Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing

Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing

Principles, Processes and Types of Dyes

1st Edition - October 25, 2011

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  • Editor: M Clark
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016510
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857093974

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Dyeing is one of the most effective and popular methods used for colouring textiles and other materials. Dyes are employed in a variety of industries, from cosmetic production to the medical sector. The two volumes of the Handbook of textile and industrial dyeing provide a detailed review of the latest techniques and equipment used in the dyeing industry, as well as examining dyes and their application in a number of different industrial sectors.Volume 1 deals with the principles of dyeing and techniques used in the dyeing process, and looks at the different types of dyes currently available. Part one begins with a general introduction to dyeing, which is followed by chapters that examine various aspects of the dyeing process, from the pre-treatment of textiles to the machinery employed. Chapters in part two then review the main types of dyes used today, including disperse dyes, acid dyes, fluorescent dyes, and many others for a diverse range of applications.With its distinguished editor and contributions from some of the world’s leading authorities, the Handbook of textile and industrial dyeing is an essential reference for designers, colour technologists and product developers working in a variety of sectors, and will also be suitable for academic use.

Key Features

  • Examines dyeing and its application in a number of different industrial sectors
  • Deals with the principles of dyeing and techniques used in the dyeing process, as well as types of dyes currently available
  • Chapters review various dye types right through to modelling and predicting dye properties and the chemistry of dyeing


Designers, color technologists and product developers working in a variety of sectors. Also suitable for academic use.

Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details

    Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles

    Part I: General aspects of dyeing

    Chapter 1: Fundamental principles of dyeing

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Principles of dyeing

    1.3 Exhaust dyeing

    1.4 Continuous dyeing

    1.5 Printing

    1.6 Classification systems for dyes

    1.7 Classification of dyes by dye class

    1.8 Conclusion

    Chapter 2: Structure and properties of textile materials


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Classification and properties of textile fibres

    2.3 Fibre properties related to textile technology

    2.4 Classification and properties of basic textile products

    2.5 Physical chemistry of fibre polymers

    2.6 Cellulosic fibres

    2.7 Protein fibres

    2.8 Man-made fibres

    Chapter 3: Pre-treatment and preparation of textile materials prior to dyeing


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Impurities in textile fibres

    3.3 Aims of preparatory processes

    3.4 Preparation of cotton materials

    3.5 Inspection and mending

    3.6 Shearing and cropping

    3.7 Singeing

    3.8 Enzymatic processing

    3.9 Desizing process

    3.10 Scouring of cotton and other cellulosic fibres

    3.11 Mercerisation

    3.12 Preparation of proteineous materials

    3.13 Carbonisation and scouring of wool

    3.14 Shrink-resist treatment for wool

    3.15 Degumming of silk

    3.16 Preparation of synthetic materials

    3.17 Bleaching

    3.18 Improvement of whiteness

    Chapter 4: Chemistry of dyeing


    4.1 Fundamental principles of direct dyeing

    4.2 Fundamental principles of reactive dyeing

    4.3 Fundamental principles of disperse dyeing

    4.4 Fundamental principles of acid dyeing

    4.5 Fundamental principles of azoic dyeing

    4.6 Fundamental principles of vat dyeing

    4.7 Fundamental principles of sulphur dyeing

    4.8 Conclusions

    Chapter 5: Thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing and dyebath monitoring systems


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Thermodynamics of dyeing

    5.3 Kinetics of dyeing

    5.4 Dyebath monitoring systems

    5.7 Appendix: mathematical symbols

    Chapter 6: An overview of dye fastness testing


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Overview of dye fastness testing

    6.3 Grading of fastness properties

    6.4 Factors influencing dye fastness

    6.5 Application

    6.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 7: Molecular modeling and predicting dye properties


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Prediction of wavelength of maximum absorption

    7.3 Effect of crystal packing on λmax

    7.4 Ab initio calculations of crystal structures

    7.5 Quantitative-structure activity relationship in dye–fiber affinity prediction

    Chapter 8: Methods and machinery for the dyeing process


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Jiggers

    8.3 Beam dyeing machines

    8.4 Winches

    8.5 Jet dyeing machines with hydraulic flow system

    8.6 Airflow dyeing machines with aerodynamic flow system

    8.7 Atmospheric softflow/overflow dyeing machines

    8.8 HT softflow/overflow dyeing machines

    8.9 Machines to dye fabric in rope/open-width form

    8.10 Semi-continuous and continuous open-width dyeing machines

    8.11 Future trends

    8.13 Appendix: list of machinery manufacturers

    Part II: Dye types and processes

    Chapter 9: The chemistry of reactive dyes and their application processes


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 The history of reactive dye development

    9.3 Chemistry of commercially available reactive dyes

    9.4 The application of reactive dyes to cellulosic fibres

    9.5 The application of reactive dyes to natural and synthetic polyamide fibres

    9.6 Miscellaneous methods to covalently bond dyes to fibres

    9.7 Conclusions

    Chapter 10: Disperse dyes


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Developments in disperse dyes

    10.3 Types of disperse dye

    10.4 Properties of disperse dyes

    10.5 Future trends

    Chapter 11: Natural dyes


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Classification of natural dyes

    11.3 Chemistry of natural dyes

    11.4 Chemistry and types of mordants

    11.5 Application of mordants to textiles

    11.6 Application of natural dyes to textiles

    11.7 Fastness properties of natural dyes

    11.8 Future trends

    Chapter 12: Direct dyes


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Classification of direct dyes according to dyeing characteristics

    12.3 Classification based on chemical structure

    12.4 Bisazine dyes and copper phthalocyanine dyes

    12.5 Future trends

    Chapter 13: Metal-complex dyes


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 General properties

    13.3 Chemistry of dyes

    13.4 Classification and nomenclature

    13.5 Mordant dyes

    13.6 Premetallised dyes

    13.7 Fastness of dyed fabrics

    13.8 The problem of waste water

    13.9 Future trends

    Chapter 14: Sulphur dyes


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Properties of sulphur dyes

    14.3 Chemistry of sulphur dyes

    14.4 Synthesis

    14.5 Classification of sulphur dyes

    14.6 Practical application

    14.7 Reducing systems

    14.8 Oxidising agents

    14.9 Bronzing of dyeing

    14.10 Fastness of dyed textiles

    14.11 Tendering effect on cellulose

    14.12 Waste-water load from sulphur dyebath

    14.13 Strengths and limitations

    14.14 Stripping of sulphur dyes

    14.15 Future trends

    Chapter 15: Acid dyes


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Classification of acid dyes

    15.3 Azo acid dyes

    15.4 Anthraquinone dyes

    15.5 Acid nitro dyes

    15.6 Triphenylmethane acid dyes

    15.7 Water-repellent dyes

    15.8 Acid dyes with inherent light fastness

    15.9 Acid dyes free from 1-naphthylamine

    15.10 Future trends

    Chapter 16: Environmentally friendly dyes


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Classification of dyes

    16.3 Environmental issues in dyeing

    16.4 Environmentally friendly dyeing of cotton with reactive dyes

    16.5 Alternative reducing systems for the dyeing of cotton with vat and sulphur dyes

    16.6 Environmentally friendly dyeing of wool

    16.7 Environmentally friendly dyeing of polyester

    16.8 Future trends

    Chapter 17: Fluorescent dyes


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Fluorescence

    17.3 Chemical types of fluorescent dye

    17.4 Textile applications of fluorescent dyes

    17.5 Other applications of fluorescent dyes

    17.6 Future trends

    17.7 Sources of further information

    Chapter 18: Near-infrared dyes


    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Properties of near-infrared (NIR) dyes

    18.3 Types of NIR dyes

    18.4 Applications

    18.5 Future trends

    Chapter 19: Azoic dyeing


    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Advantages and disadvantages of azoic dyeing

    19.3 Chemistry of azoic dyeing

    19.4 Colours obtainable using azoic components

    19.5 Methods for dissolution of naphthol

    19.6 Naphtholation and dyeing of cotton

    19.7 Intermediate treatments

    19.8 Development

    19.9 After-treatment

    19.10 Dyeing of silk

    19.11 Dyeing of polyester

    19.12 Dyeing of nylon

    19.13 Fastness properties

    19.14 Stripping of azoic colours

    19.15 Environmental issues associated with azoic colours

    19.16 Conclusion


Product details

  • No. of pages: 680
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2011
  • Published: October 25, 2011
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016510
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857093974

About the Editor

M Clark

Dr Matthew Clark is a lecturer in the Department of Colour Science at the University of Leeds.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Leeds, UK

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