Handbook of Thermoset Plastics

Handbook of Thermoset Plastics

3rd Edition - November 28, 2013

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  • Editor: Hanna Dodiuk
  • eBook ISBN: 9781455731091
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781455731077

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Thermosetting plastics are a distinct category of plastics whose high performance, durability and reliability at high temperatures makes them suitable for specialty applications ranging from automotive and aerospace through to electronic packaging and consumer products (your melamine kitchen worktop is a thermoset resin!). Recent developments in thermoset plastics technology and processes has broadened their use exponentially over recent years, and these developments continue: in November 2011, French scientists created a new lightweight thermoset that is as strong and stable as previous materials yet can be easily reworked and reshaped when heated which makes it unique amongst thermosets and allows for repair and recycling. The Handbook of Thermoset Plastics, now in its Third edition, provides a comprehensive survey of the chemical processes, manufacturing techniques and design properties of each polymer, along with their applications. Written by a team of highly experienced practitioners, the practical implications of using thermoset plastics are presented – both their strengths and weaknesses. The data and descriptions presented here enable engineers, scientists and technicians to form judgments and take action on the basis of informed analysis. The aim of the book is to help the reader to make the right decision and take the correct action – avoiding the pitfalls the authors’ experience has uncovered. The new edition has been updated throughout to reflect current practice in manufacturing and processing, featuring: Case Studies to demonstrate how particular properties make different polymers suitable for different applications, as well as covering end-use and safety considerations A new chapter on using nanoparticles to enhance thermal and mechanical properties A new chapter describing new materials based on renewable resources (such as soy-based thermoset plastics) A new chapter covering recent developments and potential future technologies such as new catalysts for Controlled Radical Polymerization

Key Features

  • Goodman and Dodiuk-Kenig provide a comprehensive reference guide to the chemistry, manufacturing and applications of thermosets
  • Updated to include recent developments in manufacturing – from biopolymers to nanocomposites
  • Case Studies illustrate applications of key thermoset plastics


Plastics engineers, chemical engineers, polymer chemists, designer engineers, manufacturing engineers and technicians, students of polymer engineering and chemistry

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction



    Cross-Linking and Curing

    Influence of Time, Temperature, and Mass

    Shelf Life and Pot Life



    Stoichiometric Considerations

    Prepolymerization and Adducting


    Further Reading

    2. Phenol–Formaldehydes


    Raw Materials


    Resinification (Production) of Phenol–Formaldehyde Resins

    Phenolic Resins in Friction Materials


    Further Reading

    3. Polybenzoxazine–new generation phenolics


    Synthesis of Benzoxazine Monomers (BZ)

    Ring-Opening Polymerization of Benzoxazines

    Regioselectivity and Cross-Linked Structure

    Inter/Intramolecular H-Bonding

    Kinetics of Thermal Cure

    Structure-Property Relationships

    Blends/Composites of Polybenzoxazines

    Green Chemistry Approaches in PBZ

    Click Chemistry in PBZ

    Stability and Degradation




    4. Aminos


    Raw Materials

    Chemistry of UF Resins: Urea–Formaldehyde Condensation

    Chemistry of MF Resins: Melamine–Formaldehyde Condensation

    General Principles of Manufacture and Application

    Applications of Amino Resins


    5. Furans


    Resins from Furfuryl Alcohol and Furfural

    Photocross-Linkable Furan Polyesters

    Furan Polyurethane Foams

    Photoresists from Pending Furan Chromophores

    Ion-Exchange Resins Based on 2-Vinylfuran

    Networks Based on Diels-Alder Polycondensations


    6. Unsaturated Polyesters and Vinyl Esters

    Unsaturated Polyesters

    Vinyl Ester Resins

    Compounding of Unsaturated Polyester and Vinyl Ester Resins

    Property Modification of Unsaturated Polyesters

    Applicable Manufacturing Processes


    7. Allyls


    Polydiallyldiglycolcarbonate (CR-39)

    Polydiallyl Phthalates


    8. Epoxies


    Detailed Chemistry

    Characterization of Epoxies



    Further Reading

    9. Polyurethanes


    General Characteristics of Polyurethanes

    Raw Materials Used in the Synthesis of Cross-Linked Polyurethanes

    Synthesis and Cross-Linking Reactions of Polyurethanes

    Morphology of Linear/Branched vs. Cross-Linked Polyurethanes

    Manufacturing Methods and Technical and Functional Properties of Thermosetting Polyurethanes


    10. High-Performance Polyimides and High Temperature Resistant Polymers

    Historical Perspective

    Polyimides from Condensation Reactions

    Thermoplastic Polyimides

    Addition-Curable Polyimides and Other Polymers

    Nadimide-Terminated Thermosetting Polyimides

    Maleimide-Terminated Thermosetting Polyimides

    Cyanate-Terminated Thermosetting Polymers

    High-Temperature Thermosetting Resins Based on Phthalonitrile

    Acetylene-Terminated Thermosetting Polymers

    Propargyl-Terminated Oligomers

    Phenylethynyl-Terminated Thermosetting Polymers

    Applicability of Thermoset Isoimides/Imides to Resin Transfer Molding Processing

    Galvanic Corrosion Resistance of Polyimide Composites

    High-Performance Polymers for Lightning Strike Protection

    Ultrahigh Temperature Resistant Polymers

    Chemical Structures Suitable for Ultrahigh Temperature Use

    Novel Cross–Linking Mechanisms for Stability at Ultrahigh Temperatures

    Thermosets as Dielectric Interlayers in Integrated Circuit (IC) Fabrication

    Polymer-Ceramic Materials



    Further Reading

    11. Cyanate Esters



    Characterization and Reaction Monitoring

    Processing of Cyanate Ester Resins

    Properties of Cyanate Esters

    Properties of Cyanate Ester Blends with Epoxy and BMI

    Recent Developments


    Trade Names


    12. Maleimide-Based Alder-Enes

    Introduction to Bismaleimides

    Maleimide-Based Alder-Ene Polymers

    Alder-Ene Polymers from Various Allyl-Maleimide Compounds

    Alder-Ene Polymer Blends

    Nano-Modified Alder-Ene Polymers

    Shape Memory Alder-Ene Polymers

    Kinetics of Alder-Ene Polymerization




    13. Syntactic Foams


    Syntactic Foams Based on Thermosets

    Recent Advances in Syntactic Foams

    Applications of Syntactic Foams




    14. Silicones


    Silicone Elastomers

    Silicone Laminates

    Silicones in the Medical Device Industry

    Special Silicones

    Silicone Fluids

    Other Fluid Types/Copolymers


    15. Biobased Thermosets

    Polymers from Renewable Sources

    Determination of Bio-Based Content in Polymers

    Raw Materials for Renewable Sources Polymers

    Thermoset from Renewable Sources


    16. Nanotechnology Based Thermosets




    Nano Silica

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNT)

    Graphene and Expanded Graphite

    Tungsten Disulfide


    17. Crosslinked Thermoplastics


    Radiation Cross-Linking of Thermoplastics

    Effects of Radiation Cross-Linking on Thermoplastic Polymers

    Chemical Cross-Linking with Organic Peroxides

    Effects of Peroxide Cross-Linking on Thermoplastic Polymers

    Cross-Linking of Thermoplastics Using Silane Grafting Reagents

    Effects of Silane Cross-Linking on Thermoplastic Polymers

    Comparison of Cross-Linking Methods

    Applications of Cross-Linked Thermoplastics


    18. Processing


    Processing of Monomers: Online Monitoring of Resin Synthesis

    Processing of Pre-Polymers: Online Monitoring of Resin Flow and Resin Cure During Composite Manufacture


    Appendix. Polybenzoxazines – Commercial Information

    Commercial Benzoxazine Marketed by Huntsman

    Products by Henkel

Product details

  • No. of pages: 800
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2013
  • Published: November 28, 2013
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • eBook ISBN: 9781455731091
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781455731077

About the Editor

Hanna Dodiuk

Prof. Hanna Dodiuk is Head of the Department of Polymers and Plastics Engineering at Shenkar College of Engineering, Design and Art, in Israel. After completing her Ph.D. at the Chemistry Department of Tel-Aviv University in 1977, Prof. Dodiuk worked in postdoctoral roles at Tel-Aviv University and at the University of Goettingen, Germany. In 1979, she joined the Israeli Armament Development Authority (ADA), holding positions as Head of Adhesion Group in the Materials and Processes Department from 1981, and Director of the Materials and Processes Department from 1991. Prof. Dodiuk joined Shenkar College as an Affiliate Associate Professor in 1996, becoming Full Professor in 2000 and Head of the Department of Polymers and Plastics Engineering in 2006. She has also held short-term roles as Visiting Scientist Consultant and Visiting Professor at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (USA), Visiting Professor and Invited Professor at the University of Massachusetts at Lowell (USA), and Visiting Scientist at Bayer AG (Leverkusen, Germany).

Affiliations and Expertise

Head, Department of Polymers and Plastics Engineering, Shenkar College of Engineering, Design and Art, Israel

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