Table of Contents

  1. INTRODUCTION

2. DEVELOPMENT IN PETROLEUM REFINING
2.1. Conventional Refineries
2.2. Revamped conventional refineries
2.3. Advanced Refineries

3. HYDROPROCESSING OF PETROLEUM
3.1. Feeds for Hydroprocessing
3.1.1. Light feeds
3.1.2. Medium heavy feeds
3.1.3. Heavy and extra heavy feeds
3.2. Hydroprocessing reactions
3.3. Hydroprocessing Catalysts
3.3.1. Structure and chemical composition
3.3.1.1. Co(Ni)-Mo(W)-S phase
3.3.1.2. Brim site model
3.3.1.3. Co-Mo-S© phase
3.3.1.4. Effect of support
3.3.1.5. Physical properties
3.3.1.6.Improved hydroprocessing catalysts
3.4. Hydroprocessing Reactors and Processes
3.4.1. Fixed bed reactor systems
3.4.1.1. Unibon process
3.4.1.2. ARDS and Hyvahl processes
3.4.2. Moving and ebullated bed reactors.
3.4.3. Comparison of hydroprocessing reactors

4. CATALYST DEACTIVATION
4.1. Deactivation Due to Structural Change of Catalyst
4.2. Deactivation by Coke and Nitrogen Bases
4.3. Combined Effect of Coke and Metals on Deactivation
4.4. Effect of Temperature and Hydrogen Pressure
4.5. Effect of Mechanical Properties of Catalyst
4.6. Mechanism of Catalyst  Deactivation
4.6.1. Mechanism of coke formation
4.6.1.1. Chemical aspects
4.6.1.2. Physical aspects
4.6.2. Mechanism of metal deposition
4.6.2.1. Deposition of inorganic solids
4.6.2.2. Deposits of organometallic origin
4.6.2.2.1. Vanadium deposits
4.6.2.2.2. Nickel and mixed deposits
4.7. Modeling of Deactivation Process

5. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF SPENT HYDROPROCESSING CATALYSTS
5.1. Regulatory Affairs
5.1.1. Classification of spent hydroprocessing catalysts
5.1.2. Transportation of spent catalysts
5.1.3. Recycling and disposal of spent catalysts
5.1.4. Handling of Spent Catalysts on Refinery Site
5.1.5. Cradle-to-grave approach to spent catalyst management
5.2. Hazardous Characteristics of S

Details

No. of pages:
362
Language:
English
Copyright:
© 2010
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
Print ISBN:
9780444535566
Electronic ISBN:
9780444535573

About the authors

Meena Marafi

Affiliations and Expertise

Petroleum Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat 13109, Kuwait

Anthony Stanislaus

Affiliations and Expertise

Petroleum Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat 13109, Kuwait

Edward Furimsky

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Scientific, IMAF Group, Canada