High and Low Erucic Acid in Rapeseed Oils

High and Low Erucic Acid in Rapeseed Oils

1st Edition - April 28, 1983

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  • Author: John K G Kramer
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323138017

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High and Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed Oils: Production, Usage, Chemistry, and Toxicological Evaluation covers a wide range of subjects related to rapeseed, that is, from plant breeding, industrial processing, to nutrition and biochemistry. Composed of 22 chapters, this book first discusses the origin and properties of Brassica oilseed crops. Subsequent chapters describe the world production and trade of rapeseed and its products, as well as the history and marketing of rapeseed oil in Canada. Other chapters elucidate the chemical composition of rapeseed oil; the introduction and consumption of low erucic acid rapeseed varieties in Canada; and the development of improved rapeseed cultivars. Results obtained with consumption of high and low erucic acid rapeseed oils to experimental animals are also shown. This work will be helpful as an introductory material to those who are not familiar with the production, use, and properties of rapeseed oil.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors



    1 The Origin and Description of the Brassica Oilseed Crops

    I. Introduction

    II. Domestication and Species Relationships

    III. Origin and Distribution

    IV. Crop Forms and Cultivation

    V. Plant and Seed Development

    VI. Rapeseed Oil

    VII. Rapeseed Meal

    VIII. Changing Quality


    2 World Production and Trade of Rapeseed and Rapeseed Products

    I. Introduction

    II. Production of Rapeseed and Mustard—World Basis

    III. Production, Import, and Export of Rapeseed by Countries

    IV. Canola Meal—A Major Breakthrough

    V. Conclusions


    3 The History and Marketing of Rapeseed Oil in Canada

    I. Background

    II. Introduction of Rapeseed to Canada

    III. Early Use and Development of Rapeseed

    IV. The Story of Partnership and Teamwork

    V. The Nutrition Issue

    VI. Quality Standards of Rapeseed and Canola Oil

    VII. Marketing

    VIII. Industry Associations


    4 Chemical Composition of Rapeseed Oil

    I. Introduction

    II. Fatty Acids

    III. Triglycerides

    IV. Physical Properties

    V. Sterols

    VI. Tocopherols

    VII. Polar Lipids (Gums)

    VIII. Sulfur

    IX. Selenium, Heavy Metals, and Organic Toxins

    X. Specifications


    5 Pathways of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Higher Plants with Particular Reference to Developing Rapeseed

    I. Introduction

    II. The Basic Pathway

    III. Biosynthesis of Erucic Acid in Developing Rapeseed

    IV. Conclusion


    6 The Development of Improved Rapeseed Cultivars

    I. Introduction

    II. Rapeseed Breeding

    III. Canola in Other Countries

    IV. Future Trends


    7 The Introduction of Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed Varieties into Canadian Production

    I. Introduction

    II. Development and Quality of Rapeseed Varieties in Canada prior to 1970

    III. Mechanism of Rapeseed Varietal Development

    IV. The Decision to Convert to LEAR Varieties

    V. Monitoring the Conversion to LEAR

    VI. Conversion to Canola

    VII. High Erucic Acid Rapeseed in Western Canada


    8 Rapeseed Crushing and Extraction

    I. A Historical Review of the Canadian Rapeseed Crushing Industry

    II. Preprocessing

    III. Rapeseed Constituents and Their Possible Interaction

    IV. Processing

    9 The Commercial Processing of Low and High Erucic Acid Rapeseed Oils

    I. Introduction

    II. Unit Processes

    III. Current Applications of HEAR Oil for Edible Uses


    10 Current Consumption of Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed Oil by Canadians

    I. Introduction

    II. Level of Use of Fats and Oils

    III. Sources of Domestically Deodorized Fats and Oils

    IV. Availability of Rapeseed Oil to Canadians (1966-1980)

    V. Demographic Variables Affecting Rapeseed Oil Consumption


    11 The Problems Associated with the Feeding of High Erucic Acid Rapeseed Oils and Some Fish Oils to Experimental Animals

    I. Introduction

    II. Growth Performance with HEAR Oils

    III. The Digestibility of HEAR Oils

    IV. Myocardial Lipidosis in Rats

    V. Myocardial Necrosis in Rats

    VI. Is Myocardial Lipidosis Linked to Myocardial Necrosis?

    VII. Effects on Other Tissues When HEAR Oil Is Fed to Rats

    VIII. The Myocardial Tolerance to HEAR Oil in the Diet by Species Other Than the Rat

    IX. The Involvement of Health Agencies in Lowering the Erucic Acid Content of Rapeseed Oils

    X. Current Regulations on Permissible Erucic Acid Levels


    12 Cardiopathology Associated with the Feeding of Vegetable and Marine Oils

    I. Introduction

    II. Rats

    III. Swine

    IV. Monkeys

    V. Poultry

    VI. Conclusions


    13 The Composition of Diets Used in Rapeseed Oil Feeding Trials

    I. Introduction

    II. Dietary Protocols

    III. Conclusions


    14 The Metabolism of Docosenoic Acids in the Heart

    I. Substrates for Myocardial Oxidation

    II. The Utilization of Fat by Heart Muscle

    III. Alterations in Cardiac Metabolisms When Rats Are Fed Diets That Contain Erucic Acid

    IV. The Role of the Peroxisomal System in Myocardial Lipidosis

    V. Cardiac Respiratory Rates and Oxidative Phosphorylation in Rats Fed HEAR Oil Containing Diets

    VI. Interspecies Differences in Cardiac Lipids

    VII. Some Interspecies Differences in Myocardial Metabolism


    15 The Regulation of Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation

    I. Introduction

    II. ß-Oxidation

    III. ω-Oxidation

    IV. Integrated Regulation of Mitochondrial Oxidation


    16 The Mechanisms of Fatty Acid Chain Elongation and Desaturation in Animals

    I. Introduction

    II. The 9-Desaturase(s)

    III. The 6-Desaturase(s)

    IV. The 5-Desaturase(s)

    V. The 4-Desaturase(s)

    VI. Microsomal Fatty Acid Chain Elongation

    VII. Retrocon version

    VIII. Regulation of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis


    17 Results Obtained with Feeding Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed Oils and Other Vegetable Oils to Rats and Other Species

    I. Introduction

    II. Nutritional and Pathological Properties

    III. Results with Rats

    IV. Results with Pigs

    V. Results with Dogs

    VI. Results with Swiss Mice

    VII. Results with Monkeys

    VIII. Conclusion


    18 Cardiac Lipid Changes in Rats, Pigs, and Monkeys Fed High Fat Diets

    I. Introduction

    II. Fatty Acid Composition of Vegetable Oils and Fats

    III. Changes in Cardiac Lipids of Rats Fed Different Oils and Fats

    IV. Changes in Cardiac Lipids of Pigs and Monkeys Fed Different Oils and Fats and How These Changes Compare to Those Observed in Rats

    V. Can the Myocardial Disorders Ascribed to the Feeding of Rapeseed Oil Be Correlated to Cardiac Lipid Charges?


    19 The Use of Statistics in Assessing the Results from Experiments with Vegetable Oils Fed to Test Animals

    I. Introduction

    II. Body Weight and Growth Data

    III. Some Problems in Analyzing Relative Measurements

    IV. Random Variation in the Measurement of Dietary Components

    V. The Analysis of Incidence Data

    VI. Sample Size and Incidence Data

    VII. Sample Size in the Context of Estimation

    VIII. Conclusion


    20 Studies with High and Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed Oil in Man

    I. Introduction

    II. Digestibility of Hear Oil and Lear Oil by Humans

    III. Serum Lipid Changes Accompanying the Ingestion of Hear and Lear Oils

    IV. Hematological Profiles of Subjects Given Hear and Lear Oil Diets

    V. Energy Metabolism in Young Men Given LEAR and Soybean Oils


    21 The Relevance to Humans of Myocardial Lesions Induced in Rats by Marine and Rapeseed Oils

    I. Historical Background and Regulatory Concern

    II. The Laboratory Rat as an Experimental Model for Safety Assessment of Rapeseed Oils

    III. Studies in Humans

    IV. Safety Assessment Considerations

    V. Conclusions


    22 Some Recent Innovations in Canola Processing Technology

    I. Introduction

    II. Cold Processing of Canola Seed

    III. Chemical Degumming

    IV. Physical Refining

    V. Conclusions


Product details

  • No. of pages: 624
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1983
  • Published: April 28, 1983
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323138017

About the Author

John K G Kramer

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