Since infant formula substitutes for human milk, its composition must match that of human milk as closely as possible. Quality control of infant formula is also essential to ensure product safety, as infants are particularly vulnerable food consumers. This book reviews the latest research into human milk biochemistry and best practice in infant formula processing technology and quality control.

Key Features

  • The most up to date reference on infant formula processing technology
  • Reviews both human milk biochemistry and infant formula processing technology for broad and applied coverage
  • Focusses exclusively on infant formulae


Food manufacturers, specifically those in the infant formula industry; Academic and graduate students in the food science field

Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition
  • 1. Introduction: trends and issues in breastfeeding and the use of infant formula
    • Abstract:
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Human milk and infant formula
    • 1.3 History of infant feeding
    • 1.4 Benefits of breastfeeding versus bottle-feeding
    • 1.5 Infant formula manufacturing
    • 1.6 Trends and new developments in infant formula
    • 1.7 Conclusion
    • 1.8 References
  • Part I: Human milk
    • 2. Chemical composition of human milk
      • Abstract:
      • 2.1 Introduction: gross composition, protein profile and fatty acids
      • 2.2 Fat-soluble vitamins in human milk
      • 2.3 Water-soluble vitamins
      • 2.4 Minerals in human milk: macroelements
      • 2.5 Trace elements/microminerals
      • 2.6 Sources of further information and advice
      • 2.7 References
    • 3. Bioactive components in human milk
      • Abstract:
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 The benefits of human milk
      • 3.3 Bioactive proteins and peptides
      • 3.4 Types of protein in human milk
      • 3.5 Bioactive lipid components
      • 3.6 Carbohydrate-based bioactive compounds
      • 3.7 Growth factors
      • 3.8 Nucleotides, neuropeptides and other bioactive factors
      • 3.9 Conclusions and future trends
      • 3.10 References
    • 4. Variations in the chemical composition of human milk
      • Abstract:
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Factors affecting milk composition: stage of lactation
      • 4.3 Factors affecting milk composition: maternal nutrition
      • 4.4 Factors affecting milk composition: environmental and other factors
      • 4.5 Comparisons of human milk composition in different countries and regions
      • 4.6 Bacteria in human milk and infectious diseases
      • 4.7 Mastitis, milk composition and i


No. of pages:
© 2014
Woodhead Publishing
Print ISBN:
Electronic ISBN:

About the editor

M. Guo

Dr Mingruo Guo is Professor in the Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Vermont, USA. He is highly regarded for his teaching, research and product development in the area of functional foods.


"...a valuable resource for anyone interested in understanding the technical and functional requirements for a product that is becoming more attractive to many manufacturers and importers around the world." --Australian Dairy Foods