This handbook gives readers a close look at the entire technology of printing very high resolution and high density integrated circuit (IC) patterns into thin resist process transfer coatingsùincluding optical lithography, electron beam, ion beam, and x-ray lithography. The book's main theme is the special printing process needed to achieve volume high density IC chip production, especially in the Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) industry. The book leads off with a comparison of various lithography methods, covering the three major patterning parameters of line/space, resolution, line edge and pattern feature dimension control. The book's explanation of resist and resist process equipment technology may well be the first practical description of the relationship between the resist process and equipment parameters. The basics of resist technology are completely coveredùincluding an entire chapter on resist process defectivity and the potential yield limiting effect on device production. Each alternative lithographic technique and testing method is considered and evaluated: basic metrology including optical, scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) techniques and electrical test devices, along with explanations of actual printing tools and their design, construction and performance. The editor devotes an entire chapter to today's sophisticated, complex electron-beam printers, and to the emerging x-ray printing technology now used in high-density CMOS devices. Energetic ion particle printing is a controllable, steerable technology that does not rely on resist, and occupies a final section of the handbook.


For workers in the Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSI) industry involved with production of high density integrated circuit semiconductors such as DRAMùincluding production engineers, research and development scientists and technicians as well as academics.

Table of Contents

1. Issues and Trends Affecting Lithography Tool Selection Strategy 2. Resist Technology: Design, Processing and Applications 3. Lithography Process Monitoring and Defect Detection 4. Techniques and Tools for Photo Metrology 5. Techniques and Tools for Optical Lithography 6. Microlithography Tool Automation 7. Electron Beam ULSI Applications 8. Rational Vibration and Structural Dynamics for Lithographic Tool Installations 9. Applications of Ion Microbeam Lithography and Direct Processing 10.X-Ray Lithography


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© 2001
William Andrew
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