Human Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781437734638, 9781437734645

Human Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures

2nd Edition

Authors: Harold Zeliger
eBook ISBN: 9781437734645
Hardcover ISBN: 9781437734638
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 23rd June 2011
Page Count: 574
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In this important reference work, Zeliger catalogs the known effects of chemical mixtures

on the human body and also proposes a framework for understanding and predicting their

actions in terms of lipophile (fat soluble) / hydrophile (water soluble) interactions. The

author’s focus is on illnesses that ensue following exposures to mixtures of chemicals

that cannot be attributed to any one component of the mixture.

In the first part the mechanisms of chemical absorption at a molecular and

macromolecular level are explained, as well as the body’s methods of defending itself

against xenobiotic intrusion. Part II examines the sources of the chemicals discusssed,

looking at air and water pollution, food additives, pharmaceuticals, etc. Part III, which

includes numerous case studies, examines specific effects of particular mixtures on

particular body systems and organs and presents a theoretical framework for predicting

what the effects of uncharacterized mixtures might be. Part IV covers regulatory

requirements and the need to adjust recommended exposure levels for products

containing mixtures. It also contains recommendations on how to limit exposure to

mixtures in the products we use and on how to limit release of mixtures into the


Providing brief summaries of each mixture and its effects, Zeliger provides a

comprehensive reference, a jumping off point for professionals (with extensive chapter

bibliographies) and an introduction to the topic for those studying traditional toxicology.

Addressing many inadequately understood illnesses and conditions such as asthma,

infertility and cancer, it will also be of interest to health professionals, environmental

scientists and lawyers.

Key Features

  • Presents a theoretical framework for predicting the effects of chemical mixtures for which no specific data exists (this predictive aspect is important due to the vast number of different potential chemical combinations – far too many to comprehensively catalog)
  • A quick and convenient source of hard to come by data on the rapidly developing field of chemical mixtures, for groups including chemists and engineers, toxicologists, health professionals and environmental scientists
  • New and updated material comprises over 30% of this timely new edition, which includes the latest research data alongside an expanded introduction to the science and art of predicting the toxicological properties of chemical mixtures


Industrial Health and Safety personnel. Chemists and Chemical Engineers working in sectors such as the chemical industry, personal care and cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, etc. Environmental Scientists and Engineers, Toxic Waste Managers, Toxicologists, Health Professionals. Professional Food manufacturers, laboratory workers, environmental and OSHA training personnel, industrial risk assessors, forensic investigators and attorneys involved in toxic torts litigation, disease prevention advocacy groups, students and researchers

Table of Contents


Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition

List of Abbreviations

1. Introduction

2. Health Effects of Exposures to Chemical Mixtures

2.1. Traditional Toxicology

2.2. Unexplained Effects of Mixtures

2.3. Lipophiles and Hydrophiles

2.4. Octanol:Water Partition Coefficients

2.5. Summary

3. Absorption of Chemical Mixtures

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Permeability of Mucous Membranes and Octanol:Water Partition Coefficients

3.3. Absorption Enhancers

3.4. Absorption of Organic Molecules from Aqueous Solutions

3.5. Summary

4. Chemical Toxicology

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Toxicology

4.3. Molecular Toxicology

4.4. Exposure

4.5. Absorption

4.6. Distribution

4.7. Metabolism

4.8. Factors Affecting Metabolism of Xenobiotics

4.9. Oxidative Stress

4.10. Receptor–Xenobiotic Interactions

4.11. Endocrine Disruptors

4.12. Immunotoxicology

4.13. Multiple Site Responses

4.14. Mixture Effects

5. Scope and Sources of Toxic Exposures

5.1. Scope of Exposure: Introduction

5.2. Toxic Release

5.3. Unknown Toxicities

5.4. Proliferation

6. In Utero Exposure

6.1. Fetal Sensitivity

6.2. Toxic Chemicals in the Blood of Newborns

6.3. Toxic Hazards of Fetal Toxicants

6.4. Mixtures

7. Air Pollution

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Pervasive Air Pollutants

7.3. Chemical Reactions in the Air

7.4. Confined Air Pollutants

7.5. Air Pollution in the Breathing Zone

7.6. Air Pollution and Health Risk

7.7. Mixtures

7.8. Particulate Matter

7.9. Aerosols

7.10. Effects of Nonspecific Origin

7.11. Summary

8. Water Pollution

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Mining

8.3. Manufacturing

8.4. Farming

8.5. Power Production

8.6. Urban Runoff

8.7. Home and Personal Care Products

8.8. Priority Water Pollutants

8.9. Chemical Reactions in Water

8.10. Drinking Water Contaminants in the United States

8.11. Mixtures

8.12. Toxic Landfill Runoff

8.13. Summary

9. Soil Pollution

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Depressed Microbial Activity

9.3. Toxicity to Soil-Dwelling Animals

9.4. Plant Absorption of Soil Toxins and Bioaccumulation

9.5. Effects of Mixtures

9.6. Summary

10. Food

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Persistent Organic Pollutants

10.3. Mercury

10.4. Antibiotics in Meat

10.5. Steroids in Meat

10.6. Additives in Commercial Food Preparation

10.7. Chemical Impurities in Food: Allowable Xenobiotics

10.8. Flavor Additives

10.9. Artificial Food Colors

10.10. Flavor Enhancers: MSG

10.11. Aspartame: Non-Nutritive Sweetener

10.12. Non-Nutritive Chemicals in Food

10.13. The Bread We Eat

10.14. VOCs in Food

10.15. Chemicals in Food Packaging

10.16. Irradiated Food

10.17. Toxic Mixtures in Food

10.18. Excipients in Pharmaceuticals and Vitamin and Mineral Preparations

10.19. Summary

11. Chemicals In and Around the Home

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Arts and Crafts

11.3. Automobiles and Small Engines

11.4. Cleaners and Fresheners

11.5. Maintenance Materials

11.6. Brominated Flame Retardants

11.7. Personal Care and Cosmetic Products

11.8. Pesticides

11.9. Other Mixture-Containing Products

11.10. Summary

12. Sick Building Syndrome

12.1. Introduction

12.2. SBS Symptoms

12.3. Contributory Sources of SBS

12.4. VOCs in Buildings

12.5. Paint

12.6. Environmental Tobacco Smoke

12.7. Carpets

12.8. Formaldehyde

12.9. Other Sources of SBS Toxic Chemicals

12.10. Biological Causes of SBS

12.11. Mixtures

12.12. Investigating an SBS Incident

12.13. Summary

13. Industrial Exposure

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Single Chemical Toxicities

13.3. Mixture Toxicities

13.4. Noise, Organic Solvents, and Hearing

13.5. Foundry Fumes and Cancer

13.6. Painting and CNS Effects

13.7. Printers’ CNS and Mucous Membrane Effects

13.8. High Cancer Rates in Road Pavers and Roofers

13.9. Nail Salon Work and CNS Effects

13.10. Coke Oven Work and Smoking Synergism

13.11. Incinerator Fly Ash Toxicity

13.12. Naval Divers’ Cancer Cluster

13.13. Industrial Solid Waste and Municipal Waste Leachate

13.14. Exposures of Workers to Aromatic Hydrocarbons

13.15. Polyhalogenated Aromatic Compounds

13.16. Color Vision Impairment in Workers

13.17. Irradiated Mail Sensitivity

13.18. “Aerospace Syndrome”

13.19. Hospital Histology Technicians

13.20. Persistent Toxic Chemical Compounds

13.21. Regional Impact Assessment

13.22. Summary

14. Pesticides

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Definitions

14.3. Human Toxicities of Pesticides

14.4. Toxicity of Pesticide Mixtures

14.5. Inert Ingredients in Pesticides

14.6. Low-Level Pesticide Poisonings

14.7. Summary

15. Alcohol and Tobacco

15.1. Introduction

15.2. Ethanol: Introduction

15.3. Mechanisms of Ethanol Mixture Toxicity

15.4. Effect of Ethanol on Nutrients and Drugs

15.5. Toxicity of Ethanol Mixtures with Other Chemicals

15.6. Ethanol and Cancer

15.7. Tobacco Toxicity: Introduction

15.8. Tobacco and Cancer

15.9. Tobacco Smoke Mixtures

15.10. Tobacco Smoke Mixtures and Lung Cancer

15.11. Noncarcinogenic Tobacco Smoke Synergism

15.12. Summary

16. Electromagnetic Radiation and Toxic Exposure

16.1. Introduction

16.2. The Electromagnetic Spectrum

16.3. Ionizing Radiation and Toxic Chemical Mixtures

16.4. UV Radiation and Toxic Chemical Mixtures

16.5. Nonionizing Radiation Introduction

16.6. RF Radiation and Toxic Chemical Mixtures

16.7. ELF Radiation and Toxic Chemical Mixtures

16.8. Summary

17. Respiratory System

17.1. Introduction

17.2. Respiratory Irritant Mixtures

17.3. Respiratory Sensitization Mixtures

17.4. Asthma and Chemical Mixtures

17.5. Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome

17.6. Respiratory Carcinogens

17.7. Unanticipated Respiratory Effects of Chemical Mixtures

17.8. Summary

18. Nervous System

18.1. Introduction

18.2. Neurotoxic Chemicals

18.3. Indicators and Symptoms of Neurotoxic Poisoning

18.4. Mechanisms of Neurotoxic Action

18.5. Neurodegenerative Diseases and Toxic Chemical Exposures

18.6. Neurotoxicity of Chemical Mixtures

18.7. Case Studies: Neurotoxic Chemical Mixtures

18.8. Summary

19. Developmental Neurotoxicology

19.1. Introduction

19.2. Mixture Neurotoxicity

19.3. Summary

20. Autism

20.1. Autism

20.2. Chemical Mixtures

20.3. Summary

21. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

21.1. Introduction

21.2. Prevalence of ADHD

21.3. Environmental Factors in ADHD

21.4. Chemical Mixtures as Triggers for ADHD

21.5. Summary

22. Endocrine System

22.1. Introduction

22.2. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

22.3. Diabetes and EDCs

22.4. Breast Cancer and Endocrine Disruptors

22.5. Mixture Effects on Endocrine Function: Case Studies

22.6. Tobacco Smoke

22.7. Summary

23. Toxic Infertility

23.1. Introduction

23.2. Xenobiotics and Female Infertility

23.3. Smoking and Female Fertility

23.4. Chemically Induced SAB

23.5. Xenobiotics and Male Infertility

23.6. Chemicals Affecting Male Infertility

23.7. Effects of Chemical Mixtures on Male Fertility

23.8. Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome

23.9. Summary

24. Teratogens

24.1. Introduction

24.2. Single Chemical Teratogens

24.3. Paternally Transmitted Teratogenic Effects

24.4. Transgenerational Teratogenic Effects

24.5. Teratogenic Mixtures

24.6. Summary

25. Immune System

25.1. Introduction

25.2. Immunosuppressants

25.3. Immunostimulants

25.4. Autoimmune Toxins

25.5. Immunotoxic Mixtures

25.6. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

25.7. Summary

26. Chemical Sensitivity

26.1. Introduction

26.2. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS)

26.3. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

26.4. CFS and Chemical Exposure

26.5. Fibromyalgia (FM)

26.6. Gulf War Syndrome (GWS)

26.7. Comorbidity of MCS, CFS, and FM

26.8. Chemical Sensitivity Triggers Hypothesis

26.9. Summary

27. Skin

27.1. Introduction

27.2. Skin Permeability

27.3. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

27.4. Dermally Induced Respiratory Hypersensitivity

27.5. Chemical Burns

27.6. Mixtures

27.7. Summary

28. Musculoskeletal System

28.1. Introduction

28.2. Rheumatoid Arthritis

28.3. Scleroderma and Systemic Sclerosis

28.4. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

28.5. Osteoporosis and Osteomalacia

28.6. Mixtures

28.7. Summary

29. Cardiovascular System

29.1. Introduction

29.2. Leachates

29.3. Air Pollution

29.4. Tobacco

29.5. Cancer

29.6. Summary

30. Liver

30.1. Introduction

30.2. Single Chemical Hepatotoxins

30.3. Hepatotoxic Mixtures: Animal Studies

30.4. Human Case Studies

30.5. Hepatic Cancer

30.6. Summary

31. Kidneys

31.1. Introduction

31.2. Single Chemical Renal Toxins

31.3. Nephrotoxic Chemical Mixtures

31.4. Summary

32. Cancer

32.1. Introduction

32.2. Cancer Incidence Rates

32.3. Chemical Carcinogens

32.4. Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis

32.5. Single Chemical Carcinogens

32.6. Occupational Exposures Known To Be Carcinogenic

32.7. Mixture Exposures Known To Be Carcinogenic—Many Component Mixtures

32.8. Mixture Exposures Known To Be Carcinogenic—Two-Component Mixtures

32.9. Tobacco and Cancer

32.10. Summary and Outlook

33. Cancer Clusters

33.1. Introduction

33.2. Mixture-Induced Cancer Clusters

33.3. Summary

34. Nanotoxicology

34.1. Introduction

34.2. Nanoparticles

34.3. NP Uptake

34.4. Mechanisms of Toxic Effects of NPs: OS

34.5. Case Studies: NP Mixtures

34.6. Summary

35. Children

35.1. Introduction

35.2. In Utero Exposure

35.3. Air Pollution

35.4. Water Pollution

35.5. Food

35.6. Chemicals in the Home

35.7. Sick-Building Chemical Exposure

35.8. Industrial Exposure

35.9. Farming: Pesticides

35.10. Tobacco Smoke

35.11. Asthma

35.12. Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Teratogenic Effects

35.13. Children and Global Warming

35.14. Childhood Cancer

36. Childhood Cancer

36.1. Childhood Cancer

36.2. Prevalent Childhood Cancers

36.3. Childhood Cancer Studies

36.4. Children’s Cancer Clusters

36.5. Summary

37. Toxicology of Global Warming

37.1. Introduction

37.2. Global Warming and Human Disease

37.3. Extreme Climatic Events

37.4. Air Pollution

37.5. Water Pollution

37.6. Toxic Chemicals and Thermal Stress

37.7. Summary

38. Regulatory Requirements

38.1. Introduction

38.2. Warning Requirements

38.3. Warning Deficiencies

38.4. Warnings for Multiple Exposures

38.5. Warnings for Mixtures

38.6. Odor

38.7. Warning Recommendations

38.8. Summary

39. Conclusions and Recommendations

39.1. Introduction

39.2. Conclusions

39.3. Recommendations

39.4. The Future



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© William Andrew 2011
William Andrew
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Author

Harold Zeliger