Human Intestinal Microflora in Health and Disease

Human Intestinal Microflora in Health and Disease

1st Edition - December 1, 1983

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  • Author: David J. Hentges
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323138666

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Human Intestinal Microflora in Health and Disease deals with human indigenous intestinal flora, the vast assemblage of microorganisms that reside in the intestinal tract. It contains information on the composition of the flora, its development, metabolic activities, importance to the host, and the consequences of upsetting its ecology. The book is organized into four parts. Part I examines the composition and development of intestinal flora. Part II deals with the metabolic activities of intestinal microflora. These include studies on carbohydrate metabolism in the human colon; the compounds used as nitrogen sources by gastrointestinal tract bacteria; and metabolic transformations of xenobiotic compounds carried out by intestinal flora. Part III examines the importance of intestinal microflora, including its role in intestinal structure and function and in suppressing the growth of pathogens. Part IV discusses the factors that can disrupt the ecology of intestinal microflora, such as antimicrobial agents, pseudomembranous colitis, and dietary and environmental stress. The research presented in this book will be of interest to both basic scientists and physicians concerned with the effects of the intestinal flora on human life.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    Part I. Microflora Composition and Development

    1. Normal Indigenous Intestinal Flora

    I. Introduction

    II. Problems Associated with the Study of Intestinal Flora

    III. Culture Techniques

    IV. Normal Microbial Flora of the Stomach

    V. Normal Microbial Flora of the Small Intestine

    VI. Normal Microbial Flora of the Colon

    VII. Previous Fecal Flora Studies

    VIII. Fecal Flora Studies—V.A. Wadsworth Anaerobe Laboratory

    IX. Effect of Diet and Age on Normal Intestinal Microflora

    X. Effect of Geographic Location on Normal Intestinal Microflora

    XI. Stability of Intestinal Flora over Time


    2. Mechanisms That Control the Microflora in the Large Intestine

    I. Introduction

    II. Models for Study

    III. Properties of Large Intestinal Flora

    IV. Dynamics of Bacterial Growth in the Large Intestine

    V. Inhibitors of Bacterial Multiplication

    VI. Physiological Adaptation

    VII. Competition for Limiting Nutrients

    VIII. Theoretical Aspects of the Role of Adhesion

    IX. Beginnings of a General Theory


    3. Associations of Indigenous Microorganisms with Gastrointestinal Epithelial Surfaces

    I. Introduction

    II. Problems in the Study of Microorganisms Associating with Epithelial Surfaces in Man

    III. Microorganisms Associating with Gastrointestinal Epithelial Surfaces in Man

    IV. Summary and Conclusions


    4. Intestinal Flora of Infants

    I. Development of Intestinal Flora in Infant Animals

    II. Succession of Fecal Bacterial Genera in Human Infants

    III. Intestinal Bacterial Habitats

    IV. Species and Strains of Bacteria in Infants

    V. Importance of Intestinal Flora to the Infant Host

    VI. Clostridium difficile

    VII. Conclusion


    5. Host Immune Response to Antigens of the Indigenous Intestinal Flora

    I. Introduction

    II. "Natural Antibodies" to Antigens of Indigenous Intestinal Bacteria

    III. Immune Antibodies to Indigenous Intestinal Bacteria

    IV. Comparison of the Immune Response to Indigenous and Nonindigenous Intestinal Bacteria

    V. Influence of Indigenous Intestinal Bacteria on the Host Immune Response

    VI. Influence of the Host Immune System on the Ecology of Indigenous Intestinal Bacteria

    VII. Conclusion


    Part II. Metabolic Activities of the Intestinal Microflora

    6. Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Human Colon

    I. Introduction

    II. Natural Sources of Fermentable Carbohydrate

    III. Mechanisms of Polysaccharide Catabolism

    IV. Growth Yields, Maintenance, and Affinity

    V. Polysaccharide Fermentation and the Colonic Ecosystem


    7. Carbohydrate Fermentation

    I. Overall Fermentation

    II. Role of Pyruvate in Carbohydrate Fermentation

    III. Microbial Interactions

    IV. Quantitative Aspects of Overall Fermentation

    V. Overall Energetics

    VI. Summary


    8. Utilization of Nitrogen Sources by Gastrointestinal Tract Bacteria

    I. Introduction

    II. Bacterial Species and Their Nitrogen Requirements

    III. Degradation of Proteins

    IV. Degradation of Amino Acids

    V. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids

    VI. Urea Hydrolysis and Ammonia Production

    VII. Ammonia Utilization


    9. Biotransformation of Bile Acids and Cholesterol by the Intestinal Microflora

    I. Introduction

    II. Major Biotransformations Catalyzed by Intestinal Bacteria

    III. Biotransformation of Chenodeoxycholic Acid and Ursodeoxycholic Acid during Cholesterol Gallstone Dissolution Therapy

    IV. Biotransformation of Cholesterol

    V. Summary


    10. Biotransformation of Steroids


    I. Introduction

    II. Enterohepatic Circulation

    III. Metabolic Transformations of Steroids

    IV. Technique for Isolating Steroid-Metabolizing Organisms and Steroid Metabolites

    V. Purification of Enzymes Involved in Steroid Metabolism

    VI. Bacterial Steroid Metabolism from the Host's Viewpoint

    VII. Steroid Metabolism from the Bacterial Viewpoint

    VIII. Practical Application


    11. Biochemical Pharmacology and Toxicology Involving the Intestinal Flora

    I. Introduction

    II. Drugs and the Flora

    III. Food Constituents

    IV. Environmental Compounds

    V. Conclusion


    12. Production of Intestinal Mutagens

    I. Introduction

    II. Production of Intestinal Mutagens by the Intestinal Microflora

    III. Mutagens in Human Feces

    IV. Conclusions


    Part III. Importance of the Intestinal Microflora to the Host

    13. Impact of the Intestinal Microflora on Intestinal Structure and Function

    I. Introduction

    II. Impact of the Indigenous Microflora on Intestinal Structure

    III. Impact of the Indigenous Microflora on Intestinal Function

    IV. Indigenous Microflora and the Pathogenesis of Intestinal Disease

    V. Impact of the Indigenous Microflora beyond the Intestinal Habitat


    14. Role of the Intestinal Microflora in Host Defense against Infection

    I. Stability of the Intestinal Microflora

    II. Suppression of the Multiplication of Pathogens by the Intestinal Microflora

    III. Mechanisms Responsible for Antagonism against Pathogens


    15. Translocation of Indigenous Bacteria from the Intestinal Tract

    I. Historical Background

    II. Definition of Bacterial Translocation

    III. Bacterial Translocation Models

    IV. Mechanisms Promoting Bacterial Translocation

    V. Bacterial Translocation in Humans

    VI. Conclusion


    Part IV. Consequences of Upsetting the Ecology of the Intestinal Microflora

    16. Changes in Human Intestinal Flora Related to the Administration of Antimicrobial Agents

    I. Introduction

    II. Deficiencies of Reported Studies

    III. Other Aspects of the Effects of Drugs on Bowel Flora

    IV. Indirect Measures of the Effect of Antimicrobial Agents on Bowel Flora

    V. Shifts in Susceptibility Patterns

    VI. Shifts in Flora That Predispose to Infection

    VII. Adverse Influence of Antimicrobial Agents on Certain Enteric Infections

    VIII. Use of Antimicrobial Agents for Preoperative Bowel Preparation

    IX. Bowel Decontamination as Prophylaxis in Patients with Granulocytopenia and Malignancy

    X. Antimicrobial Therapy as Prophylaxis for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    XI. Sterilization of Feces

    XII. Antimicrobial Drug Residues in Food

    XIII. Selective Modification of Bowel Flora


    17. Pseudomembranous Colitis

    I. Introduction

    II. Historical Perspective

    III. Clinical and Pathological Observations

    IV. Clostridium difficile and Antibiotic-Associated Colitis

    V. Management

    VI. Pathophysiology

    VII. Clostridium difficile Toxins

    VIII. Summary


    18. Role of the Intestinal Microflora in Ulcerative Colitis

    I. Introduction

    II. Search for Specific Pathogens

    III. Alternative Approaches

    IV. Animal Models for Ulcerative Colitis

    V. Experimental Studies Utilizing the Carcageenan Model

    VI. Other Animal Models for Ulcerative Colitis

    VII. Summary


    19. The Contaminated Small Bowel Syndrome

    I. Introduction

    II. Lessons from Germfree Animals

    III. Pathophysiological Consequences of Intestinal Bacterial Contamination

    IV. Some Clinical Settings for the Contaminated Small Bowel Syndrome

    V. Clinical Features

    VI. Diagnosis

    VII. Treatment


    20. Effect of Dietary and Environmental Stress on the Gastrointestinal Microbiota

    I. Introduction

    II. Stress

    III. How Does Stress Influence the Gastrointestinal Ecosystem?

    IV. Can We Adequately Measure Changes in Microbial Populations in the Gastrointestinal Tract?

    V. Indigenous Microbiota of Stressed Animals

    VI. Consequences to the Host Animal of Stress-Induced Changes in the Gastrointestinal Ecosystem

    VII. The Future: Improved Experimental Approaches



Product details

  • No. of pages: 568
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1983
  • Published: December 1, 1983
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323138666

About the Author

David J. Hentges

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