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Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845696955, 9780857093974

Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing

1st Edition

Principles, Processes and Types of Dyes

Editor: M Clark
Paperback ISBN: 9780081016510
eBook ISBN: 9780857093974
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845696955
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 25th October 2011
Page Count: 680
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Table of Contents

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles

Part I: General aspects of dyeing

Chapter 1: Fundamental principles of dyeing

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Principles of dyeing

1.3 Exhaust dyeing

1.4 Continuous dyeing

1.5 Printing

1.6 Classification systems for dyes

1.7 Classification of dyes by dye class

1.8 Conclusion

Chapter 2: Structure and properties of textile materials


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Classification and properties of textile fibres

2.3 Fibre properties related to textile technology

2.4 Classification and properties of basic textile products

2.5 Physical chemistry of fibre polymers

2.6 Cellulosic fibres

2.7 Protein fibres

2.8 Man-made fibres

Chapter 3: Pre-treatment and preparation of textile materials prior to dyeing


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Impurities in textile fibres

3.3 Aims of preparatory processes

3.4 Preparation of cotton materials

3.5 Inspection and mending

3.6 Shearing and cropping

3.7 Singeing

3.8 Enzymatic processing

3.9 Desizing process

3.10 Scouring of cotton and other cellulosic fibres

3.11 Mercerisation

3.12 Preparation of proteineous materials

3.13 Carbonisation and scouring of wool

3.14 Shrink-resist treatment for wool

3.15 Degumming of silk

3.16 Preparation of synthetic materials

3.17 Bleaching

3.18 Improvement of whiteness

Chapter 4: Chemistry of dyeing


4.1 Fundamental principles of direct dyeing

4.2 Fundamental principles of reactive dyeing

4.3 Fundamental principles of disperse dyeing

4.4 Fundamental principles of acid dyeing

4.5 Fundamental principles of azoic dyeing

4.6 Fundamental principles of vat dyeing

4.7 Fundamental principles of sulphur dyeing

4.8 Conclusions

Chapter 5: Thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing and dyebath monitoring systems


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Thermodynamics of dyeing

5.3 Kinetics of dyeing

5.4 Dyebath monitoring systems

5.7 Appendix: mathematical symbols

Chapter 6: An overview of dye fastness testing


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Overview of dye fastness testing

6.3 Grading of fastness properties

6.4 Factors influencing dye fastness

6.5 Application

6.6 Conclusions

Chapter 7: Molecular modeling and predicting dye properties


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Prediction of wavelength of maximum absorption

7.3 Effect of crystal packing on λmax

7.4 Ab initio calculations of crystal structures

7.5 Quantitative-structure activity relationship in dye–fiber affinity prediction

Chapter 8: Methods and machinery for the dyeing process


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Jiggers

8.3 Beam dyeing machines

8.4 Winches

8.5 Jet dyeing machines with hydraulic flow system

8.6 Airflow dyeing machines with aerodynamic flow system

8.7 Atmospheric softflow/overflow dyeing machines

8.8 HT softflow/overflow dyeing machines

8.9 Machines to dye fabric in rope/open-width form

8.10 Semi-continuous and continuous open-width dyeing machines

8.11 Future trends

8.13 Appendix: list of machinery manufacturers

Part II: Dye types and processes

Chapter 9: The chemistry of reactive dyes and their application processes


9.1 Introduction

9.2 The history of reactive dye development

9.3 Chemistry of commercially available reactive dyes

9.4 The application of reactive dyes to cellulosic fibres

9.5 The application of reactive dyes to natural and synthetic polyamide fibres

9.6 Miscellaneous methods to covalently bond dyes to fibres

9.7 Conclusions

Chapter 10: Disperse dyes


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Developments in disperse dyes

10.3 Types of disperse dye

10.4 Properties of disperse dyes

10.5 Future trends

Chapter 11: Natural dyes


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Classification of natural dyes

11.3 Chemistry of natural dyes

11.4 Chemistry and types of mordants

11.5 Application of mordants to textiles

11.6 Application of natural dyes to textiles

11.7 Fastness properties of natural dyes

11.8 Future trends

Chapter 12: Direct dyes


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Classification of direct dyes according to dyeing characteristics

12.3 Classification based on chemical structure

12.4 Bisazine dyes and copper phthalocyanine dyes

12.5 Future trends

Chapter 13: Metal-complex dyes


13.1 Introduction

13.2 General properties

13.3 Chemistry of dyes

13.4 Classification and nomenclature

13.5 Mordant dyes

13.6 Premetallised dyes

13.7 Fastness of dyed fabrics

13.8 The problem of waste water

13.9 Future trends

Chapter 14: Sulphur dyes


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Properties of sulphur dyes

14.3 Chemistry of sulphur dyes

14.4 Synthesis

14.5 Classification of sulphur dyes

14.6 Practical application

14.7 Reducing systems

14.8 Oxidising agents

14.9 Bronzing of dyeing

14.10 Fastness of dyed textiles

14.11 Tendering effect on cellulose

14.12 Waste-water load from sulphur dyebath

14.13 Strengths and limitations

14.14 Stripping of sulphur dyes

14.15 Future trends

Chapter 15: Acid dyes


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Classification of acid dyes

15.3 Azo acid dyes

15.4 Anthraquinone dyes

15.5 Acid nitro dyes

15.6 Triphenylmethane acid dyes

15.7 Water-repellent dyes

15.8 Acid dyes with inherent light fastness

15.9 Acid dyes free from 1-naphthylamine

15.10 Future trends

Chapter 16: Environmentally friendly dyes


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Classification of dyes

16.3 Environmental issues in dyeing

16.4 Environmentally friendly dyeing of cotton with reactive dyes

16.5 Alternative reducing systems for the dyeing of cotton with vat and sulphur dyes

16.6 Environmentally friendly dyeing of wool

16.7 Environmentally friendly dyeing of polyester

16.8 Future trends

Chapter 17: Fluorescent dyes


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Fluorescence

17.3 Chemical types of fluorescent dye

17.4 Textile applications of fluorescent dyes

17.5 Other applications of fluorescent dyes

17.6 Future trends

17.7 Sources of further information

Chapter 18: Near-infrared dyes


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Properties of near-infrared (NIR) dyes

18.3 Types of NIR dyes

18.4 Applications

18.5 Future trends

Chapter 19: Azoic dyeing


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Advantages and disadvantages of azoic dyeing

19.3 Chemistry of azoic dyeing

19.4 Colours obtainable using azoic components

19.5 Methods for dissolution of naphthol

19.6 Naphtholation and dyeing of cotton

19.7 Intermediate treatments

19.8 Development

19.9 After-treatment

19.10 Dyeing of silk

19.11 Dyeing of polyester

19.12 Dyeing of nylon

19.13 Fastness properties

19.14 Stripping of azoic colours

19.15 Environmental issues associated with azoic colours

19.16 Conclusion



Dyeing is one of the most effective and popular methods used for colouring textiles and other materials. Dyes are employed in a variety of industries, from cosmetic production to the medical sector. The two volumes of the Handbook of textile and industrial dyeing provide a detailed review of the latest techniques and equipment used in the dyeing industry, as well as examining dyes and their application in a number of different industrial sectors.

Volume 1 deals with the principles of dyeing and techniques used in the dyeing process, and looks at the different types of dyes currently available. Part one begins with a general introduction to dyeing, which is followed by chapters that examine various aspects of the dyeing process, from the pre-treatment of textiles to the machinery employed. Chapters in part two then review the main types of dyes used today, including disperse dyes, acid dyes, fluorescent dyes, and many others for a diverse range of applications.

With its distinguished editor and contributions from some of the world’s leading authorities, the Handbook of textile and industrial dyeing is an essential reference for designers, colour technologists and product developers working in a variety of sectors, and will also be suitable for academic use.

Key Features

  • Examines dyeing and its application in a number of different industrial sectors
  • Deals with the principles of dyeing and techniques used in the dyeing process, as well as types of dyes currently available
  • Chapters review various dye types right through to modelling and predicting dye properties and the chemistry of dyeing


Designers, color technologists and product developers working in a variety of sectors. Also suitable for academic use.


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© Woodhead Publishing 2011
25th October 2011
Woodhead Publishing
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Ratings and Reviews

About the Editor

M Clark

Dr Matthew Clark is a lecturer in the Department of Colour Science at the University of Leeds.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Leeds, UK