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High and Low Erucic Acid in Rapeseed Oils - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124250802, 9780323138017

High and Low Erucic Acid in Rapeseed Oils

1st Edition

Author: John K G Kramer
eBook ISBN: 9780323138017
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th April 1983
Page Count: 624
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High and Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed Oils: Production, Usage, Chemistry, and Toxicological Evaluation covers a wide range of subjects related to rapeseed, that is, from plant breeding, industrial processing, to nutrition and biochemistry. Composed of 22 chapters, this book first discusses the origin and properties of Brassica oilseed crops. Subsequent chapters describe the world production and trade of rapeseed and its products, as well as the history and marketing of rapeseed oil in Canada. Other chapters elucidate the chemical composition of rapeseed oil; the introduction and consumption of low erucic acid rapeseed varieties in Canada; and the development of improved rapeseed cultivars. Results obtained with consumption of high and low erucic acid rapeseed oils to experimental animals are also shown. This work will be helpful as an introductory material to those who are not familiar with the production, use, and properties of rapeseed oil.

Table of Contents




1 The Origin and Description of the Brassica Oilseed Crops

I. Introduction

II. Domestication and Species Relationships

III. Origin and Distribution

IV. Crop Forms and Cultivation

V. Plant and Seed Development

VI. Rapeseed Oil

VII. Rapeseed Meal

VIII. Changing Quality


2 World Production and Trade of Rapeseed and Rapeseed Products

I. Introduction

II. Production of Rapeseed and Mustard—World Basis

III. Production, Import, and Export of Rapeseed by Countries

IV. Canola Meal—A Major Breakthrough

V. Conclusions


3 The History and Marketing of Rapeseed Oil in Canada

I. Background

II. Introduction of Rapeseed to Canada

III. Early Use and Development of Rapeseed

IV. The Story of Partnership and Teamwork

V. The Nutrition Issue

VI. Quality Standards of Rapeseed and Canola Oil

VII. Marketing

VIII. Industry Associations


4 Chemical Composition of Rapeseed Oil

I. Introduction

II. Fatty Acids

III. Triglycerides

IV. Physical Properties

V. Sterols

VI. Tocopherols

VII. Polar Lipids (Gums)

VIII. Sulfur

IX. Selenium, Heavy Metals, and Organic Toxins

X. Specifications


5 Pathways of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Higher Plants with Particular Reference to Developing Rapeseed

I. Introduction

II. The Basic Pathway

III. Biosynthesis of Erucic Acid in Developing Rapeseed

IV. Conclusion


6 The Development of Improved Rapeseed Cultivars

I. Introduction

II. Rapeseed Breeding

III. Canola in Other Countries

IV. Future Trends


7 The Introduction of Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed Varieties into Canadian Production

I. Introduction

II. Development and Quality of Rapeseed Varieties in Canada prior to 1970

III. Mechanism of Rapeseed Varietal Development

IV. The Decision to Convert to LEAR Varieties

V. Monitoring the Conversion to LEAR

VI. Conversion to Canola

VII. High Erucic Acid Rapeseed in Western Canada


8 Rapeseed Crushing and Extraction

I. A Historical Review of the Canadian Rapeseed Crushing Industry

II. Preprocessing

III. Rapeseed Constituents and Their Possible Interaction

IV. Processing

9 The Commercial Processing of Low and High Erucic Acid Rapeseed Oils

I. Introduction

II. Unit Processes

III. Current Applications of HEAR Oil for Edible Uses


10 Current Consumption of Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed Oil by Canadians

I. Introduction

II. Level of Use of Fats and Oils

III. Sources of Domestically Deodorized Fats and Oils

IV. Availability of Rapeseed Oil to Canadians (1966-1980)

V. Demographic Variables Affecting Rapeseed Oil Consumption


11 The Problems Associated with the Feeding of High Erucic Acid Rapeseed Oils and Some Fish Oils to Experimental Animals

I. Introduction

II. Growth Performance with HEAR Oils

III. The Digestibility of HEAR Oils

IV. Myocardial Lipidosis in Rats

V. Myocardial Necrosis in Rats

VI. Is Myocardial Lipidosis Linked to Myocardial Necrosis?

VII. Effects on Other Tissues When HEAR Oil Is Fed to Rats

VIII. The Myocardial Tolerance to HEAR Oil in the Diet by Species Other Than the Rat

IX. The Involvement of Health Agencies in Lowering the Erucic Acid Content of Rapeseed Oils

X. Current Regulations on Permissible Erucic Acid Levels


12 Cardiopathology Associated with the Feeding of Vegetable and Marine Oils

I. Introduction

II. Rats

III. Swine

IV. Monkeys

V. Poultry

VI. Conclusions


13 The Composition of Diets Used in Rapeseed Oil Feeding Trials

I. Introduction

II. Dietary Protocols

III. Conclusions


14 The Metabolism of Docosenoic Acids in the Heart

I. Substrates for Myocardial Oxidation

II. The Utilization of Fat by Heart Muscle

III. Alterations in Cardiac Metabolisms When Rats Are Fed Diets That Contain Erucic Acid

IV. The Role of the Peroxisomal System in Myocardial Lipidosis

V. Cardiac Respiratory Rates and Oxidative Phosphorylation in Rats Fed HEAR Oil Containing Diets

VI. Interspecies Differences in Cardiac Lipids

VII. Some Interspecies Differences in Myocardial Metabolism


15 The Regulation of Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation

I. Introduction

II. ß-Oxidation

III. ω-Oxidation

IV. Integrated Regulation of Mitochondrial Oxidation


16 The Mechanisms of Fatty Acid Chain Elongation and Desaturation in Animals

I. Introduction

II. The 9-Desaturase(s)

III. The 6-Desaturase(s)

IV. The 5-Desaturase(s)

V. The 4-Desaturase(s)

VI. Microsomal Fatty Acid Chain Elongation

VII. Retrocon version

VIII. Regulation of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis


17 Results Obtained with Feeding Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed Oils and Other Vegetable Oils to Rats and Other Species

I. Introduction

II. Nutritional and Pathological Properties

III. Results with Rats

IV. Results with Pigs

V. Results with Dogs

VI. Results with Swiss Mice

VII. Results with Monkeys

VIII. Conclusion


18 Cardiac Lipid Changes in Rats, Pigs, and Monkeys Fed High Fat Diets

I. Introduction

II. Fatty Acid Composition of Vegetable Oils and Fats

III. Changes in Cardiac Lipids of Rats Fed Different Oils and Fats

IV. Changes in Cardiac Lipids of Pigs and Monkeys Fed Different Oils and Fats and How These Changes Compare to Those Observed in Rats

V. Can the Myocardial Disorders Ascribed to the Feeding of Rapeseed Oil Be Correlated to Cardiac Lipid Charges?


19 The Use of Statistics in Assessing the Results from Experiments with Vegetable Oils Fed to Test Animals

I. Introduction

II. Body Weight and Growth Data

III. Some Problems in Analyzing Relative Measurements

IV. Random Variation in the Measurement of Dietary Components

V. The Analysis of Incidence Data

VI. Sample Size and Incidence Data

VII. Sample Size in the Context of Estimation

VIII. Conclusion


20 Studies with High and Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed Oil in Man

I. Introduction

II. Digestibility of Hear Oil and Lear Oil by Humans

III. Serum Lipid Changes Accompanying the Ingestion of Hear and Lear Oils

IV. Hematological Profiles of Subjects Given Hear and Lear Oil Diets

V. Energy Metabolism in Young Men Given LEAR and Soybean Oils


21 The Relevance to Humans of Myocardial Lesions Induced in Rats by Marine and Rapeseed Oils

I. Historical Background and Regulatory Concern

II. The Laboratory Rat as an Experimental Model for Safety Assessment of Rapeseed Oils

III. Studies in Humans

IV. Safety Assessment Considerations

V. Conclusions


22 Some Recent Innovations in Canola Processing Technology

I. Introduction

II. Cold Processing of Canola Seed

III. Chemical Degumming

IV. Physical Refining

V. Conclusions



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© Academic Press 1983
28th April 1983
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

John K G Kramer

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