Human Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures

2nd Edition

Authors: Harold Zeliger
Hardcover ISBN: 9781437734638
eBook ISBN: 9781437734645
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 23rd June 2011
Page Count: 574
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In this important reference work, Zeliger catalogs the known effects of chemical mixtures

on the human body and also proposes a framework for understanding and predicting their

actions in terms of lipophile (fat soluble) / hydrophile (water soluble) interactions. The

author’s focus is on illnesses that ensue following exposures to mixtures of chemicals

that cannot be attributed to any one component of the mixture.

In the first part the mechanisms of chemical absorption at a molecular and

macromolecular level are explained, as well as the body’s methods of defending itself

against xenobiotic intrusion. Part II examines the sources of the chemicals discusssed,

looking at air and water pollution, food additives, pharmaceuticals, etc. Part III, which

includes numerous case studies, examines specific effects of particular mixtures on

particular body systems and organs and presents a theoretical framework for predicting

what the effects of uncharacterized mixtures might be. Part IV covers regulatory

requirements and the need to adjust recommended exposure levels for products

containing mixtures. It also contains recommendations on how to limit exposure to

mixtures in the products we use and on how to limit release of mixtures into the


Providing brief summaries of each mixture and its effects, Zeliger provides a

comprehensive reference, a jumping off point for professionals (with extensive chapter

bibliographies) and an introduction to the topic for those studying traditional toxicology.

Addressing many inadequately understood illnesses and conditions such as asthma,

infertility and cancer, it will also be of interest to health professionals, environmental

scientists and lawyers.

Key Features

  • Presents a theoretical framework for predicting the effects of chemical mixtures for which no specific data exists (this predictive aspect is important due to the vast number of different potential chemical combinations – far too many to comprehensively catalog)
  • A quick and convenient source of hard to come by data on the rapidly developing field of chemical mixtures, for groups including chemists and engineers, toxicologists, health professionals and environmental scientists
  • New and updated material comprises over 30% of this timely new edition, which includes the latest research data alongside an expanded introduction to the science and art of predicting the toxicological properties of chemical mixtures


Industrial Health and Safety personnel. Chemists and Chemical Engineers working in sectors such as the chemical industry, personal care and cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, etc. Environmental Scientists and Engineers, Toxic Waste Managers, Toxicologists, Health Professionals. Professional Food manufacturers, laboratory workers, environmental and OSHA training personnel, industrial risk assessors, forensic investigators and attorneys involved in toxic torts litigation, disease prevention advocacy groups, students and researchers

Table of Contents


Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition

List of Abbreviations

1. Introduction

2. Health Effects of Exposures to Chemical Mixtures

2.1. Traditional Toxicology

2.2. Unexplained Effects of Mixtures

2.3. Lipophiles and Hydrophiles

2.4. Octanol:Water Partition Coefficients

2.5. Summary

3. Absorption of Chemical Mixtures

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Permeability of Mucous Membranes and Octanol:Water Partition Coefficients

3.3. Absorption Enhancers

3.4. Absorption of Organic Molecules from Aqueous Solutions

3.5. Summary

4. Chemical Toxicology

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Toxicology

4.3. Molecular Toxicology

4.4. Exposure

4.5. Absorption

4.6. Distribution

4.7. Metabolism

4.8. Factors Affecting Metabolism of Xenobiotics

4.9. Oxidative Stress

4.10. Receptor–Xenobiotic Interactions

4.11. Endocrine Disruptors

4.12. Immunotoxicology

4.13. Multiple Site Responses

4.14. Mixture Effects

5. Scope and Sources of Toxic Exposures

5.1. Scope of Exposure: Introduction

5.2. Toxic Release

5.3. Unknown Toxicities

5.4. Proliferation

6. In Utero Exposure

6.1. Fetal Sensitivity

6.2. Toxic Chemicals in the Blood of Newborns

6.3. Toxic Hazards of Fetal Toxicants

6.4. Mixtures

7. Air Pollution

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Pervasive Air Pollutants

7.3. Chemical Reactions in the Air

7.4. Confined Air Pollutants

7.5. Air Pollution in the Breathing Zone

7.6. Air Pollution and Health Risk

7.7. Mixtures

7.8. Particulate Matter

7.9. Aerosols

7.10. Effects of Nonspecific Origin

7.11. Summary

8. Water Pollution

8.1. Introducti


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© William Andrew 2011
William Andrew
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About the Author

Harold Zeliger