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High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of Metals - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780081001011, 9780081001196

High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of Metals, Volume 1

2nd Edition

Author: David Young
Hardcover ISBN: 9780081001011
eBook ISBN: 9780081001196
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 20th May 2016
Page Count: 758
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1. The Nature of High Temperature Oxidation

  • 1.1. Metal Loss Due to the Scaling of Steel
  • 1.2. Heating Elements
  • 1.3. Protecting Turbine Engine Components
  • 1.4. Hydrocarbon Cracking Furnaces
  • 1.5. Prediction and Measurement
  • 1.6. Rate Equations
  • 1.7. Reaction Morphology: Specimen Examination
  • 1.8. Summary

Chapter 2. Enabling Theory

  • 2.1. Chemical Thermodynamics
  • 2.2. Chemical Equilibria Between Solids and Gases
  • 2.3. Alloys and Solid Solutions
  • 2.4. Chemical Equilibria Between Alloys and Gases
  • 2.5. Thermodynamics of Diffusion
  • 2.6. Absolute Rate Theory Applied to Lattice Particle Diffusion
  • 2.7. Diffusion in Alloys
  • 2.8. Diffusion Couples and the Measurement of Diffusion Coefficients
  • 2.9. Interfacial Processes and Gas Phase Mass Transfer
  • 2.10. Mechanical Effects: Stresses in Oxide Scales
  • Further Reading

Chapter 3. Oxidation of Pure Metals

  • 3.1. Experimental Findings
  • 3.2. Use of Phase Diagrams
  • 3.3. Point Defects and Nonstoichiometry in Ionic Oxides
  • 3.4. Lattice Species and Structural Units in Ionic Oxides
  • 3.5. Gibbs–Duhem Equation for Defective Solid Oxides
  • 3.6. Lattice Diffusion and Oxide Scaling: Wagner's Model
  • 3.7. Validation of Wagner's Model
  • 3.8. Impurity Effects on Lattice Diffusion
  • 3.9. Microstructural Effects
  • 3.10. Reactions Not Controlled by Solid-State Diffusion
  • 3.11. The Value of Thermodynamic and Kinetic Analysis

Chapter 4. Mixed Gas Corrosion of Pure Metals

  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Selected Experimental Findings
  • 4.3. Phase Diagrams and Diffusion Paths
  • 4.4. Scale-Gas Interactions
  • 4.5. Transport Processes in Mixed Scales
  • 4.6. Predicting the Outcome of Mixed Gas Reactions

Chapter 5. Oxidation of Alloys I: Single Phase Scales

  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. Selected Experimental Results
  • 5.3. Phase Diagrams and Diffusion Paths
  • 5.4. Selective Oxidation of One Alloy Component
  • 5.5. Selective Oxidation of One Alloy Component Under Nonsteady-State Conditions
  • 5.6. Solid Solution Oxide Scales
  • 5.7. Transient Oxidation
  • 5.8. Microstructural Changes in Subsurface Alloy Regions
  • 5.9. Breakdown of Steady-State Scale
  • 5.10. Other Factors Affecting Scale Growth

Chapter 6. Alloy Oxidation II: Internal Oxidation

  • 6.1. Introduction
  • 6.2. Selected Experimental Results
  • 6.3. Internal Oxidation Kinetics in the Absence of External Scaling
  • 6.4. Experimental Verification of Diffusion Model
  • 6.5. Surface Diffusion Effects in the Precipitation Zone
  • 6.6. Internal Precipitates of Low Stability
  • 6.7. Precipitate Nucleation and Growth
  • 6.8. Cellular Precipitation Morphologies
  • 6.9. Multiple Internal Precipitates
  • 6.10. Solute Interactions in the Precipitation Zone
  • 6.11. Transition from Internal to External Oxidation
  • 6.12. Internal Oxidation Beneath a Corroding Alloy Surface
  • 6.13. Volume Expansion in the Internal Precipitation Zone
  • 6.14. Effects of Water Vapour on Internal Oxidation
  • 6.15. Success of Internal Oxidation Theory

Chapter 7. Alloy Oxidation III: Multiphase Scales

  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. Binary Alumina Formers
  • 7.3. Binary Chromia Formers
  • 7.4. Ternary Alloy Oxidation
  • 7.5. Scale Spallation
  • 7.6. Effects of Minor Alloying Additions
  • 7.7. Effects of Secondary Oxidants
  • 7.8. ‘Available Space’ Model for Duplex Oxide Scale Growth
  • 7.9. Status of Multiphase Scale Growth Theory

Chapter 8. Corrosion by Sulphur

  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Sulphidation of Pure Metals
  • 8.3. Alloying for Sulphidation Protection
  • 8.4. Sulphidation in H2/H2S
  • 8.5. Effects of Temperature and Sulphur Partial Pressure
  • 8.6. The Role of Oxygen
  • 8.7. Internal Sulphidation
  • 8.8. Hot Corrosion
  • 8.9. Achieving Sulphidation Resistance

Chapter 9. Corrosion by Carbon

  • 9.1. Introduction
  • 9.2. Gaseous Carbon Activities
  • 9.3. Carburisation
  • 9.4. Intenal Carburisation of Model Alloys
  • 9.5. Internal Carburisation of Heat-Resisting Alloys
  • 9.6. Metal Dusting of Iron and Ferritic Alloys
  • 9.7. Dusting of Nickel and Austenitic Alloys
  • 9.8. Protection by Oxide Scaling
  • 9.9. Controlling Carbon Corrosion

Chapter 10. Corrosion by Carbon Dioxide

  • 10.1. Introduction
  • 10.2. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion Morphologies
  • 10.3. Thermodynamics and Distribution of Reaction Products
  • 10.4. Mechanism of Breakaway
  • 10.5. Carbon Penetration of Oxide Scales
  • 10.6. Effects of Other Alloy and Gas Components
  • 10.7. Remedial Measures

Chapter 11. Effects of Water Vapour on Oxidation

  • 11.1. Introduction
  • 11.2. Volatile Metal Hydroxide Formation
  • 11.3. Scale-Gas Interfacial Processes
  • 11.4. Scale Transport Properties
  • 11.5. Water Vapour Effects on Alumina Growth
  • 11.6. Iron Oxide Scaling
  • 11.7. Void Development in Growing Scales
  • 11.8. Understanding and Controlling Water Vapour Effects

Chapter 12. Corrosion in Complex Environments

  • 12.1. Introduction
  • 12.2. Volatilisation by Halogens
  • 12.3. Corrosion by Flue Gases and Solid Chlorides
  • 12.4. Corrosion by Melts
  • 12.5. Managing Complex Corrosion

Chapter 13. Cyclic Oxidation

  • 13.1. Introduction
  • 13.2. Alloy Depletion and Scale Rehealing
  • 13.3. Spallation Models
  • 13.4. Combination of Spalling and Depletion Models
  • 13.5. Effects of Experimental Variables
  • 13.6. Describing and Predicting Cyclic Oxidation

Chapter 14. Alloy Design

  • 14.1. Introduction
  • 14.2. Alloy Design for Resistance to Oxygen
  • 14.3. Design Against Oxide Scale Spallation
  • 14.4. Design for Resistance to Other Corrodents and Mixed Gases
  • 14.5. Future Research
  • 14.6. Fundamental Research
  • 14.7. Conclusion

Appendix A. High Temperature Alloys

Appendix B. Cation Diffusion Kinetics in Ionic Solids

Appendix C. The Error Function

Appendix D. Self-Diffusion Coefficients


High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of Metals, Second Edition, provides a high level understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of high temperature alloy oxidation. It uses this understanding to develop methods of predicting oxidation rates and the way they change with temperature, gas chemistry, and alloy composition.

The book focuses on the design and selection of alloy compositions which provide optimal resistance to attack by corrosive gases, providing a rigorous treatment of the thermodynamics and kinetics underlying high temperature alloy corrosion.

In addition, it emphasizes quantitative calculations for predicting reaction rates and the effects of temperature, oxidant activities, and alloy compositions. Users will find this book to be an indispensable source of information for researchers and students who are dealing with high temperature corrosion.

Key Features

  • Emphasizes quantitative calculations for predicting reaction rates and the effects of temperature, oxidant activities, and alloy compositions
  • Uses phase diagrams and diffusion paths to analyze and interpret scale structures and internal precipitation distributions
  • Presents a detailed examination of corrosion in industrial gases (water vapor effects, carburization and metal dusting, sulphidation)
  • Contains numerous micrographs, phase diagrams, and tabulations of relevant thermodynamic and kinetic data
  • Combines physical chemistry and materials science methodologies
  • Provides two completely new chapters (chapters 11 and 13), and numerous other updates throughout the text


Post-graduate students and others taking up research or seeking an understanding in the field of high temperature corrosion resistance. It is relevant to the power generation, waste incineration and petrochemical industries, as well as gas turbine, fuel cell and solar thermal technologies


No. of pages:
© Elsevier Science 2016
20th May 2016
Elsevier Science
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Author

David Young

David Young was educated at the University of Melbourne then worked in Canada for 9 years (University of Toronto, McMaster University, National Research Council of Canada) on high temperature metal-gas reactions. Returning to Australia, he worked for BHP Steel Research then joined the University of New South Wales. There he led the School of Materials Science & Engineering for 15 years, and has carried out extensive work on high temperature corrosion in mixed gas atmospheres.

His work has led to over 350 publications, including the books Diffusion in the Condensed State (with J.S. Kirkaldy), Institute of Metals (1988) and High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of Metals, 1st ed., Elsevier (2008). It has been recognized by his election to the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, the U. R. Evans Award, Institute of Corrosion Science & Technology, UK, the High Temperature Materials Outstanding Achievement Award, Electrochemical Society, USA and election as Fellow, Electrochemical Society.

Affiliations and Expertise

David John Young School of Materials Science and Engineering University of New South Wales New South Wales, Australia