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Health and Environmental Safety of Nanomaterials - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857096555, 9780857096678

Health and Environmental Safety of Nanomaterials

1st Edition

Polymer Nancomposites and Other Materials Containing Nanoparticles

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Editors: James Njuguna Krzysztof Pielichowski Huijun Zhu
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857096555
eBook ISBN: 9780857096678
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 23rd January 2014
Page Count: 344
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Table of Contents

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Composites Science and Engineering


Part I: General introduction

1. Nanomaterials, nanofillers, and nanocomposites: types and properties


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Key terms and definitions

1.3 Common physical and chemical properties

1.4 Types of nanofiller

1.5 Nanocomposites: selected examples

1.6 Conclusion

1.7 Acknowledgement

1.8 References

2. Mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Size- and non-size-related toxicity mechanisms of nanomaterials

2.3 Mechanisms of nanomaterial-induced cellular damage mediated by oxidative stress

2.4 Mechanisms of nanomaterial-induced cellular damage independent of oxidative stress

2.5 Nanomaterial shape and toxicity: the fibre paradigm

2.6 The use of lipidomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics to understand nanomaterial toxicity

2.7 Conclusion and future trends

2.8 References

Part II: Assessment of nanomaterial release and exposure

3. Nanoparticle exposure assessment: methods, sampling techniques, and data analysis


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Physicochemical properties of nanomaterials relevant to exposure assessment

3.3 International standards and guidance relating to nanoparticle exposure assessment

3.4 Instrumentation for exposure assessment

3.5 Sample collection strategies for exposure assessment

3.6 Initial evaluation: identification of potential emission sources

3.7 Main evaluation: key steps

3.8 Data interpretation

3.9 Conclusion and future trends

3.10 Acknowledgement

3.11 References

4. Sampling protocols for testing the safety of polymer nanocomposites


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Approaches for release simulation: case studies of drilling

4.3 Simulating the release of particulate materials

4.4 Collection of samples

4.5 Characterization of samples

4.6 Sample storage and labelling

4.7 Preventing the contamination of stored samples

4.8 Sample pre-treatment before testing: use of dispersing agents, sonication, stirring and mixing

4.9 Protocol validation and standardization

4.10 Conclusion and future trends

4.11 Sources of further information and advice

4.12 References

5. Measurement and sampling techniques for characterization of airborne nanoparticles released from nano-enhanced products


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Identification of release scenarios of nano-sized particles from nanocomposites

5.3 Measurement of airborne nano-sized particles

5.4 Collection of airborne particles

5.5 Deficiencies of devices for measuring airborne nano-sized particles

5.6 Case study: the effect of nanoclay on dust generation during drilling of PA6 nanocomposites

5.7 Conclusion

5.8 Acknowledgement

5.9 References

6. Life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Life cycle assessment methodology

6.3 Life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials: case studies

6.4 New developments in life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials

6.5 Conclusion

6.6 References

Part III: Safety of particular types of nanomaterial

7. Nanolayered silicates/clay minerals: uses and effects on health


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Characteristics of clay minerals

7.3 Effect of clay minerals on the environment

7.4 Toxicity of nanoclays in humans

7.5 Life cycle assessment of nanoclay-reinforced materials

7.6 Conclusion and future trends

7.7 References

8. Carbon nanotubes: properties, applications, and toxicity


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Physico-chemical properties of carbon nanotubes and their applications

8.3 Carbon nanotubes in nanomedicine

8.4 Carbon nanotube toxicity

8.5 Conclusion and future trends

8.6 Acknowledgements

8.7 References

9. Ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanotubes: test methods and current research


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Quantification of carbon nanotubes in environmentally relevant media

9.3 Methodological issues

9.4 Current research on ecotoxicological risks of nanoparticles

9.5 Future trends

9.6 Conclusion

9.7 Disclaimer

9.8 References

10. Metal oxide nanomaterials: health and environmental effects


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Nano-zinc oxide

10.3 Nano-titanium dioxide

10.4 Other metal oxides

10.5 Conclusion and future trends: metal oxide nanomaterial regulation and risk assessment

10.6 Sources of further information and advice

Websites for general information

Government documents


10.7 References

11. Safe recycling of materials containing persistent inorganic and carbon nanoparticles


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Recycling of engineered nanomaterials applied in suspensions

11.3 Recycling of nanocomposites

11.4 The range of recycling options

11.5 Nanomaterials present in wastes

11.6 Release of nanoparticles linked to recycling facilities

11.7 Conclusion

11.8 References

12. Nanostructured flame retardants: performance, toxicity, and environmental impact


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Fabrication of polymer nanocomposites

12.3 Conventional and nanostructured flame retardants

12.4 Flame retardant behaviour of polymer nanocomposites

12.5 Synergies from combining nanostructured flame retardants

12.6 Health and environmental risks of conventional and nanostructured flame retardants

12.7 Conclusion and future trends

12.8 References

13. Thermal degradation, flammability, and potential toxicity of polymer nanocomposites


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Thermal degradation processes of polymers and nanocomposites

13.3 Thermal stability of nanoparticles

13.4 Instrumentation and techniques to investigate degradation products of nanocomposites

13.5 Fire toxicity of degradation products of nanocomposites and its assessment

13.6 Intrinsic toxicity of nanoparticles

13.7 Ultrafine particle production during combustion of nanocomposites

13.8 Conclusion and future trends

13.9 References



Health and Environmental Safety of Nanomaterials addresses concerns about the impact of nanomaterials on the environment and human health, and examines the safety of specific nanomaterials. Understanding the unique chemical and physical properties of nanostructures has led to many developments in the applications of nanocomposite materials. While these materials have applications in a huge range of areas, their potential for toxicity must be thoroughly understood.

Part one introduces the properties of nanomaterials, nanofillers, and nanocomposites, and questions whether they are more toxic than their bulk counterparts. Part two looks at the release and exposure of nanomaterials. The text covers sampling techniques and data analysis methods used to assess nanoparticle exposure, as well as protocols for testing the safety of polymer nanocomposites. It explains characterization techniques of airborne nanoparticles and life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials. Part three focuses on the safety of certain nanomaterials, including nanolayered silicates, carbon nanotubes, and metal oxides. In particular, it explores the potential ecotoxicological hazards associated with the different structures of carbon nanotubes and the safe recycling of inorganic and carbon nanoparticles. The final two chapters address the risks of nanomaterials in fire conditions: their thermal degradation, flammability, and toxicity in different fire scenarios.

This is a scientific guide with technical background for professionals using nanomaterials in industry, scientists, academicians, research scholars, and polymer engineers. It also offers a deep understanding of the subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students.

Key Features

  • Introduces the properties of nanomaterials, nanofillers, and nanocomposites, and questions whether they are more toxic than their bulk counterparts
  • Covers sampling techniques and data analysis methods used to assess nanoparticle exposure, as well as protocols for testing the safety of polymer nanocomposites
  • Explores the potential ecotoxicological hazards associated with the different structures of carbon nanotubes and the safe recycling of inorganic and carbon nanoparticles


Professionals, researchers, and engineers who need to understand the health and environmentals risks of nanomaterials


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© Woodhead Publishing 2014
23rd January 2014
Woodhead Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Editors

James Njuguna

Prof. James Njuguna is the Academic Strategic Lead (Research) in Composite Materials at Robert Gordon University. He holds both PhD and MSc in Aeronautical Engineering from City, University of University. Dr. Njuguna is a Fellow of The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining. He is a former Marie Curie Fellow and Research Councils United Kingdom (RCUK) Fellow. He has held various academic positions at Cracow University of Technology (Poland) and Cranfield University (UK). His research interests are focused on polymer (nano)composites – their fabrication, characterisation of thermal and mechanical properties, and safe disposal.

Affiliations and Expertise

Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, United Kingdom

Krzysztof Pielichowski

Professor Krzysztof Pielichowski, head of Department of Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Cracow University of Technology, is an expert in polymer (nano)technology and chemistry, particularly in the areas of polymer nanocomposites with engineering polymers and hybrid organic-inorganic materials containing POSS. Prof. Pielichowski is currently performing a research programme in the area of preparation of engineering polymer nanocomposites with improved thermal and mechanical properties for construction applications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Huijun Zhu

Dr Huijun Zhu is a Senior Toxicologist at Cranfield University, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Cranfield University, UK