High-temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781856173872, 9780080508085

High-temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications

1st Edition

Editors: S.C. Singhal K. Kendall
Hardcover ISBN: 9781856173872
eBook ISBN: 9780080508085
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 8th December 2003
Page Count: 406
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High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications provides a comprehensive discussion of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). SOFCs are the most efficient devices for the electrochemical conversion of chemical energy of hydrocarbon fuels into electricity, and have been gaining increasing attention for clean and efficient distributed power generation. The book explains the operating principle, cell component materials, cell and stack designs and fabrication processes, cell and stack performance, and applications of SOFCs. Individual chapters are written by internationally renowned authors in their respective fields, and the text is supplemented by a large number of references for further information.
The book is primarily intended for use by researchers, engineers, and other technical people working in the field of SOFCs. Even though the technology is advancing at a very rapid pace, the information contained in most of the chapters is fundamental enough for the book to be useful even as a text for SOFC technology at the graduate level.


Designers, manufacturers and end-users of solid oxide and other fuel cells: researchers in fuel cell technology; membrane manufacturers.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Chapter 1 Introduction to SOFCs

1.1 Background

1.2 Historical Summary

1.3 Zirconia Sensors for Oxygen Measurement

1.4 Zirconia Availability and Production

1.5 High-Quality Electrolyte Fabrication Processes

1.6 Electrode Materials and Reactions

1.7 Interconnection for Electrically Connecting the Cells

1.8 Cell and Stack Designs

1.9 SOFC Power Generation Systems

1.10 Fuel Considerations

1.11 Competition and Combination with Heat Engines

1.12 Application Areas and Relation to Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

1.13 SOFC-Related Publications


Chapter 2 History

2.1 The Path to the First Solid Electrolyte Gas Cells

2.2 From Solid Electrolyte Gas Cells to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

2.3 First Detailed Investigations of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

2.4 Progress in the 196Os

2.5 On the Path to Practical Solid Oxide Fuel Cells


Chapter 3 Thermodynamics

3.1 Introduction

3.2 The Ideal Reversible SOFC

3.3. Voltage Losses by Ohmic Resistance and by Mixing Effects by Fuel Utilisation

3.4 Thermodynamic Definition of a Fuel Cell Producing Electricity and Heat

3.5 Thermodynamic Theory of SOFC Hybrid Systems

3.6 Design Principles of SOFC Hybrid Systems

3.7 Summary


Chapter 4 Electrolytes

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Fluorite-Structured Electrolytes

4.3 Zirconia-Based Oxide Ion Conductors

4.4 Ceria-Based Oxide Ion Conductors

4.5 Fabrication of ZrO2 and CeO2-Based Electrolyte Films

4.6 Perovskite-Structured Electrolytes

4.6.1 LaAlO3

4.6.2 LaGaO3 Doped with Ca, Sr and Mg

4.6.3 LaGaO3 Doped with Transition Elements

4.7 Oxides with Other Structures

4.7.1 Brownmillerites (e.g. Ba2In2O6)

4.7.2 Non-cubic Oxides

4.8 Proton-Conducting Oxides

4.9 Summary


Chapter 5 Cathodes

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Physical and Physicochemical Properties of Perovskite Cathode Materials

5.2.1 Lattice Structure, Oxygen Nonstoichiometry, and Valence Stability

5.2.2 Electrical Conductivity

5.2.3 Thermal Expansion

5.2.4 Surface Reaction Rate and Oxide Ion Conductivity

5.3 Reactivity of Perovskite Cathodes with ZrO2

5.3.1 Thermodynamic Considerations

5.3.2 Experimental Efforts

5.3.3 Cathode/Electrolyte Reactions and Cell Performance

5.3.4 Cathodes for Intermediate Temperature SOFCs

5.4 Compatibility of Perovskite Cathodes with Interconnects

5.4.1 Compatibility of Cathodes with Oxide Interconnects

5.4.2 Compatibility of Cathodes with Metallic Interconnects

5.5 Fabrication of Cathodes

5.6 Summary


Chapter 6 Anodes

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Requirements for an Anode

6.3 Choice of Cermet Anode Components

6.4 Cermet Fabrication

6.5 Anode Behavior under Steady-State Conditions

6.6 Anode Behavior under Transients Near Equilibrium

6.7 Behavior of Anodes under Current Loading

6.8 Operation of Anodes with Fuels Other Than Hydrogen

6.9 Anodes for Direct Oxidation of Hydrocarbons

6.10 Summary


Chapter 7 Interconnects

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Ceramic Interconnects (Lanthanum and Yttrium Chromites)

7.2.1 Electrical Conductivity

7.2.2 Thermal Expansion

7.2.3 Thermal Conductivity

7.2.4 Mechanical Strength

7.2.5 Processing

7.3 Metallic Interconnects

7.3.1 Chromium-Based Alloys

7.3.2 Ferritic Steels

7.3.3 Other Metallic Materials

7.4 Protective Coatings and Contact Materials for Metallic Interconnects

7.5 Summary


Chapter 8 Cell and Stack Designs

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Planar SOFC Design

8.2.1 Cell Fabrication

8.2.2 Cell and Stack Performance

8.3 Tubular SOFC Design

8.3.1 Cell Operation and Performance

8.3.2 Tubular Cell Stack

8.3.3 Alternative Tubular Cell Designs

8.4 Microtubular SOFC Design

8.4.1 Microtubular SOFC Stacks

8.5 Summary


Chapter 9. Electrode Polarizations

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Ohmic Polarization

9.3 Concentration Polarization

9.4 Activation Polarization

9.4.1 Cathodic Activation Polarization

9.4.2 Anodic Activation Polarization

9.5 Measurement of Polarization (By Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy)

9.6 Summary


Chapter 10 Testing of Electrodes, Cells and Short Stacks

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Testing Electrodes

10.3 Testing Cells and 'Short' Stacks

10.4 Area-Specific Resistance (ASR)

10.5 Comparison of Test Results on Electrodes and on Cells

10.5.1 Non-activated Contributions to the Total Loss

10.5.2 Inaccurate Temperature Measurements

10.5.3 Cathode Performance

10.5.4 Impedance Analysis of Cells

10.6 The Problem of Gas Leakage in Cell Testing

10.6.1 Assessment of the Size of the Gas Leak

10.7 Summary


Chapter 11 Cell, Stack and System Modeling

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Flow and Thermal Models

11.2.1 Mass Balance

11.2.2 Conservation of Momentum

11.2.3 Energy Balance

11.3 Continuum-Level Electrochemistry Model

11.4 Chemical Reactions and Rate Equations

11.5 Cell- and Stack-Level Modeling

11.6 System-Level Modeling

11.7 Thermomechanical Model

11.8 Electrochemical Models at the Electrode Level

11.8.1 Fundamentals and Strategy of Electrode-Level Models

11.8.2 Electrode Models Based on a Mass Transfer Analysis

11.8.3 One-Dimensional Porous Electrode Models Based on Complete Concentration, Potential, and Current Distributions

11.8.4 Monte Carlo or Stochastic Electrode Structure Model

11.9 Molecular-Level Models

11.10 Summary


Chapter 12 Fuels and Fuel Processing

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Range of Fuels

12.3 Direct and Indirect Internal Reforming

12.3.1 Direct Internal Reforming

12.3.2 Indirect Internal Reforming

12.4 Reformation of Hydrocarbons by Steam, CO2 and Partial Oxidation

12.5 Direct Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons

12.6 Carbon Deposition

12.7 Sulfur Tolerance and Removal

12.8 Anode Materials in the Context of Fuel Processing

12.9 Using Renewable Fuels in SOFCs

12.10 Summary


Chapter 13 Systems and Applications

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Trends in the Energy Markets and SOFC Applicability

13.3 Competing Power Generation Systems and SOFC Applications

13.4 SOFC System Designs and Performance

13.4.1 Atmospheric SOFC Systems for Distributed Power Generation

13.4.2 Residential, Auxiliary Power and Other Atmospheric SOFC Systems

13.4.3 Pressurized SOFC/Turbine Hybrid Systems

13.4.4 System Control and Dynamics

13.4.5 SOFC System Costs

13.4.6 Example of a Specific SOFC System Application

13.5 SOFC System Demonstrations

13.5.1 Siemens Westinghouse Systems

13.5.2 Sulzer Hexis Systems

13.5.3 SOFC Systems of Other Companies

13.6 Summary




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© Elsevier Science 2003
Elsevier Science
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About the Editor

S.C. Singhal

K. Kendall


The information contained in most of the chapters is fundamental enough for the book to be useful as a textbook for students at graduate level....Scientists and researchers already active in the field will also find the book very interesting. Paola Costamagna DICHEP - University of Genova Via Opera Pia 15 16145 Genova - Italy