Human Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures

Human Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures

2nd Edition - June 23, 2011

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  • Author: Harold Zeliger
  • eBook ISBN: 9781437734645

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In this important reference work, Zeliger catalogs the known effects of chemical mixtures on the human body and also proposes a framework for understanding and predicting their actions in terms of lipophile (fat soluble) / hydrophile (water soluble) interactions. The author’s focus is on illnesses that ensue following exposures to mixtures of chemicals that cannot be attributed to any one component of the mixture. In the first part the mechanisms of chemical absorption at a molecular and macromolecular level are explained, as well as the body’s methods of defending itself against xenobiotic intrusion. Part II examines the sources of the chemicals discusssed, looking at air and water pollution, food additives, pharmaceuticals, etc. Part III, which includes numerous case studies, examines specific effects of particular mixtures on particular body systems and organs and presents a theoretical framework for predicting what the effects of uncharacterized mixtures might be. Part IV covers regulatory requirements and the need to adjust recommended exposure levels for products containing mixtures. It also contains recommendations on how to limit exposure to mixtures in the products we use and on how to limit release of mixtures into the environment. Providing brief summaries of each mixture and its effects, Zeliger provides a comprehensive reference, a jumping off point for professionals (with extensive chapter bibliographies) and an introduction to the topic for those studying traditional toxicology. Addressing many inadequately understood illnesses and conditions such as asthma, infertility and cancer, it will also be of interest to health professionals, environmental scientists and lawyers.

Key Features

  • Presents a theoretical framework for predicting the effects of chemical mixtures for which no specific data exists (this predictive aspect is important due to the vast number of different potential chemical combinations – far too many to comprehensively catalog)
  • A quick and convenient source of hard to come by data on the rapidly developing field of chemical mixtures, for groups including chemists and engineers, toxicologists, health professionals and environmental scientists
  • New and updated material comprises over 30% of this timely new edition, which includes the latest research data alongside an expanded introduction to the science and art of predicting the toxicological properties of chemical mixtures


Industrial Health and Safety personnel. Chemists and Chemical Engineers working in sectors such as the chemical industry, personal care and cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, etc. Environmental Scientists and Engineers, Toxic Waste Managers, Toxicologists, Health Professionals. Professional Food manufacturers, laboratory workers, environmental and OSHA training personnel, industrial risk assessors, forensic investigators and attorneys involved in toxic torts litigation, disease prevention advocacy groups, students and researchers

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface to the Second Edition

    Preface to the First Edition

    List of Abbreviations

    1. Introduction

    2. Health Effects of Exposures to Chemical Mixtures

    2.1. Traditional Toxicology

    2.2. Unexplained Effects of Mixtures

    2.3. Lipophiles and Hydrophiles

    2.4. Octanol:Water Partition Coefficients

    2.5. Summary

    3. Absorption of Chemical Mixtures

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. Permeability of Mucous Membranes and Octanol:Water Partition Coefficients

    3.3. Absorption Enhancers

    3.4. Absorption of Organic Molecules from Aqueous Solutions

    3.5. Summary

    4. Chemical Toxicology

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. Toxicology

    4.3. Molecular Toxicology

    4.4. Exposure

    4.5. Absorption

    4.6. Distribution

    4.7. Metabolism

    4.8. Factors Affecting Metabolism of Xenobiotics

    4.9. Oxidative Stress

    4.10. Receptor–Xenobiotic Interactions

    4.11. Endocrine Disruptors

    4.12. Immunotoxicology

    4.13. Multiple Site Responses

    4.14. Mixture Effects

    5. Scope and Sources of Toxic Exposures

    5.1. Scope of Exposure: Introduction

    5.2. Toxic Release

    5.3. Unknown Toxicities

    5.4. Proliferation

    6. In Utero Exposure

    6.1. Fetal Sensitivity

    6.2. Toxic Chemicals in the Blood of Newborns

    6.3. Toxic Hazards of Fetal Toxicants

    6.4. Mixtures

    7. Air Pollution

    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. Pervasive Air Pollutants

    7.3. Chemical Reactions in the Air

    7.4. Confined Air Pollutants

    7.5. Air Pollution in the Breathing Zone

    7.6. Air Pollution and Health Risk

    7.7. Mixtures

    7.8. Particulate Matter

    7.9. Aerosols

    7.10. Effects of Nonspecific Origin

    7.11. Summary

    8. Water Pollution

    8.1. Introduction

    8.2. Mining

    8.3. Manufacturing

    8.4. Farming

    8.5. Power Production

    8.6. Urban Runoff

    8.7. Home and Personal Care Products

    8.8. Priority Water Pollutants

    8.9. Chemical Reactions in Water

    8.10. Drinking Water Contaminants in the United States

    8.11. Mixtures

    8.12. Toxic Landfill Runoff

    8.13. Summary

    9. Soil Pollution

    9.1. Introduction

    9.2. Depressed Microbial Activity

    9.3. Toxicity to Soil-Dwelling Animals

    9.4. Plant Absorption of Soil Toxins and Bioaccumulation

    9.5. Effects of Mixtures

    9.6. Summary

    10. Food

    10.1. Introduction

    10.2. Persistent Organic Pollutants

    10.3. Mercury

    10.4. Antibiotics in Meat

    10.5. Steroids in Meat

    10.6. Additives in Commercial Food Preparation

    10.7. Chemical Impurities in Food: Allowable Xenobiotics

    10.8. Flavor Additives

    10.9. Artificial Food Colors

    10.10. Flavor Enhancers: MSG

    10.11. Aspartame: Non-Nutritive Sweetener

    10.12. Non-Nutritive Chemicals in Food

    10.13. The Bread We Eat

    10.14. VOCs in Food

    10.15. Chemicals in Food Packaging

    10.16. Irradiated Food

    10.17. Toxic Mixtures in Food

    10.18. Excipients in Pharmaceuticals and Vitamin and Mineral Preparations

    10.19. Summary

    11. Chemicals In and Around the Home

    11.1. Introduction

    11.2. Arts and Crafts

    11.3. Automobiles and Small Engines

    11.4. Cleaners and Fresheners

    11.5. Maintenance Materials

    11.6. Brominated Flame Retardants

    11.7. Personal Care and Cosmetic Products

    11.8. Pesticides

    11.9. Other Mixture-Containing Products

    11.10. Summary

    12. Sick Building Syndrome

    12.1. Introduction

    12.2. SBS Symptoms

    12.3. Contributory Sources of SBS

    12.4. VOCs in Buildings

    12.5. Paint

    12.6. Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    12.7. Carpets

    12.8. Formaldehyde

    12.9. Other Sources of SBS Toxic Chemicals

    12.10. Biological Causes of SBS

    12.11. Mixtures

    12.12. Investigating an SBS Incident

    12.13. Summary

    13. Industrial Exposure

    13.1. Introduction

    13.2. Single Chemical Toxicities

    13.3. Mixture Toxicities

    13.4. Noise, Organic Solvents, and Hearing

    13.5. Foundry Fumes and Cancer

    13.6. Painting and CNS Effects

    13.7. Printers’ CNS and Mucous Membrane Effects

    13.8. High Cancer Rates in Road Pavers and Roofers

    13.9. Nail Salon Work and CNS Effects

    13.10. Coke Oven Work and Smoking Synergism

    13.11. Incinerator Fly Ash Toxicity

    13.12. Naval Divers’ Cancer Cluster

    13.13. Industrial Solid Waste and Municipal Waste Leachate

    13.14. Exposures of Workers to Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    13.15. Polyhalogenated Aromatic Compounds

    13.16. Color Vision Impairment in Workers

    13.17. Irradiated Mail Sensitivity

    13.18. “Aerospace Syndrome”

    13.19. Hospital Histology Technicians

    13.20. Persistent Toxic Chemical Compounds

    13.21. Regional Impact Assessment

    13.22. Summary

    14. Pesticides

    14.1. Introduction

    14.2. Definitions

    14.3. Human Toxicities of Pesticides

    14.4. Toxicity of Pesticide Mixtures

    14.5. Inert Ingredients in Pesticides

    14.6. Low-Level Pesticide Poisonings

    14.7. Summary

    15. Alcohol and Tobacco

    15.1. Introduction

    15.2. Ethanol: Introduction

    15.3. Mechanisms of Ethanol Mixture Toxicity

    15.4. Effect of Ethanol on Nutrients and Drugs

    15.5. Toxicity of Ethanol Mixtures with Other Chemicals

    15.6. Ethanol and Cancer

    15.7. Tobacco Toxicity: Introduction

    15.8. Tobacco and Cancer

    15.9. Tobacco Smoke Mixtures

    15.10. Tobacco Smoke Mixtures and Lung Cancer

    15.11. Noncarcinogenic Tobacco Smoke Synergism

    15.12. Summary

    16. Electromagnetic Radiation and Toxic Exposure

    16.1. Introduction

    16.2. The Electromagnetic Spectrum

    16.3. Ionizing Radiation and Toxic Chemical Mixtures

    16.4. UV Radiation and Toxic Chemical Mixtures

    16.5. Nonionizing Radiation Introduction

    16.6. RF Radiation and Toxic Chemical Mixtures

    16.7. ELF Radiation and Toxic Chemical Mixtures

    16.8. Summary

    17. Respiratory System

    17.1. Introduction

    17.2. Respiratory Irritant Mixtures

    17.3. Respiratory Sensitization Mixtures

    17.4. Asthma and Chemical Mixtures

    17.5. Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome

    17.6. Respiratory Carcinogens

    17.7. Unanticipated Respiratory Effects of Chemical Mixtures

    17.8. Summary

    18. Nervous System

    18.1. Introduction

    18.2. Neurotoxic Chemicals

    18.3. Indicators and Symptoms of Neurotoxic Poisoning

    18.4. Mechanisms of Neurotoxic Action

    18.5. Neurodegenerative Diseases and Toxic Chemical Exposures

    18.6. Neurotoxicity of Chemical Mixtures

    18.7. Case Studies: Neurotoxic Chemical Mixtures

    18.8. Summary

    19. Developmental Neurotoxicology

    19.1. Introduction

    19.2. Mixture Neurotoxicity

    19.3. Summary

    20. Autism

    20.1. Autism

    20.2. Chemical Mixtures

    20.3. Summary

    21. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    21.1. Introduction

    21.2. Prevalence of ADHD

    21.3. Environmental Factors in ADHD

    21.4. Chemical Mixtures as Triggers for ADHD

    21.5. Summary

    22. Endocrine System

    22.1. Introduction

    22.2. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    22.3. Diabetes and EDCs

    22.4. Breast Cancer and Endocrine Disruptors

    22.5. Mixture Effects on Endocrine Function: Case Studies

    22.6. Tobacco Smoke

    22.7. Summary

    23. Toxic Infertility

    23.1. Introduction

    23.2. Xenobiotics and Female Infertility

    23.3. Smoking and Female Fertility

    23.4. Chemically Induced SAB

    23.5. Xenobiotics and Male Infertility

    23.6. Chemicals Affecting Male Infertility

    23.7. Effects of Chemical Mixtures on Male Fertility

    23.8. Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome

    23.9. Summary

    24. Teratogens

    24.1. Introduction

    24.2. Single Chemical Teratogens

    24.3. Paternally Transmitted Teratogenic Effects

    24.4. Transgenerational Teratogenic Effects

    24.5. Teratogenic Mixtures

    24.6. Summary

    25. Immune System

    25.1. Introduction

    25.2. Immunosuppressants

    25.3. Immunostimulants

    25.4. Autoimmune Toxins

    25.5. Immunotoxic Mixtures

    25.6. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

    25.7. Summary

    26. Chemical Sensitivity

    26.1. Introduction

    26.2. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS)

    26.3. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

    26.4. CFS and Chemical Exposure

    26.5. Fibromyalgia (FM)

    26.6. Gulf War Syndrome (GWS)

    26.7. Comorbidity of MCS, CFS, and FM

    26.8. Chemical Sensitivity Triggers Hypothesis

    26.9. Summary

    27. Skin

    27.1. Introduction

    27.2. Skin Permeability

    27.3. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    27.4. Dermally Induced Respiratory Hypersensitivity

    27.5. Chemical Burns

    27.6. Mixtures

    27.7. Summary

    28. Musculoskeletal System

    28.1. Introduction

    28.2. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    28.3. Scleroderma and Systemic Sclerosis

    28.4. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    28.5. Osteoporosis and Osteomalacia

    28.6. Mixtures

    28.7. Summary

    29. Cardiovascular System

    29.1. Introduction

    29.2. Leachates

    29.3. Air Pollution

    29.4. Tobacco

    29.5. Cancer

    29.6. Summary

    30. Liver

    30.1. Introduction

    30.2. Single Chemical Hepatotoxins

    30.3. Hepatotoxic Mixtures: Animal Studies

    30.4. Human Case Studies

    30.5. Hepatic Cancer

    30.6. Summary

    31. Kidneys

    31.1. Introduction

    31.2. Single Chemical Renal Toxins

    31.3. Nephrotoxic Chemical Mixtures

    31.4. Summary

    32. Cancer

    32.1. Introduction

    32.2. Cancer Incidence Rates

    32.3. Chemical Carcinogens

    32.4. Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis

    32.5. Single Chemical Carcinogens

    32.6. Occupational Exposures Known To Be Carcinogenic

    32.7. Mixture Exposures Known To Be Carcinogenic—Many Component Mixtures

    32.8. Mixture Exposures Known To Be Carcinogenic—Two-Component Mixtures

    32.9. Tobacco and Cancer

    32.10. Summary and Outlook

    33. Cancer Clusters

    33.1. Introduction

    33.2. Mixture-Induced Cancer Clusters

    33.3. Summary

    34. Nanotoxicology

    34.1. Introduction

    34.2. Nanoparticles

    34.3. NP Uptake

    34.4. Mechanisms of Toxic Effects of NPs: OS

    34.5. Case Studies: NP Mixtures

    34.6. Summary

    35. Children

    35.1. Introduction

    35.2. In Utero Exposure

    35.3. Air Pollution

    35.4. Water Pollution

    35.5. Food

    35.6. Chemicals in the Home

    35.7. Sick-Building Chemical Exposure

    35.8. Industrial Exposure

    35.9. Farming: Pesticides

    35.10. Tobacco Smoke

    35.11. Asthma

    35.12. Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Teratogenic Effects

    35.13. Children and Global Warming

    35.14. Childhood Cancer

    36. Childhood Cancer

    36.1. Childhood Cancer

    36.2. Prevalent Childhood Cancers

    36.3. Childhood Cancer Studies

    36.4. Children’s Cancer Clusters

    36.5. Summary

    37. Toxicology of Global Warming

    37.1. Introduction

    37.2. Global Warming and Human Disease

    37.3. Extreme Climatic Events

    37.4. Air Pollution

    37.5. Water Pollution

    37.6. Toxic Chemicals and Thermal Stress

    37.7. Summary

    38. Regulatory Requirements

    38.1. Introduction

    38.2. Warning Requirements

    38.3. Warning Deficiencies

    38.4. Warnings for Multiple Exposures

    38.5. Warnings for Mixtures

    38.6. Odor

    38.7. Warning Recommendations

    38.8. Summary

    39. Conclusions and Recommendations

    39.1. Introduction

    39.2. Conclusions

    39.3. Recommendations

    39.4. The Future


Product details

  • No. of pages: 574
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2011
  • Published: June 23, 2011
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • eBook ISBN: 9781437734645

About the Author

Harold Zeliger

Dr. Harold I. Zeliger holds a PhD in organic chemistry and has been a professor of chemistry and environmental science. He is a Certified Professional Chemist, a Board- Certified Forensic Examiner, and an EPA Certified Laboratory Director. Dr. Zeliger is the author of 51 technical publications, including basic research journal articles and patents. In his more than 40 years in the Chemical Process Industry, he has personally developed many industrial and consumer chemical products, designed chemical product warning labels and written Material Safety Data Sheets for toxic and flammable chemicals. Dr. Zeliger has investigated hundreds of toxic chemical exposures, environmental spills and discharges, chemical fires and explosions nationally and internationally. He has served repeatedly as an expert witness for both plaintiffs and defendants in chemical product, process, toxic exposure, environmental, flammable, intellectual property and subrogation claims. Dr. Zeliger has provided services for numerous forensic examinations, technology transfer and due diligence investigations. Dr. Zeliger’s research is in the area of chemical toxicology. His published work includes papers on the toxic effects of chemical mixtures and chemical causes of cancer clusters and two editions of Human Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures, Second Edition.

Affiliations and Expertise

Toxic and Flammable Chemical Consultant and Expert Witness; Certified Professional Chemist and Board Certified Forensic Examiner; Technology Transfer and Due Diligence Investigator, USA

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