 High-Speed Design

12.6 Design Procedure for a Complementary-Cone Hydrostatic Bearing

12.7 Design Procedure for a Complementary-Cone Aerostatic Bearing


Chapter 13. Spherical Bearings

Summary of Key Design Formulae

13.1 Application

13.2 Basic Parameters

13.3 Central-Recess Spherical Bearing

13.4 Annular-Recess Spherical Bearing

13.5 Single Multi-Recess Spherical Bearings

13.6 Opposed Multi-Recess Spherical Bearings


Chapter 14. Dynamics

Summary of Key Design Formulae

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Static Loading

14.3 Dynamic Loading

14.4 Squeeze Film Damping

14.5 Compressibility in Hydrostatic and Aerostatic Bearings

14.6 Dynamic Model of a Thrust Pad

14.7 Hydrostatic Thrust Pad with Thin Lands

14.8 Journal Bearings: Equations of Motion

14.9 Journal Bearings in the Concentric Condition

14.10 Eccentric Journal Bearings


Chapter 15. Experimental Methods and Testing

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Flat-Pad Rig

15.3 Cylindrical Journal Bearing Rig

15.4 Publications on Experimental Behavior



No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2012
28th March 2012
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Author

W. Brian Rowe

W. Brian Rowe is a consulting engineer and recognized bearing expert with more than 30 years’ experience working on a wide range of machinery design problems across all industries. He has previously run courses on bearings at Coventry University in the UK and Stanford University in the USA, as well as sessions on the topic for industrial engineers in Chengdu, China. He has received awards in recognition of his work, including the Walter R. Evans Award for significant contributions to the field of rotor dynamics in 2004.

Affiliations and Expertise

Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Tribology Research Laboratory (AMTTREL) at Liverpool John Moores University, UK

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