Health and Environmental Safety of Nanomaterials

Health and Environmental Safety of Nanomaterials

Polymer Nanocomposites and Other Materials Containing Nanoparticles

2nd Edition - July 24, 2021
  • Editors: James Njuguna, Krzysztof Pielichowski, Huijun Zhu
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128205051
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128205105

Purchase options

Purchase options
Available
DRM-free (EPub, PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

The first edition of Health and Environmental Safety of Nanomaterials: Polymer Nanocomposites and Other Materials Containing Nanoparticles was published in 2014, but since that time, new developments in the field of nanomaterials safety have emerged, both at release and exposure, along with the expanding applications of the nanomaterials side. Numerous studies have been dedicated to the issue of biophysical interactions of nanoparticles with the human body at the organ, cellular, and molecular levels. In this second edition, all the chapters have been brought fully up to date. There are also four brand new chapters on the biophysical interaction of nanoparticles with the human body; advanced modeling approaches to help elucidate the nanorisks; safety measures at work with nanoparticles; and the health and environmental risks of graphene. It provides key knowledge and information needs for all those who are working in the research and development sector and need to learn more about the safety of nanomaterials.

Key Features

• Focuses on the health and safety of polymer nanocomposites and other materials containing nanoparticles, as well as their medical and environmental implications

• Discusses the fundamental nature of various biophysical interactions of nanoparticles with the human body

• Looks at the physico-chemistry of nanoparticles and their uptake, translocation, transformation, transport, and biodistribution in mammalian and plant systems

• Presents the structure–activity relationships and modeling of the interactions of nanoparticles with biological molecules, biochemical pathways, analysis of biomolecular signatures, and the development of biomarkers.

Readership

Academic and industrial researchers working in materials science who want to know more about the safety of nanomaterials, and regulators

Table of Contents

  • List of contributors xv

    Preface xix

    Part I General Introduction 1

    1 Nanomaterials, nanofillers, and nanocomposites:

    types and properties 3

    James Njuguna, Farahnaz Ansari, Sophia Sachse,

    Veronica Marchante Rodriguez, Shohel Siqqique

    and Huijun Zhu

    1.1 Introduction 3

    1.2 Key terms and definitions 6

    1.3 Common physical and chemical properties 7

    1.3.1 Morphology and dimension 7

    1.3.2 Composition 8

    1.3.3 Agglomeration 8

    1.3.4 Diffusion 8

    1.3.5 Deposition 9

    1.3.6 Surface coating and functionalization 10

    1.3.7 Particle chemistry and crystalline structure 11

    1.4 Types of nanofiller 11

    1.4.1 Quantum dots 12

    1.4.2 Nanotubes 12

    1.4.3 Nanowires 13

    1.4.4 Layered silicates 13

    1.4.5 Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes 14

    1.4.6 Dendrimers 16

    1.4.7 Metal oxides 17

    1.4.8 Graphene oxides 17

    1.4.9 MXenes 19

    1.5 Nanocomposites: selected examples 21

    1.5.1 Nanocomposites filled with nanoplates 21

    1.5.2 Nanocomposites filled with nanoparticles 25

    1.5.3 Polyamide-6/clay nanocomposites 26

    1.5.4 LDPE clay nanocomposites 28

    1.5.5 Fiber surface modification and the deposition

    of nanofiller on carbon fiber surface 29

    1.5.6 Graphene/carbon fiber

    1.6 Conclusion 32

    Acknowledgment 33

    References 33

    2 Mechanisms of toxicity of engineered nanoparticles: adverse

    outcome pathway for dietary silver nanoparticles in mussels 39

    M.P. Cajaraville, N. Duroudier and E. Bilbao

    2.1 Introduction 39

    2.2 Factors affecting fate and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles

    in aquatic environments 40

    2.2.1 Intrinsic properties 42

    2.2.2 Physicochemical processes 43

    2.3 Uptake and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles in

    aquatic organisms 43

    2.4 Silver nanoparticles in the environment 45

    2.4.1 Microalgae 48

    2.4.2 Invertebrates 49

    2.4.3 Fish 51

    2.5 Bivalve mollusks as model species 52

    2.5.1 Bivalves and eco-nanotoxicology 53

    2.5.2 Biomarkers as suitable tools for assessing nanoparticles

    toxicity in mussels 55

    2.5.3 The omic’s approach: discovering new biomarkers

    and adverse outcome pathways 57

    2.5.4 Trophic transfer studies 58

    2.6 Adverse outcome pathway for dietary silver nanoparticles

    in mussels 59

    2.7 Concluding remarks and future trends 67

    Acknowledgments 68

    References 68

    3 Safety, regulation, and policy 83

    Halshka Graczyk, Luca Fontana, Maged Younes and Ivo Iavicoli

    3.1 Introduction: approaches to regulatory actions 83

    3.2 Challenges for regulatory standards toward manufactured

    nanomaterials 84

    3.3 Existing standards covering international guidance 86

    3.3.1 Definitions of nanomaterials 86

    3.3.2 Risk assessment of nanomaterials 87

    3.3.3 Occupational exposure limits 89

    3.4 The way forward and conclusions 93

    References 93

    Part II Assessment of nanomaterials release and exposure 97

    4 Measurement, testing, and characterization of airborne

    nanoparticles released from machining of nanoreinforced composites 99

    Kristof Starost, Sophia Sachse and James Njuguna

    4.1 Introduction 99

    4.2 Sampling and measurement techniques 105

    4.3 Controlled environment for particle measurement 110

    4.4 Guidelines, handbooks, and recommendations 118

    4.5 Conclusion 120

    References 122

    Further reading 126

    5 A study on the nanoparticle emissions into environment during

    mechanical drilling of polyester, polypropylene, and epoxy

    nanocomposite materials 129

    Kristof Starost, Evelien Frijns, Jo Van Laer, Nadimul Faisal,

    Ainhoa Egizabal, Cristina Elizetxea, M. Bla´zquez Sa´nchez, Inge Nelissen

    and James Njuguna

    5.1 Introduction 129

    5.2 Method 131

    5.2.1 Material fabrication 131

    5.3 Setup of mechanical drilling simulation process and

    released particle sampling 134

    5.4 Particle characterization 136

    5.4.1 Mechanical testing 137

    5.4.2 Statistical analysis 137

    5.5 Results and discussion 137

    5.5.1 Influence of nanofiller 137

    5.5.2 PP-reinforced nanocomposites 140

    5.5.3 PE-reinforced nanocomposites 142

    5.5.4 EP-reinforced nanocomposites 143

    5.5.5 EP/CF-reinforced nanocomposites 144

    5.5.6 Influence of matrix 144

    5.5.7 Influence on particle size and mass distributions 147

    5.6 Conclusions 148

    Acknowledgments 151

    Conflicts of interest 151

    References 151

    6 Scenario simulation at laboratory scale for the assessment

    of the release of engineered nanomaterials 157

    M. Bla´zquez Sa´nchez and V. Marchante

    6.1 Introduction 157

    6.2 Approaches for release simulation: comparison of case

    studies of nanocomposite drilling 158

    6.3 Development of scenarios simulating different life cycle

    stages of nanocomposites 164

    6.3.1 Experimental setup 164

    6.3.2 Avoidance of background particles in simulated scenarios

    at laboratory scale 164

    6.3.3 Different processes potentially leading to the release

    of ENMs from nanocomposite samples 165

    6.3.4 Online measurement of released (airborne) particles

    from nanocomposite samples 166

    6.3.5 Collection of released airborne particles from

    nanocomposite samples for off-line analysis 166

    6.4 Considerations for the (eco)toxicological assessment of

    samples released from nanocomposites 167

    6.4.1 Generation of samples released from nanocomposite

    for (eco)toxicological assessment 167

    6.4.2 Storage and labeling of samples released from

    nanocomposites to be used in (eco)toxicological

    assessment 168

    6.4.3 Pretreatment of sample released from nanocomposites:

    use of dispersing agents, sonication, stirring,

    and mixing 168

    6.5 Conclusions 169

    Acknowledgments 169

    References 169

    7 A life cycle perspective of the exposure to airborne nanoparticles

    released from nanotechnology enabled products and applications 173

    M. Bla´zquez Sa´nchez, C. Fito-Lo´pez and M.P. Cajaraville

    7.1 Introduction 173

    7.2 Airborne ENMs released from NEPs and NEAs: exposure

    at the workplace, household and environmental compartments 174

    7.2.1 Workplace exposure 175

    7.2.2 Consumer exposure 177

    7.2.3 Environmental exposure 179

    7.3 International guidance and standards and instrumentation for

    airborne nanoparticle exposure assessment 180

    7.3.1 International guidance 180

    7.3.2 Standards 182

    7.3.3 Instrumentation for exposure assessment to airborne

    nanoparticles 183

    7.4 Generic approach for the release assessment of airborne ENMs

    from NEPs or NEAs from a risk assessment perspective 183

    7.5 Conclusions 190

    Acknowledgment 191

    References 191

    Part III Safety of particular type of nanomaterials 195

    8 Nanomaterials at industrial workplace—an overview

    on safety 197

    Vinita Vishwakarma

    8.1 Introduction 197

    8.2 Medical and pharmaceutical industry 199

    8.3 Food and agricultural industry 199

    8.4 Textile industry 201

    8.5 Cosmetic industry 201

    8.6 Construction and paint industry 201

    8.7 Automobile industry 202

    8.8 Electronic industry 202

    8.9 Sport industry 203

    8.10 Petroleum industry 203

    8.11 Water industries 203

    8.12 Safe handling of nanomaterials 204

    8.13 Conclusion 204

    References 205

    9 Clay minerals and solutions for green environment

    and human health 211

    Huijun Zhu, James Njuguna and Muhammad Adeel Irfan

    9.1 Introduction 211

    9.2 Characteristics of clay minerals 212

    9.3 Effect of clay minerals on environment 214

    9.4 Toxicity of nanoclays in humans 217

    9.5 Life cycle assessment (LCA) of nanoclay-reinforced materials 218

    9.6 Conclusion and future trends 219

    References 219

    Further reading 223

    10 Ecotoxicology effects of carbon nanotubes 225

    Bey Fen Leo, Isnazunita Ismail, Malarmugila Manimaran

    and Rasel Das

    10.1 Introduction 225

    10.2 Test methods 227

    10.2.1 Methods of identifying and quantifying carbon

    nanotubes in environmental matrices 227

    10.2.2 Environmental risk assessment of CNTs 233

    10.3 Future development on risk assessment of NMs 244

    10.4 Conclusion 246

    References 247

    11 Analysis and correlations of metal-organic frameworks:

    applications and toxicity 253

    Olivia L. Rose and Cerasela Zoica Dinu

    11.1 What are metal-organic frameworks? 253

    11.2 MOFs formation: a variety of synthesis conditions 254

    11.2.1 Solvothermal and hydrothermal methods 254

    11.2.2 Room temperature synthesis 257

    11.2.3 Microwave synthesis 258

    11.2.4 Mechanochemical synthesis 258

    11.2.5 Electrochemical synthesis 259

    11.2.6 Outlook on MOFs synthesis 260

    11.3 MOFs applications 260

    11.3.1 MOFs implementation in catalysis 262

    11.3.2 Gas storage 265

    11.4 MOFs applications in biomedical engineering 267

    11.4.1 MOFs used in bioimaging as contrast agents 267

    11.4.2 MOFs implementation as drug delivery agents 271

    11.5 Toxicity: a comprehensive overview 275

    11.5.1 In vitro toxicity evaluation of MOFs 277

    11.5.2 In vivo toxicity evaluation 281

    11.6 Outlook and future directions for MOFs implementation

    and toxicity assessment 283

    Acknowledgment 284

    References 284

    12 The safety assessment of food chemicals in the nanoscale 291

    Reinhilde Schoonjans, Francesco Cubadda

    and Maged Younes

    12.1 Introduction 291

    12.2 Identifying nanoparticles in products used in the

    food/feed chain 292

    12.3 Characterizing the physicochemical parameters 292

    12.4 Testing the stability in the digestive tract 294

    12.5 Testing the toxicokinetic behavior 294

    12.6 Screening for biopersistence by testing in

    lysosomal fluid 295

    12.7 Testing (cyto)toxicity in vitro 296

    12.8 Testing for potential genotoxicity 297

    12.9 Testing toxicity in vivo 298

    12.10 Assessing the level of exposure 299

    12.11 Characterizing the risk 300

    Disclaimer 301

    References 301

    Part IV Environmental risks of nanomaterials 305

    13 Effects of nanomaterials on the benthic ecosystem: a case

    study with the snail Lymnaea stagnalis 307

    Valentina Ricottone and Teresa F. Fernandes

    13.1 Introduction 307

    13.2 Model test species: Lymnaea stagnalis 309

    13.3 Ecotoxicology of nanomaterials to the great pond snail

    Lymnaea stagnalis: a review 311

    13.3.1 Silver nanomaterials 313

    13.3.2 Copper oxide nanomaterials 319

    13.3.3 Other metal nanomaterials 320

    13.3.4 Carbon nanomaterials 322

    13.4 Case study: Acute toxicity of nanomaterials on Lymnaea stagnalis 323

    13.4.1 Test chemicals and NMs characterization 323

    13.4.2 Experimental design 325

    13.4.3 Data analyses 326

    13.4.4 Results 326

    13.4.5 Discussion 329

    13.5 Summary and conclusions 334

    References 335

    14 Thermal degradation, flammability, and potential toxicity

    of polymer nanocomposites 343

    J.-M. Lopez-Cuesta, C. Longuet and C. Chivas-Joly

    14.1 Introduction 343

    14.2 Thermal degradation processes of polymers and nanocomposites 344

    14.3 Thermal stability of nanoparticles 346

    14.4 Instrumentation and techniques to investigate degradation

    products of nanocomposites 350

    14.4.1 Coupling of chemical analytic methods with thermal

    analysis 350

    14.4.2 Coupling of analytic physics methods with cone

    calorimetry 351

    14.5 Fire toxicity of degradation products of nanocomposites and its

    assessment 355

    14.6 Intrinsic toxicity of nanoparticles 358

    14.7 Ultrafine particle production during combustion of nanocomposites 363

    14.8 Conclusion and future trends 366

    References 367

    15 Nanoparticles as flame retardants in polymer materials:

    mode of action, synergy effects, and health/environmental risks 375

    Sławomir Michałowski and Krzysztof Pielichowski

    15.1 Introduction 375

    15.2 Polymer nanocomposites preparation methods 376

    15.3 Nanostructured flame retardants 380

    15.4 Combustion behavior of polymer nanocomposites 383

    15.5 Synergies from combining classical and nanostructured

    flame retardants 385

    15.6 Health and environmental risks of conventional and

    nanostructured flame retardants 401

    15.6.1 Toxicological/environmental issues affecting

    conventional flame retardants 401

    15.6.2 Toxicological/environmental issues affecting

    nanostructured flame retardants 402

    15.6.3 Standardization and safety regulations 406

    15.7 Conclusions and future trends 407

    Acknowledgment 407

    References 408

    16 QSAR and machine learning modeling of toxicity of

    nanomaterials: a risk assessment approach 417

    Supratik Kar and Jerzy Leszczynski

    16.1 Introduction 417

    16.2 Types of nanomaterials and nanotoxicity 418

    16.2.1 Metal nanoparticles (MNPs) 418

    16.2.2 Metal oxide nanomaterials (MONMs) 419

    16.2.3 Carbon nanomaterials 419

    16.3 Why do the QSAR and machine learning approach require

    for modeling of toxicity? 420

    16.4 The concept and design of the major in silico approaches 420

    16.4.1 Task 1: Experimental data generation 421

    16.4.2 Task 2: Descriptors or features generation to correlate

    experimental toxicity data 421

    16.4.3 Task 3: The data analysis 421

    16.4.4 Task 4: Model validation 422

    16.4.5 Task 5: Model interpretation 422

    16.4.6 Additional task: Docking studies to check

    nanostructure and protein interactions 422

    16.5 Application of QSAR and machine learning models in

    toxicity prediction 423

    16.6 Challenges and future directions 424

    16.6.1 Study of biocorona 424

    16.6.2 Interspecies nanotoxicity analysis 433

    16.6.3 Mixture analysis 434

    16.7 Overview and conclusion 435

    Acknowledgment 435

    Conflicts of interest 436

    References 436

    17 Life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials 443

    Roland Hischier

    17.1 Introduction 443

    17.2 Life cycle assessment framework 443

    17.3 LCA and nanotechnology 445

    17.3.1 Inventory modeling of engineered nanomaterials 448

    17.3.2 Prospective modeling 449

    17.3.3 Life cycle impact assessment of releases of

    engineered nanomaterials 451

    17.4 Conclusion and outlook 452

    References 455

    18 Recycling of materials containing inorganic and

    carbonaceous nanomaterials 459

    L. Reijnders

    18.1 Introduction 459

    18.2 Recycling of engineered nanomaterials applied in reactors

    or as recoverable analytes 463

    18.3 Recycling of nanocomposites consisting of nanomaterials

    and large-sized or macromaterials and of large assemblies

    of nanomaterials 468

    18.3.1 Extension of use and reuse 470

    18.3.2 Remanufacturing 473

    18.3.3 Materials recycling 473

    18.3.4 Recovery of inorganic and carbonaceous

    (nano)materials, where applicable combined

    with processes such as depolymerization

    and devulcanization 475

    18.3.5 Pyrolysis and cracking 476

    18.3.6 Combustion with energy recovery 477

    18.3.7 Current resource cascading of nanocomposites 477

    18.4 Nanomaterials and sacrificed nanomaterials present in wastes 478

    18.5 Release of nanomaterials linked to recycling facilities 479

    18.6 Conclusion 480

    Acknowledgment 480

    References 480

    Index 497

Product details

  • No. of pages: 534
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2021
  • Published: July 24, 2021
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128205051
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128205105

About the Editors

James Njuguna

Prof. James Njuguna is the Academic Strategic Lead (Research) in Composite Materials at Robert Gordon University. He holds both PhD and MSc in Aeronautical Engineering from City, University of University. Dr. Njuguna is a Fellow of The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining. He is a former Marie Curie Fellow and Research Councils United Kingdom (RCUK) Fellow. He has held various academic positions at Cracow University of Technology (Poland) and Cranfield University (UK). His research interests are focused on polymer (nano)composites – their fabrication, characterisation of thermal and mechanical properties, and safe disposal.

Affiliations and Expertise

Academic Strategic Lead (Research) in Composite Materials, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK

Krzysztof Pielichowski

Professor Krzysztof Pielichowski, head of Department of Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Cracow University of Technology, is an expert in polymer (nano)technology and chemistry, particularly in the areas of polymer nanocomposites with engineering polymers and hybrid organic-inorganic materials containing POSS. Prof. Pielichowski is currently performing a research programme in the area of preparation of engineering polymer nanocomposites with improved thermal and mechanical properties for construction applications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Head of Department of Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Huijun Zhu

Dr Huijun Zhu is a Senior Toxicologist at Cranfield University, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Cranfield University, UK