Handbook of Stem Cells

Handbook of Stem Cells

2nd Edition - September 24, 2012

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  • Editors: Anthony Atala, Robert Lanza
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123859433
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123859426

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Description

New discoveries in the field of stem cells increasingly dominate the news and scientific literature revealing an avalanche of new knowledge and research tools that are producing therapies for cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and a wide variety of other diseases that afflict humanity. The Handbook of Stem Cells integrates this exciting area of life science, combining in two volumes the requisites for a general understanding of adult and embryonic stem cells. Organized in two volumes entitled Pluripotent Stem Cells and Cell Biology and Adult and Fetal Stem Cells, this work contains contributions from the world’s experts in stem cell research to provide a description of the tools, methods, and experimental protocols needed to study and characterize stem cells and progenitor populations as well as a the latest information of what is known about each specific organ system.

Key Features

  • Provides comprehensive coverage on this highly topical subject
  • Contains contributions by the foremost authorities and premiere names in the field of stem cell research
  • Companion website - http://booksite.elsevier.com/9780123859426/ - contains over 250 color figures in presentation format

Readership

Medical and research libraries; stem cell researchers professionals in the field of tissue engineering; bone biologists and cell biologists

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Foreword

    Preface

    Contributors

    Contributors

    VOLUME 1: Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Chapter 1. Why Stem Cell Research? Advances in the Field

    References

    Chapter 2. “Stemness”: Definitions, Criteria, and Standards

    Introduction

    What Is a Stem Cell?

    Where Do Stem Cells Come From?

    How are Stem Cells Identified, Isolated, and Characterized?

    Stemness: Progress Toward a Molecular Definition of Stem Cells

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 3. Pluripotential Stem Cells from Vertebrate Embryos: Present Perspective and Future Challenges

    Introduction

    Biology of ES and ESL Cells

    Stem Cell Therapy

    Summary

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 4. Embryonic Stem Cells in Perspective

    References

    Chapter 5. The Molecular Circuitry Underlying Pluripotency in Embryonic Stem Cells and iPS Cells

    Introduction

    Signaling Networks Underlying Pluripotency

    LIF and BMP Signaling Pathways Regulate Mouse ESC Self-Renewal

    TGFβ and FGF Signaling Pathways Regulate Human ESC Self-Renewal

    WNT Signaling is a Conserved Regulator of Pluripotency Across Species

    Signaling Pathways Inhibit Differentiation and Converge on Core Transcriptional Circuitry to Maintain Pluripotency

    Induced Pluripotency, Stochasticity, and Signaling Thresholds

    Perspectives

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 6. Molecular Organization of Cells

    Introduction

    Molecules that Organize Cells

    The EMT Transcriptional Program

    Molecular Control of the EMT

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 7. Stem Cell Niches

    Introduction

    Stem Cell Niche Hypothesis

    Stem Cell Niches in the Drosophila Germ Line

    The Germ-Line Stem Cell Niche in the Drosophila Ovary

    Germ-Line Stem Cell Niche in the Drosophila Testis

    Coordinate Control of Germ-Line Stem Cell and Somatic Stem Cell Maintenance and Proliferation

    Structural Components of the Niche

    Stem Cell Niches within Mammalian Tissues

    Mammalian Testis

    Hematopoietic System

    Mammalian Epidermis

    Hair Follicle

    Interfollicular Epidermis

    GUT Epithelium

    Neural Stem Cells

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 8. Mechanisms of Stem Cell Self-Renewal

    Self-Renewal of Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 9. Cell Cycle Regulators in Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Cell Cycle Kinetics of Stem Cells In Vivo

    Stem Cell Expansion Ex Vivo

    Mammalian Cell Cycle Regulation and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors

    Roles of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors in Stem Cell Regulation

    Roles of p21 in Stem Cell Regulation

    Roles of p27 in Stem Cell Regulation

    Other Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors and the Retinoblastoma Pathway in Stem Cell Regulation

    Relation Between Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors and Transforming Growth Factor β-1

    CKIS and Notch

    Summary and Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 10. Cell Fusion and the Differentiated State

    Introduction

    Hybrid Cells and Differentiated Phenotypes

    Hybrids of Pluripotent Cells

    Reprogramming Somatic Cell Nuclei with EC, ES, or EG Cell Cytoplasm

    Cell Fusion and the Demonstration of Stem Cell Plasticity

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 11. How Cells Change Their Phenotype

    Introduction

    Metaplasia and Transdifferentiation

    Why Study Transdifferentiation?

    Examples of the Phenomenon

    Dedifferentiation as a Prerequisite for Transdifferentiation

    How to Change a Cell’s Phenotype Experimentally

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    Further Reading

    Chapter 12. Somatic Cloning and Epigenetic Reprogramming in Mammals

    Introduction – Short History of Somatic Cloning

    Technical Aspects of Somatic Nuclear Transfer

    Success Rates of Somatic Cloning and the Question of Normality of Cloned Offspring

    Epigenetic Reprogramming

    Application of Somatic Nuclear Transfer

    Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS)

    Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 13. Engineered Proteins for Controlling Gene Expression

    Introduction

    Genetic Reprogramming and the Regulation of Gene Networks

    Molecular Engineering of Natural Transcription Factors

    Synthetic Transcription Factors for Targeted Gene Regulation

    Delivery and Regulation

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 14. Differentiation in Early Development

    Preimplantation Development

    From Implantation to Gastrulation

    References

    Chapter 15. Developmental Mechanisms of Regeneration

    Introduction

    Mechanisms of Regeneration

    Specific Examples of Regenerative Mechanisms

    How can these Regenerative Mechanisms be Applied to Regenerative Medicine?

    References

    Chapter 16. Primordial Germ Cells in Mouse and Human

    Introduction

    Origin of the Germ Cell Lineage

    Migration

    Germ Cells in the Genital Ridge

    Embryonic Germ Cells

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 17. Cell–ECM Interactions in Repair and Regeneration

    Introduction

    Composition and Diversity of The ECM

    Receptors for Extracellular Matrix Molecules

    Signal Transduction Events During Cell–ECM Interactions

    Cell–ECM Interactions During Healing of Skin Wounds

    Cell–ECM Interactions During Regeneration

    Implications for Regenerative Medicine

    References

    Chapter 18. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Generation of iPS Cells

    Molecular Mechanisms in iPS Cell Induction

    Recapitulation of Disease Ontology and Drug Screening

    iPS Cell Banking

    Safety Concerns for Medical Application

    Medical Application

    Direct Fate Switch

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 19. Feeder-Free and Defined Culture Conditions for hESC Growth

    Introduction

    1 Feeder-Free Culture Methods Using Conditioned Medium and Matrigel or Laminin

    2 Feeder-Free Culture Methods Using Defined Conditions

    3 Cryopreserving hESCS

    4 Characterization of hESC Cultures

    References

    Chapter 20. Isolation and Maintenance of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Maintenance of Embryonic Stem Cells

    Media

    SERA

    Colony-Forming Assay for Testing Culture Conditions

    Embryonic Stem Cell Passage Culture

    Isolation of New Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    Method for Derivation of Embryonic Stem Cells

    Summary

    Further Reading

    Chapter 21. Isolation and Maintenance of Primate ES Cells

    Introduction

    What are Primate ES Cells?

    Techniques for the Derivation of hES Cell Lines

    “Late Stage” Embryos

    Derivation of hES Cell Subclones

    Methods for hES Cell Culture

    Primate Versus mES Cells

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 22. Embryonic Stem Cells: Derivation and Properties

    Introduction

    Derivation of Embryonic Stem Cells

    Culture of Embryonic Stem Cells

    Developmental Potential of Embryonic Stem Cells

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 23. Approaches for Derivation and Maintenance of Human ES Cells: Detailed Procedures and Alternatives

    Introduction

    Setting Up the Lab

    Preparing and Screening Reagents

    Mechanical Passaging of hES Cell Colonies

    Derivation of hES Cells

    Maintenance of Established hES Cell Cultures

    Freezing hES Cells

    Thawing hES Cells

    hES Cell Quality Control

    References

    Chapter 24. Alternate Sources of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Single Blastomere Biopsy

    Organismically Dead Embryos

    Conclusion

    Addendum

    References

    Chapter 25. Genetic Approaches in Human Embryonic Stem Cells and their Derivatives: Prospects for Regenerative Medicine

    Introduction

    Maintaining Undifferentiated hESCS

    Genetic Approaches to Manipulating hESCS

    Differentiation of hESCS into Tissue-Specific Lineages and Transplantation of hESC-Derived Cells

    Genetic Modifications of hESC-Derived Progenies

    Potential Applications of Genetically Manipulated hESCS and their Derivatives

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 26. Genetic Manipulation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Methods of Genetic Manipulation

    Genetic Modification Approaches

    Summary

    Addendum

    Refinement in Nucleic Acid Introduction Methodologies

    Viral Infection

    Gene Silencing – RNA Interference

    Gene Targeting

    Conditional Vectors

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 27. Homologous Recombination in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Targeted Ablation of the HPRT1 Gene as a Tool to Optimize Homologous Recombination Efficiency

    Oct4 eGFP/NEO Knock-in

    TH eGFP Knock-in

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 28. Derivation and Differentiation of Human Embryonic Germ Cells

    Introduction

    Human Embryonic Germ Cell Derivation

    Embryoid Body-Derived Cells

    Further Reading

    Chapter 29. Growth Factors and the Serum-Free Culture of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Mouse Embryonal Carcinoma and Embryonic Stem Cells

    Human Embryonal Carcinoma Cells

    Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) and Knockout Serum Replacer

    Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) and Platelet-Derived Growth Factor

    Future Prospects

    References

    Chapter 30. Feeder-Free Culture

    Introduction

    Materials for Feeder-Free hES Cell Culture

    Preparation of Conditioned Medium from MEFS

    Culture of hES Cells on Matrigel or Laminin in CM

    Characterization of Feeder-Free hES Cell Cultures

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 31. Surface Antigen Markers

    Introduction

    Cell Surface Embryonic Antigens of the Laboratory Mouse

    Human EC and ES Cells

    Summary

    Appendix: Methods

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 32. Lineage Marking

    Definitions

    Questions to Ask

    Markers and Lineage Marking

    Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 33. Genomic Reprogramming

    Introduction

    Genomic Reprogramming in Germ Cells

    Reprogramming Somatic Nuclei

    Conclusions

    Further Reading

    Chapter 34. Microarray Analysis of Stem Cells and Differentiation

    Introduction

    Overview of Microarray Technology

    Experimental Design

    Data Analysis

    Postdata Analysis

    Examples of Microarray Experiments

    Stem Cell Niches

    Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 35. Potential of ES Cell Differentiation Culture for Vascular Biology

    Culture for Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

    Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation System for Vascular Biology Using Flk1 as Mesodermal Marker

    Utility of Embryonic Stem Cell Culture for Cell Biology of Endothelial Cells

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 36. Use of Embryonic Stem Cells to Treat Heart Disease

    Introduction

    Cardiomyocyte Transplantation as a Paradigm for Treating Diseased Hearts

    Cardiomyogenic Differentiation of ES Cells In Vitro

    Transplantation of ES Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Large-Scale Generation of ES Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Summary and Challenges for the Clinical Implementation of ES Cell-Derived Cardiomyocyte Transplantation

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 37. Embryonic Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering

    Introduction

    Tissue Engineering Principles and Perspectives

    Limitations and Hurdles of Using ES Cells in Tissue Engineering

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 38. Zebrafish and Stem Cell Research

    Introduction

    Zebrafish System

    Acknowledgments

    References

    VOLUME 2: Adult and Fetal Stem Cells

    Chapter 39. The Development of Epithelial Stem Cell Concepts

    Introduction

    A Definition of Stem Cells

    Hierarchically Organized Stem Cell Populations

    Skin Stem Cells

    The Intestinal Stem Cell System

    Stem Cell Organization on the Tongue

    Generalized Scheme

    Summary

    Further Reading

    Chapter 40. Stem Cells Derived from Amniotic Fluid

    Introduction

    Amniotic Fluid – Function, Origin, and Composition

    Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells

    Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 41. Update on “Stem and Progenitor Cells Isolated from Cord Blood”

    Introduction

    Addressing Delayed Time to Engraftment and Graft Failure with CB

    Cryopreservation of CB Cells

    Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Generated from CB

    Concluding Comments

    References

    Chapter 42. Stem Cells in Extraembryonic Lineages

    Introduction

    Trophoblast Lineage

    TS Cell Lines

    Extraembryonic Endoderm Lineage

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 43. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

    Introduction and History

    New Insight

    All MSCS are not Created Equal

    Clinically Relevant Therapies using MSCS

    Clinical Trials

    The New MSCS

    Medicinal Signaling Cells

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 44. Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells

    Pluripotent Stem Cells – Embryonic Stem Cells

    Postnatal Tissue-Specific Stem Cells – Are Some More Than Multipotent?

    Can Pluripotency be Acquired?

    Isolation of Rodent MAPCS

    Isolation of Human MAPCS

    Recent Developments

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 45. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    The Definition of MSCs

    The Stem Cell Nature of MSCs

    Which Tissues Contain MSCS?

    MSC Isolation Techniques

    Immunomodulatory Effects of MSCS

    Skeletal Tissue Regeneration by MSCS

    Non-Skeletal Tissue Regeneration by MSCS

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 46. Stem Cells Derived from Fat – an Update

    Therapeutic Use of ASCs

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 47. Ontogeny of the Hematopoietic System

    Historical Perspective

    Sites of Initiation of Primitive and Definitive Hematopoiesis and Vasculogenesis

    Cell Migration to Later Sites of Hematopoiesis

    Cell Migration to Primary Lymphoid Organs

    References

    Chapter 48. Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Embryonic Stem Cells and Embryonic Hematopoiesis

    Blood Formation in Embryoid Bodies

    Transformation of an EB-Derived HSC by BCR/ABL

    Promoting Hematopoietic Engraftment with STAT5 and HOXB4

    Promoting Blood Formation in Vitro with Embryonic Morphogens

    Further Reading

    Chapter 49. Cell Therapy for Blood Substitutes

    Introduction

    Red Blood Cells

    Megakaryocytes and Platelets

    Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 50. Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Types and Source of Stem Cells in the Peripheral Blood

    Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Therapeutic Applications of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 51. Human Vascular Progenitor Cells

    Human Vascular Development, Maintenance and Renewal

    Human Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Source of Vascular Progenitors

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 52. Stem Cells and the Regenerating Heart

    Introduction

    Recruiting Circulating Stem Cell Reserves

    The Elusive Cardiac Stem Cell

    Evolving Concepts of Regeneration

    References

    Chapter 53. Cardiac Stem Cells – Biology and Therapeutic Applications

    Mammalian Cardiogenesis – Evidence for Progressive Lineage Restriction

    Cell-Based Therapeutics for Heart Disease

    Mechanisms of Action

    Clinical Trials

    Methods for Expansion of Cardiac Stem Cells

    Recent Discoveries

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 54. Stem Cells and Heart Disease

    Heart: A Self-Renewing Organ

    Distribution of CSCS in the Heart

    Repair of Myocardial Damage by Nonresident Primitive Cells

    Repair of Myocardial Damage by Resident Primitive Cells

    Myocardial Regeneration in Humans

    References

    Chapter 55. Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells

    Introduction

    The Original Muscle Stem Cell: The Satellite Cell

    Functional and Biochemical Heterogeneity Among Muscle Stem Cells

    Unorthodox Origins of Skeletal Muscle

    The Muscle Stem Cell Niche

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 56. Stem Cells for the Treatment of Muscular Dystrophy

    Introduction

    Myoblast Transplantation – Past Failure and New Hope

    Unconventional Myogenic Progenitors

    Pluripotent Stem Cells for Future Cell-Based Therapies

    Future Perspectives

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 57. Myoblast Transplantation in Skeletal Muscles

    Introduction

    Myoblasts as Candidate Cells for Transplantation into Skeletal Muscles

    Cell Implantation

    Cell Graft Survival

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 58. Neurogenesis in the Vertebrate Embryo

    Introduction

    Embryonic Induction and the Establishment of Neural Tissue

    Neuralization of the Ectoderm

    Neural Patterning

    Proneural Gene Cascade: A Downstream Target of Neural Patterning

    Potential Links Between Neural Patterning and Neurogenesis Control

    Regulation of Proneural Protein Expression and Activity

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 59. The Nervous System

    Introduction

    Neural Development

    Neural Stem Cells

    Neural Differentiation of Mouse ES Cells

    Neural Differentiation of Human and Nonhuman Primate ES Cells

    Developmental Perspectives

    Therapeutic Perspectives

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 60. Stem Cells in the Adult Brain

    Introduction

    History of Stem Cells in the Adult CNS

    Glial Characteristics of Neural Stem Cells

    Adult Neurogenesis in Vivo

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 61. Neural Stem Cells – Therapeutic Applications in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Introduction

    Definition of Neural Stem Cells

    Therapeutic Potential of Neural Stem Cells

    Gene Therapy Using Neural Stem Cells

    Cell Replacement Using Neural Stem Cells

    “Global” Cell Replacement Using Neural Stem Cells

    Neural Stem Cells Display an Inherent Mechanism for Rescuing Dysfunctional Neurons

    Neural Stem Cells as the Glue that Holds Multiple Therapies Together

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 62. Spinal Cord Injury

    Problem

    Spinal Cord Organization

    Injury

    Spontaneous Regeneration

    Limitations and Approaches to Repair and Redefining Goals

    Spinal Cord Development

    Embryonic Stem Cells

    Novel Approaches to CNS Repair

    Toward Human Trials

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 63. Sensory Epithelium of the Eye and Ear

    Introduction

    Introduction to Progenitor and Stem Cells in the Retina

    The Optic Vesicle Generates Diverse Cell Types that can Undergo Transdifferentiation

    In Vivo Neurogenesis in the Posthatch Chicken

    Growth of Retinal Neurospheres from the Ciliary Margin of Mammals

    Prospects for Stem Cell Therapy in the Retina

    Development and Regeneration of Tissues Derived from the Inner Ear

    In Vivo Neurogenesis in Postembryonic Animals

    In Vitro Expansion of Otic Progenitors

    Prospects for Therapy

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 64. Epithelial Skin Stem Cells

    A Brief Introduction to Mouse Skin Organization

    The Bulge as a Residence of Epithelial Skin Stem Cells

    Models of Epithelial Stem Cell Activation

    Molecular Fingerprint of the Bulge – Putative Stem Cell Markers

    Cell Signaling in Multipotent Epithelial Skin Stem Cells

    Commentary and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 65. Regeneration of Epidermis from Adult Human Keratinocyte Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Keratinocyte Stem Cells of the Skin

    Stem Cell Therapy

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 66. Burns and Skin Ulcers

    Introduction

    Burns and Skin Ulcers – the Problem

    Epidermal Stem Cells

    Stem Cells in Burns and Skin Ulcers – Current Use

    Recent and Future Developments

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 67. Stem Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Introduction

    Gastrointestinal Mucosa Contains Multiple Lineages

    Epithelial Cell Lineages Originate from a Common Precursor Cell

    Single Intestinal Stem Cells Regenerate Whole Crypts Containing All Epithelial Lineages

    Mouse Aggregation Chimeras Show that Intestinal Crypts are Clonal Populations

    Somatic Mutations in Stem Cells Reveal Stem Cell Hierarchy and Clonal Succession

    Human Intestinal Crypts Contain Multiple Epithelial Cell Lineages Derived from a Single Stem Cell

    Bone Marrow Stem Cells Contribute to Gut Repopulation after Damage

    Gastrointestinal Stem Cells Occupy a Niche Maintained by Isemfs in the Lamina Propria

    Multiple Molecules Regulate Gastrointestinal Development, Proliferation, and Differentiation

    Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway Controls Intestinal Stem Cell Function

    Transcription Factors Define Regional Gut Specification and Intestinal Stem Cell Fate

    Multiple Molecules Define Stem Cell Fate and Cell Position in the Villus–Crypt Axis

    Gastrointestinal Neoplasms Originate in Stem Cell Populations

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 68. Pancreatic Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Definition of Stem Cells and of Progenitor Cells

    Progenitor Cells During Embryonic Development of the Pancreas

    Progenitor Cells in the Adult Pancreas

    Forcing Other Tissues to Adopt a Pancreatic Phenotype

    In Vitro Studies

    Summary

    Further Reading

    Chapter 69. Adult Progenitor Cells as a Potential Treatment for Diabetes

    Importance of β-Cell Replacement Therapy for Diabetes and the Shortage of Insulin-Producing Cells

    Potential of Adult Stem– Progenitor Cells as a Source of Insulin-Producing Cells

    Defining β-Cells, Stem Cells, and Progenitor Cells

    New β-Cells are Formed Throughout Adult Life

    What is the Cellular Origin of Adult Islet Neogenesis?

    Transdifferentiation of Nonislet Cells to Islet Cells

    Pancreatic Acinar Cell Transdifferentiation

    Bone Marrow Cells as a Source of Insulin-Producing Cells

    Liver as a Source of Insulin-Producing Cells

    Engineering Other Non-β-Cells to Produce Insulin

    Attempts to Deliver Insulin Through Constitutive Rather than Regulated Secretion

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 70. Islet Cell Therapy and Pancreatic Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Benefits of β-Cell Replacement Therapy

    Current Limitations of β-Cell Replacement Therapies

    Alternative Sources of Insulin-Producing Cells: Stem Cells and β-Cell Regeneration

    Pancreatic Development

    Islet Neogenesis from ES Cells

    Islet Neogenesis from Adult Stem Cells

    Transdifferentiation

    What the Future may Hold

    Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 71. Cell Therapy of Liver Disease: From Hepatocytes to Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Background Studies

    Integration of Hepatocytes Following Transplantation

    Clinical Hepatocyte Transplantation

    Hepatocyte Bridge

    Hepatocyte Transplantation in Acute Liver Failure

    Hepatocyte Transplantation for Metabolic Liver Disease

    Hepatocyte Transplantation – Novel Uses, Challenges, and Future Directions

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 72. Adult Liver Stem Cells

    Organization and Functions of Adult Mammalian Liver

    Liver Stem Cells

    References

    Chapter 73. Cell Lineages and Stem Cells in the Embryonic Kidney

    The Anatomy of Kidney Development

    Genes That Control Early Kidney Development

    The Establishment of Additional Cell Lineages

    What Constitutes a Renal Stem Cell?

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 74. Orthopaedic Applications of Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Bone

    Cartilage

    Meniscus

    Ligaments and Tendons

    Spine

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 75. Somatic Cells – Growth and Expansion Potential of T Lymphocytes

    Introduction

    T Lymphocytes – Critical for Infection and Cancer Immunity

    Studies of Human T Lymphocyte Growth in Cell Culture

    Characteristics of Senescent T Lymphocytes

    Telomeres and Telomerase

    Senescent T Lymphocytes are Present in vivo

    Senescent T Lymphocytes and Health

    Approaches to Retard Replicative Senescence

    Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    Recent Advances

    References

    Chapter 76. Designing Tunable Artificial Matrices for Stem Cell Culture

    Introduction

    The Extracellular Matrix

    Developing Artificial Matrices with Tunable Moduli for Stem Cell Culture

    Characterization of Matrix Mechanics

    Role of Matrix Mechanics in Stem Cell Behavior

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 77. Stem Cell Gene Therapy

    Introduction

    Gene Addition

    Genome Editing

    Requirements for Successful Stem Cell Gene Therapy

    Genome Editing of Human Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 78. Histogenesis in Three-Dimensional Scaffolds

    The Need for Replacement Tissues

    Tissue Components

    Regeneration of Diseased Tissues

    Design Parameters for Histogenesis

    Synthetic Materials for Histogenesis of New Organs

    Future Directions in 3D Scaffolds: 3D Microfabrication

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 79. Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering

    Introduction

    The Reservoirs of Postnatal Stem Cells

    Do not be Rigid about Plasticity

    Current Approaches to Tissue Engineering

    Challenges

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 80. Ethical Considerations

    Is it Morally Permissible to Destroy a Human Embryo?

    Should We Postpone hES Cell Research?

    Can We Benefit from Others’ Destruction of Embryos?

    Can We Create an Embryo to Destroy it?

    Should We Clone Human Embryos?

    What Ethical Guidelines Should Govern hES Cell and Therapeutic Cloning Research?

    Summary

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 81. Stem Cell Research – Religious Considerations

    Mapping the Terrain

    Particular Traditions – an Overview

    Roman Catholic Contributions and the 14-Day Theory

    References

    Chapter 82. US Stem Cell Research Policy

    Introduction

    Sources of Stem Cells

    Embryonic Stem Cell Research: US Law and Policy

    International Comparisons

    State and Private Funding in the USA

    Policy as Embryonic Stem Cell Research Moves Forward

    Guidelines from the National Academies

    Compensating Egg Donors – the Arguments

    Commercialization and Access

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 83. Overview of the FDA Regulatory Process

    Introduction and Chapter Overview

    Brief Legislative History of FDA

    Laws, Regulations, and Guidance

    FDA Organization and Jurisdictional Issues

    Approval Mechanisms and Clinical Studies

    Meetings with Industry, Professional Groups, and Sponsors

    Regulations and Guidance of Special Interest for Regenerative Medicine

    FDA’s Standards Development Program

    Advisory Committee Meetings

    FDA Research and Critical Path Science

    Other Communication Efforts

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 84. It’s Not About Curiosity, It’s About Cures: Stem Cell Research – People Help Drive Progress

    Choosing Life

    Size of the Promise

    Personal Promises Fuel Progress

    Hope Versus Hype

    Giving Life

    People Drive Progress

    Better Health for All

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1074
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: September 24, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123859433
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123859426

About the Editors

Anthony Atala

Anthony Atala is the Director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, and the W.H. Boyce Professor and Chair of the Department of Urology at Wake Forest University. Dr. Atala is a practicing surgeon and a researcher in the area of regenerative medicine. His current work focuses on growing new human cells, tissues and organs. Dr. Atala works with several journals and serves in various roles, including Editor-in-Chief of Stem Cells- Translational Medicine, Current Stem Cell Research and Therapy, and Therapeutic Advances in Urology; as Associate Editor of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Rejuvenation Research, and Gene Therapy and Regulation; as Executive Board Member or Section Editor of the International Journal of Artificial Organs, Organogenesis, and Current Urology Reports; and as Editorial Board member of Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, Biomedical Materials, Journal of Tissue Science and Engineering, 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing, Technology, the Journal of Urology, Recent Patents on Regenerative Medicine, BioMed Central-Urology, Urology, and Current Transplantation Reports. Dr. Atala is a recipient of many awards, including the US Congress funded Christopher Columbus Foundation Award, bestowed on a living American who is currently working on a discovery that will significantly affect society, the World Technology Award in Health and Medicine, presented to individuals achieving significant and lasting progress, the Samuel D. Gross Prize, awarded every 5 years to a national leading surgical researcher by the Philadelphia Academy of Surgery, the Barringer Medal from the American Association of Genitourinary Surgeons for distinguished accomplishments, the Gold Cystoscope award from the American Urological Association for advances in the field, the Ramon Guiteras Award for pioneering research in regenerative medicine and outstanding contributions as a scholar and teacher, the Innovation Award from the Society of Manufacturing Engineers for the creation of synthetic organs, and the Rocovich Gold Medal, awarded to a distinguished scientist who has made a major impact on science toward the understanding of human disease. In 2011 he was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Urology, Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

Robert Lanza

Robert Lanza
Robert Lanza, M.D. is currently Head of Astellas Global Regenerative Medicine, Chief Scientific Officer of AIRM and an adjunct professor at the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine. Time magazine recognized him as one of the “100 Most Influential People in the World,” and Prospect magazine named him one of the Top 50 “World Thinkers.” His research focuses on stem cells and their potential to provide therapies for some of the world's most deadly and debilitating conditions. He has hundreds of scientific publications and over 30 books, including definitive references in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. He is a former Fulbright Scholar, and studied with polio-pioneer Jonas Salk and Nobel laureates Gerald Edelman and Rodney Porter. He also worked closely (and co-authored a series of papers) with psychologist BF Skinner and heart transplant-pioneer Christiaan Barnard. Dr. Lanza received his undergraduate and medical degrees from the University of Pennsylvania, where he was both a University Scholar and Benjamin Franklin Scholar. Lanza was part of the team that cloned the world’s first human embryo, the first endangered species, and published the first-ever reports of pluripotent stem cell use in humans.

Affiliations and Expertise

Astellas Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Westborough, MA, USA

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