Health and Environmental Safety of Nanomaterials

Health and Environmental Safety of Nanomaterials

Polymer Nancomposites and Other Materials Containing Nanoparticles

1st Edition - January 23, 2014

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  • Editors: James Njuguna, Krzysztof Pielichowski, Huijun Zhu
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096678
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857096555

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Description

Health and Environmental Safety of Nanomaterials addresses concerns about the impact of nanomaterials on the environment and human health, and examines the safety of specific nanomaterials. Understanding the unique chemical and physical properties of nanostructures has led to many developments in the applications of nanocomposite materials. While these materials have applications in a huge range of areas, their potential for toxicity must be thoroughly understood. Part one introduces the properties of nanomaterials, nanofillers, and nanocomposites, and questions whether they are more toxic than their bulk counterparts. Part two looks at the release and exposure of nanomaterials. The text covers sampling techniques and data analysis methods used to assess nanoparticle exposure, as well as protocols for testing the safety of polymer nanocomposites. It explains characterization techniques of airborne nanoparticles and life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials. Part three focuses on the safety of certain nanomaterials, including nanolayered silicates, carbon nanotubes, and metal oxides. In particular, it explores the potential ecotoxicological hazards associated with the different structures of carbon nanotubes and the safe recycling of inorganic and carbon nanoparticles. The final two chapters address the risks of nanomaterials in fire conditions: their thermal degradation, flammability, and toxicity in different fire scenarios. This is a scientific guide with technical background for professionals using nanomaterials in industry, scientists, academicians, research scholars, and polymer engineers. It also offers a deep understanding of the subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students.

Key Features

  • Introduces the properties of nanomaterials, nanofillers, and nanocomposites, and questions whether they are more toxic than their bulk counterparts
  • Covers sampling techniques and data analysis methods used to assess nanoparticle exposure, as well as protocols for testing the safety of polymer nanocomposites
  • Explores the potential ecotoxicological hazards associated with the different structures of carbon nanotubes and the safe recycling of inorganic and carbon nanoparticles

Readership

Professionals, researchers, and engineers who need to understand the health and environmentals risks of nanomaterials

Table of Contents

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    Woodhead Publishing Series in Composites Science and Engineering

    Preface

    Part I: General introduction

    1. Nanomaterials, nanofillers, and nanocomposites: types and properties

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Key terms and definitions

    1.3 Common physical and chemical properties

    1.4 Types of nanofiller

    1.5 Nanocomposites: selected examples

    1.6 Conclusion

    1.7 Acknowledgement

    1.8 References

    2. Mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity

    Abstract:

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Size- and non-size-related toxicity mechanisms of nanomaterials

    2.3 Mechanisms of nanomaterial-induced cellular damage mediated by oxidative stress

    2.4 Mechanisms of nanomaterial-induced cellular damage independent of oxidative stress

    2.5 Nanomaterial shape and toxicity: the fibre paradigm

    2.6 The use of lipidomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics to understand nanomaterial toxicity

    2.7 Conclusion and future trends

    2.8 References

    Part II: Assessment of nanomaterial release and exposure

    3. Nanoparticle exposure assessment: methods, sampling techniques, and data analysis

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Physicochemical properties of nanomaterials relevant to exposure assessment

    3.3 International standards and guidance relating to nanoparticle exposure assessment

    3.4 Instrumentation for exposure assessment

    3.5 Sample collection strategies for exposure assessment

    3.6 Initial evaluation: identification of potential emission sources

    3.7 Main evaluation: key steps

    3.8 Data interpretation

    3.9 Conclusion and future trends

    3.10 Acknowledgement

    3.11 References

    4. Sampling protocols for testing the safety of polymer nanocomposites

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Approaches for release simulation: case studies of drilling

    4.3 Simulating the release of particulate materials

    4.4 Collection of samples

    4.5 Characterization of samples

    4.6 Sample storage and labelling

    4.7 Preventing the contamination of stored samples

    4.8 Sample pre-treatment before testing: use of dispersing agents, sonication, stirring and mixing

    4.9 Protocol validation and standardization

    4.10 Conclusion and future trends

    4.11 Sources of further information and advice

    4.12 References

    5. Measurement and sampling techniques for characterization of airborne nanoparticles released from nano-enhanced products

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Identification of release scenarios of nano-sized particles from nanocomposites

    5.3 Measurement of airborne nano-sized particles

    5.4 Collection of airborne particles

    5.5 Deficiencies of devices for measuring airborne nano-sized particles

    5.6 Case study: the effect of nanoclay on dust generation during drilling of PA6 nanocomposites

    5.7 Conclusion

    5.8 Acknowledgement

    5.9 References

    6. Life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Life cycle assessment methodology

    6.3 Life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials: case studies

    6.4 New developments in life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials

    6.5 Conclusion

    6.6 References

    Part III: Safety of particular types of nanomaterial

    7. Nanolayered silicates/clay minerals: uses and effects on health

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Characteristics of clay minerals

    7.3 Effect of clay minerals on the environment

    7.4 Toxicity of nanoclays in humans

    7.5 Life cycle assessment of nanoclay-reinforced materials

    7.6 Conclusion and future trends

    7.7 References

    8. Carbon nanotubes: properties, applications, and toxicity

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Physico-chemical properties of carbon nanotubes and their applications

    8.3 Carbon nanotubes in nanomedicine

    8.4 Carbon nanotube toxicity

    8.5 Conclusion and future trends

    8.6 Acknowledgements

    8.7 References

    9. Ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanotubes: test methods and current research

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Quantification of carbon nanotubes in environmentally relevant media

    9.3 Methodological issues

    9.4 Current research on ecotoxicological risks of nanoparticles

    9.5 Future trends

    9.6 Conclusion

    9.7 Disclaimer

    9.8 References

    10. Metal oxide nanomaterials: health and environmental effects

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Nano-zinc oxide

    10.3 Nano-titanium dioxide

    10.4 Other metal oxides

    10.5 Conclusion and future trends: metal oxide nanomaterial regulation and risk assessment

    10.6 Sources of further information and advice

    Websites for general information

    Government documents

    Books

    10.7 References

    11. Safe recycling of materials containing persistent inorganic and carbon nanoparticles

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Recycling of engineered nanomaterials applied in suspensions

    11.3 Recycling of nanocomposites

    11.4 The range of recycling options

    11.5 Nanomaterials present in wastes

    11.6 Release of nanoparticles linked to recycling facilities

    11.7 Conclusion

    11.8 References

    12. Nanostructured flame retardants: performance, toxicity, and environmental impact

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Fabrication of polymer nanocomposites

    12.3 Conventional and nanostructured flame retardants

    12.4 Flame retardant behaviour of polymer nanocomposites

    12.5 Synergies from combining nanostructured flame retardants

    12.6 Health and environmental risks of conventional and nanostructured flame retardants

    12.7 Conclusion and future trends

    12.8 References

    13. Thermal degradation, flammability, and potential toxicity of polymer nanocomposites

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Thermal degradation processes of polymers and nanocomposites

    13.3 Thermal stability of nanoparticles

    13.4 Instrumentation and techniques to investigate degradation products of nanocomposites

    13.5 Fire toxicity of degradation products of nanocomposites and its assessment

    13.6 Intrinsic toxicity of nanoparticles

    13.7 Ultrafine particle production during combustion of nanocomposites

    13.8 Conclusion and future trends

    13.9 References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 344
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2014
  • Published: January 23, 2014
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096678
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857096555

About the Editors

James Njuguna

Prof. James Njuguna is the Academic Strategic Lead (Research) in Composite Materials at Robert Gordon University. He holds both PhD and MSc in Aeronautical Engineering from City, University of University. Dr. Njuguna is a Fellow of The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining. He is a former Marie Curie Fellow and Research Councils United Kingdom (RCUK) Fellow. He has held various academic positions at Cracow University of Technology (Poland) and Cranfield University (UK). His research interests are focused on polymer (nano)composites – their fabrication, characterisation of thermal and mechanical properties, and safe disposal.

Affiliations and Expertise

Academic Strategic Lead (Research) in Composite Materials, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK

Krzysztof Pielichowski

Professor Krzysztof Pielichowski, head of Department of Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Cracow University of Technology, is an expert in polymer (nano)technology and chemistry, particularly in the areas of polymer nanocomposites with engineering polymers and hybrid organic-inorganic materials containing POSS. Prof. Pielichowski is currently performing a research programme in the area of preparation of engineering polymer nanocomposites with improved thermal and mechanical properties for construction applications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Head of Department of Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Huijun Zhu

Dr Huijun Zhu is a Senior Toxicologist at Cranfield University, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Toxicologist, Cranfield University, UK

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