Heating and Cooling Load Calculations - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080130019, 9781483186351

Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs In: Heating, Ventilation and Refrigeration

Authors: P. G. Down
Editors: N. S. Billington E. Ower
eBook ISBN: 9781483186351
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1969
Page Count: 268
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Heating and Cooling Load Calculations is a handbook that covers various concerns in calculating heating and cooling. The title provides a logical study of the physical and engineering factors that affect the heating and cooling load. The coverage of the text includes heat transfer; heating loads and its reduction; and design temperature conditions. The text also covers the cooling design conditions and the components of cooling load and its reduction. The book will be of great use to both student and professional engineers.

Table of Contents

Editor's Preface


List of Symbols

Chapter 1. Heat Transfer

1.1. Basic Theory

1.2. Application to Building Heat Transfer

1.3. Factors Influencing Conductivity

1.4. Values of Thermal Conductivity

1.5. Surface Conductance and Resistance

1.6. Temperature Gradient and Isothermals

1.7. Air Spaces

1.8. Adding Conductivities and Resistivities

1.9. The Electrical Analogy to Heat Transfer

1.10. Parallel Heat Paths

1.11. Calculation of Intermediate Temperatures

1.12. Surface Temperatures

1.13. Surface and Interstitial Condensation


Chapter 2. Heating Loads

2.1. Heat Transmittance Coefficients

2.2. Walls

2.3. Roofs

2.4. Floors

2.5. Air Volume and Infiltration

2.6. Mechanical Ventilation

2.7. Latent Heat Load

2.8. Design Examples


Chapter 3. Design Temperature Conditions

3.1. Temperature Difference

3.2. Climatology

3.3. Topography

3.4. Microclimates

3.5. Outside Air Temperatures

3.6. Selection of Design Outside Temperature for Heating

3.7. Selection of Design Inside Temperature for Heating

3.8. Statutory Inside Temperature Standards

3.9. Level of Temperature Measurement

3.10. Internal Temperature Gradient

3.11. Allowance for Height

3.12. Heat—Loss Calculation Sheets

3.13. Design Examples


Chapter 4. Reduction of Heating Load

4.1. Thermal Insulation

4.2. Statutory Standards for Insulation

4.3. Selection of Insulating Materials

4.4. The Position of Insulation Within the Structure

4.5. Application of Insulation

4.6. Heat Gains

4.7. Diversity of Load

4.8. Design Examples


Chapter 5. Cooling Design Conditions

5.1. Selection of Design Outside Conditions for Cooling

5.2. Selection of Design Outside Conditions for Dehumidification

5.3. Selection of Design Inside Conditions for Cooling

5.4. Cooling Calculation Sheets

5.5. Design Examples


Chapter 6. Solar Radiation

6.1. Extraterrestrial Solar Energy Intensity and Distribution

6.2. Surface Solar Energy Intensity and Distribution

6.3. Direct, Diffuse and Ground Radiation

6.4. Standard Solar Radiation Tables

6.5. Variation in Solar Intensity with Solar Altitude Angle and Station Height

6.6. Haze Factors

6.7. Definitions of Solar and Surface Angles

6.8. Derivations of Solar and Surface Angles

6.9. Calculation of Surface Intensity

6.10. Sun Charts

6.11. Effect of Structural Material on the Reception of Solar Radiation

6.12. Solar Heat Gain Through Glass

6.13. Glass Area in Sun

6.14. Solar Heat Gain Through Structures

6.15. Sol-Air Temperature

6.16. Equivalent Temperature Difference

6.17. Design Examples


Chapter 7. Components of the Cooling Load

7.1. Temperature Difference

7.2. Lighting

7.3. Occupancy

7.4. Machinery and Equipment

7.5. Process and Produce

7.6. Outside Air

7.7. Design Example


Chapter 8. Reduction of Cooling Load

8.1. Solar Shading by Structural Design

8.2. Solar Shading by Blinds, Louvres or Drapes

8.3. Tinted Or Surface-Coated Glass

8.4. Glasses and Shading Devices in Combination

8.5. Shading by Surrounding Buildings

8.6. Use of Spectrally Selective Surfaces

8.7. Reduction in Cooling Load by Building Storage Effect

8.8. Reduction in Cooling Load by Method of Plant Operation

8.9. Reduction in Cooling Load by Allowing Indoor Temperature "Swing"

8.10. Reduction of Solar Heat Gain Due to Cloud


Appendix 1. Intermittent Heating

A1.1. Laws of Cooling

Al.2. Law of Heating

A1.3. Successive Heating and Cooling Periods

A1.4. Deriving Heating and Cooling Rates

A1.5. Calculation of Non-Steady Heat Flow

A1.6. Graphical Solution to Temperature Propagation

A1.7. Calculation of Intermittent Heating Load


Appendix 2. Connection Between Altitude, Azimuth, Declination, Latitude and Hour Angles

Appendix 3. Derivation of Expression for Solar Intensity Curve

Appendix 4. The Calculation of Monthly and Annual Solar Heat Gain


Appendix 5. Simultaneous Heating or Cooling Loads

Appendix 6. Table of Conversion Factors



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© Pergamon 1969
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

P. G. Down

About the Editor

N. S. Billington

E. Ower

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