Table of Contents

  1. INTRODUCTION

2. DEVELOPMENT IN PETROLEUM REFINING
2.1. Conventional Refineries
2.2. Revamped conventional refineries
2.3. Advanced Refineries

3. HYDROPROCESSING OF PETROLEUM
3.1. Feeds for Hydroprocessing
3.1.1. Light feeds
3.1.2. Medium heavy feeds
3.1.3. Heavy and extra heavy feeds
3.2. Hydroprocessing reactions
3.3. Hydroprocessing Catalysts
3.3.1. Structure and chemical composition
3.3.1.1. Co(Ni)-Mo(W)-S phase
3.3.1.2. Brim site model
3.3.1.3. Co-Mo-S© phase
3.3.1.4. Effect of support
3.3.1.5. Physical properties
3.3.1.6.Improved hydroprocessing catalysts
3.4. Hydroprocessing Reactors and Processes
3.4.1. Fixed bed reactor systems
3.4.1.1. Unibon process
3.4.1.2. ARDS and Hyvahl processes
3.4.2. Moving and ebullated bed reactors.
3.4.3. Comparison of hydroprocessing reactors

4. CATALYST DEACTIVATION
4.1. Deactivation Due to Structural Change of Catalyst
4.2. Deactivation by Coke and Nitrogen Bases
4.3. Combined Effect of Coke and Metals on Deactivation
4.4. Effect of Temperature and Hydrogen Pressure
4.5. Effect of Mechanical Properties of Catalyst
4.6. Mechanism of Catalyst  Deactivation
4.6.1. Mechanism of coke formation
4.6.1.1. Chemical aspects
4.6.1.2. Physical aspects
4.6.2. Mechanism of metal deposition
4.6.2.1. Deposition of inorganic solids
4.6.2.2. Deposits of organometallic origin
4.6.2.2.1. Vanadium deposits
4.6.2.2.2. Nickel and mixed deposits
4.7. Modeling of Deactivation Process

5. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF SPENT HYDROPROCESSING CATALYSTS
5.1. Regulatory Affairs
5.1.1. Classification of spent hydroprocessing catalysts
5.1.2. Transportation of spent catalysts
5.1.3. Recycling and disposal of spent catalysts
5.1.4. Handling of Spent Catalysts on Refinery Site
5.1.5. Cradle-to-grave approach to spent catalyst management
5.2. Hazardous Characteristics of S

Details

No. of pages:
362
Language:
English
Copyright:
© 2010
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444535573
Print ISBN:
9780444535566
Print ISBN:
9780444602206

About the authors

Meena Marafi

Dr. Marafi received her Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from Aston University/England. Her areas of specialization include: petroleum refining/processes and catalysis, catalyst deactivation, regeneration, rejuvenation and recycling, crude oil assay, petroleum characterization and catalyst development. Dr. Marafi has over 88 publications, including, 2 books, 25 papers published in refereed journals, 25 papers presented in international/local conferences, and 36 reports (technical reports/final reports/progress reports related to projects carried out). Lead 14 contractual projects in the area of petroleum refining and catalysis.

Affiliations and Expertise

Petroleum Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait

Anthony Stanislaus

Dr. Stanislaus has over 30 years of research experience in catalysts and processes related to petroleum refining. His research experience includes: upgrading of petroleum residues by catalytic hydroprocessing, deep desulfurization and aromatics hydrogenation of diesel blending streams (clean fuels production), naphtha catalytic reforming for octane improvement, kinetics of hydrotreating reactions, catalyst deactivation and regeneration, spent catalyst reactivation and utilization, catalyst development, characterization, and performance testing. He has published over 100 scientific papers in International Journals and books.

Affiliations and Expertise

Petroleum Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait

Edward Furimsky

Dr. Furimsky has some forty years of research in the conversion of petroleum, coal and natural gas to various commercial products. The studies on upgrading petroleum feeds included hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, hydrodeoxygenation, catalyst deactivation and regeneration. The environmental and safety aspects as well as utilization options for spent refinery catalysts were part of the research as well. Scientific productivity includes two books, several book chapters and a dozen of reviews on various aspects of hydroprocessing catalysis, petroleum refining and utilization of refinery residues. Some 130 articles appeared in the referred scientific journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Scientific, IMAF Group, Canada