Human Judgment and Decision Processes in Applied Settings

Human Judgment and Decision Processes in Applied Settings

1st Edition - January 1, 1977

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  • Editors: Martin F. Kaplan, Steven Schwartz
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483261102

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Human Judgment and Decision Processes in Applied Settings is the second to two volumes that attempt to define the areas of progress in the understanding of human decision making processes. The first volume, Human Judgment and Decision Processes (Academic Press, 1975) was concerned with formal and mathematical approaches to the problems of judgment and decision making. The major theoretical orientations (information integration theory, signal detection theory, portfolio theory, and multiattribute-utility measurement) were presented and their rationales discussed. The present volume is concerned with the application of these theories, and the various techniques derived from them, to the problems of decision making in the everyday world. The chapters reflect the many modifications and adjustments that must be made to mathematical rules in order to apply decision theory models in the real world. The tools described serve a broad variety of interests: those of the urban health or social planner, the organizational manager, the researcher, the educator, and, in fact, all of those who must weight evidence to reach decisions. Planner, manager, researcher, teacher, policymaker—all will find assistance in overcoming the commonly encountered roadblocks when one must choose between alternatives in what remains an uncertain world.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors




    1. Social Judgment Theory: Applications in Policy Formation

    A Description of Social Judgment Theory

    The Application of Social Judgment Theory

    Social Value Judgments

    The Separation and Integration of Values and Facts

    Social Policy Consultant: A New Role for Psychologists


    2. Judgment by Juries

    The Judgment Model

    Trial Evidence

    Defendant Characteristics

    Juror Dispositions

    Effects of Jury Deliberation



    3. Information Integration in Transportation Decisions

    Methodological Approaches

    Empirical Studies

    Implications for Model Development

    Implications for Transportation Researchers

    Future Research Needs


    4. Case-by-Case versus Rule-Generated Procedures for the Allocation of Scarce Resources


    Rule-Generated and Case-Generated Procedures

    Examples of Rule-Generated Procedures



    5. Predicting Performance in Graduate School



    Criterion Analysis

    Methods of Selection

    What Are the Data?

    Where Do We Go from Here?


    6. Decisions Based on Fallible Clinical Judgment


    Determining rxy

    Effects on Decisions and Outcomes




    7. Behavioral Decision Theory and the Health Delivery System

    Health System Decision Making

    Behavioral Decision Theory

    Applications of Behavioral Decision Theory to the Health Field

    Critical Problems and Areas for Further Research


    8. Combination of Evidence in Perceptual Judgment

    Introduction: The Applied Setting

    The Paradigm: Combination of Evidence in Perceptual Judgment

    Experiments on Computer-Aided Recognition of Complex Sounds

    A Decision-Theoretic Approach

    Experiments on Computer-Aided Auditory Signal Detection

    Experiments on Computer-Aided Visual Search and Detection

    Independence: A Theoretical and Practical Issue

    Concluding Remarks


    9. Expectancy Theory, Decision Theory, and Occupational Preference and Choice


    Expectancy Theory

    Decision Theory

    Policy Models

    Empirical Evidence for the Theories

    Implications for Practice



    10. Business Decision Making: Marketing Implementations


    Marketing Decisions and Models

    Decision Models and Marketing Realities

    A Decision-Theoretic Band-Aid for Research and Training




    11. Judgment and Swine: Approaches and Issues in Applied Judgment Analysis


    Why Livestock Judgment?

    Background on Livestock Judges

    Similarities and Differences among Judgment Approaches

    Judgment Approaches: The Three Basic Questions

    What Does the Future Hold?


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 300
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1977
  • Published: January 1, 1977
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483261102

About the Editors

Martin F. Kaplan

Steven Schwartz

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