Handbook of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts

Handbook of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts

Regeneration, Rejuvenation, Reclamation, Environment and Safety

1st Edition - June 7, 2010

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  • Authors: Meena Marafi, Anthony Stanislaus, Edward Furimsky
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444535573

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This handbook serves scientists and researchers interested in any aspect of spent hydroprocessing catalysts. Its aim is to assist in the analysis and assessment of refined catalyst byproducts and processing options, to determine whether spent catalysts can be processed into productive resources. For non-regenerable spent catalysts, the book takes into consideration both safety and ecological implications of utilizing landfill and other waste options.

Key Features

  • Provides comprehensive guidance and assistance to those making decisions on the fate of spent catalysts, radically improving strategic options for refining organisations
  • Offers solutions that maximize procedural, regulatory, safety, and preparedness benefits
  • Contains detailed information on hazardous characteristics of spent and regenerated catalysts with deployment recommendations, and acts as a benchmark document for establishing threshold limits of regulated species as well as for developing procedures for handling spent catalysts to ensure environmental acceptance


This work will be of interest to academic institutions specializing in petroleum research, petroleum companies, and petroleum research institutes, as well as to catalyst regenerators, catalyst manufacturers, metal reclaiming companies, and governments and agencies involved in regulatory affairs.

Table of Contents


    2.1. Conventional Refineries
    2.2. Revamped conventional refineries
    2.3. Advanced Refineries

    3.1. Feeds for Hydroprocessing
    3.1.1. Light feeds
    3.1.2. Medium heavy feeds
    3.1.3. Heavy and extra heavy feeds
    3.2. Hydroprocessing reactions
    3.3. Hydroprocessing Catalysts
    3.3.1. Structure and chemical composition Co(Ni)-Mo(W)-S phase Brim site model Co-Mo-S© phase Effect of support Physical properties hydroprocessing catalysts
    3.4. Hydroprocessing Reactors and Processes
    3.4.1. Fixed bed reactor systems Unibon process ARDS and Hyvahl processes
    3.4.2. Moving and ebullated bed reactors.
    3.4.3. Comparison of hydroprocessing reactors

    4.1. Deactivation Due to Structural Change of Catalyst
    4.2. Deactivation by Coke and Nitrogen Bases
    4.3. Combined Effect of Coke and Metals on Deactivation
    4.4. Effect of Temperature and Hydrogen Pressure
    4.5. Effect of Mechanical Properties of Catalyst
    4.6. Mechanism of Catalyst  Deactivation
    4.6.1. Mechanism of coke formation Chemical aspects Physical aspects
    4.6.2. Mechanism of metal deposition Deposition of inorganic solids Deposits of organometallic origin Vanadium deposits Nickel and mixed deposits
    4.7. Modeling of Deactivation Process

    5.1. Regulatory Affairs
    5.1.1. Classification of spent hydroprocessing catalysts
    5.1.2. Transportation of spent catalysts
    5.1.3. Recycling and disposal of spent catalysts
    5.1.4. Handling of Spent Catalysts on Refinery Site
    5.1.5. Cradle-to-grave approach to spent catalyst management
    5.2. Hazardous Characteristics of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts
    5.2.1. Exposure to air
    5.2.2. Reactions of air with coke
    5.2.3. Reactions of air with catalyst
    5.2.4. Leachability
    5.3. Pretreatment of Spent Catalysts for Disposal

    6.1. Regenerability of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts
    6.2. Oxidative Regeneration
    6.2.1. Mechanism of oxidative regeneration Oxidation of coke Involvement of metals
    6.2.2. Kinetics of oxidative regeneration Chemically controlled kinetics Diffusion controlled kinetics
    6.2.3. Modeling of oxidative regeneration
    6.2.4. Characterization of regenerated catalyst Surface properties Activity of regenerated catalysts Chemical structure
    6.2.5. Safety and environmental aspects of oxidative regeneration
    6.2.6. Other oxidation agents
    6.3. Other Regeneration Methods
    6.3.1. Regeneration in H2O and CO2
    6.3.2. Regeneration with nitrogen oxides
    6.3.3. Reactivation
    6.3.4. Regeneration Aided by Radiation Treatment
    6.3.5. Reductive Regeneration
    6.3.6. Regeneration by Attrition and Abrasion
    6.3.7. Resulfiding of Regenerated Catalysts
    6.4. Industrial Regeneration
    6.4.1. In-situ regeneration
    6.4.2. Off-site regeneration
    6.4.3. Mechanical separation of spent catalysts
    6.4.4. Commercial regeneration processes Porocel-Belt regeneration process TRICAT regeneration process Eurecat process REACT process ReFRESH process Rotary kilns
    6.4.5. Comparison of regeneration processes

    7.1. Organic Agents
    7.1.1. Mechanism of rejuvenation by organic agents
    7.1.2. Kinetics of rejuvenation
    7.1.3. Emissions from rejuvenation by organic agents Gaseous emissions Liquid emissions Solid emissions
    7.1.4. Rejuvenation process design De-oiling Mechanical separation Metals leaching process Decoking of leached catalysts Other auxiliary processes Design basis
    7.2. Inorganic Agents
    7.2.1. Acidic agents
    7.2.2. Basic agents
    7.2.3. Environmental and safety aspects
    7.3. Solvent Extraction
    7.4. Bio-rejuvenation
    7.5. Non-Leaching Methods for Contaminant Metals Removal

    8.1. Cascading of Spent Catalysts
    8.2. Cascading of Regenerated Catalysts
    8.3. Cascading of Rejuvenated Catalysts

    9.1. Petroleum Applications
    9.1.1. Reprocessing Procedure and analysis Testing of coprocessed catalysts Effect of hydrothermal treatment on reprocessed catalysts
    9.1.2. Other preparation methods
    9.1.3. Spent catalysts in slurry bed hydrocracking
    9.2. Catalysts for Non-Petroleum Applications
    9.3. Gas Treatment Sorbents
    9.4. Preparation of Useful Materials from Spent Catalysts
    9.4.1. Utilization in cement industry
    9.4.2. Waster water treatment
    9.4.3. Other materials
    9.4.4. Abrasives and alloys
    9.4.5. Ceramic materials
    9.4.6. Synthetic aggregates
    9.4.7. Bricks production

    10.1. Conventional Catalysts
    10.2. Dewaxing catalysts
    10.2.1. Composition of dewaxing catalysts
    10.2.2. Deactivation
    10.2.3. Environmental and safety aspects
    10.2.4. Regeneration
    10.2.5. Metal reclamation

    11.1. Laboratory Studies on Metal Reclamation from Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts
    11.1.1. Leaching studies Leaching with ammonia and ammonium salts solution Leaching with acids Inorganic acids Organic acids Alkali leaching Two-stage leaching Bio-leaching
    11.1.2. Roasting with Alkali Compounds Roasting with sodium salts Roasting with potassium salts
    11.1.3. Chlorination
    11.1.4. Metal recovery by carbothermic treatment
    11.1.5. Metal recovery using electrolytic cells
    11.1.6. Metal recovery by applying thermal plasma
    11.1.7. Summary of laboratory studies
    11.2. Separation of Metals from Solutions
    11.3. Commercial Processes
    11.3.1. Gulf Chemical & Metallurgical Process
    11.3.2. CRI-MET Process
    11.3.3. EURECAT  Process
    11.3.4. Taiyo Koko Company Process
    11.3.5. Full Yield Industry Process
    11.3.6. Moxba-Metrex Process
    11.3.7. Quanzhuo Jing-Tai Industry Process
    11.3.8. Metallurg Vanadium Process
    11.3.9. German Process
    11.3.10. NIPPON Catalyst Cycle Process
    12.1. Molybdenum
    12.2. Tungsten
    12.3. Nickel
    12.4. Cobalt
    12.5. Vanadium
    12.6. Alumina




Product details

  • No. of pages: 362
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2010
  • Published: June 7, 2010
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444535573

About the Authors

Meena Marafi

Dr. Marafi received her Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from Aston University/England. Her areas of specialization include: petroleum refining/processes and catalysis, catalyst deactivation, regeneration, rejuvenation and recycling, crude oil assay, petroleum characterization and catalyst development. Dr. Marafi has over 88 publications, including, 2 books, 25 papers published in refereed journals, 25 papers presented in international/local conferences, and 36 reports (technical reports/final reports/progress reports related to projects carried out). Lead 14 contractual projects in the area of petroleum refining and catalysis.

Affiliations and Expertise

Petroleum Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait

Anthony Stanislaus

Dr. Stanislaus has over 30 years of research experience in catalysts and processes related to petroleum refining. His research experience includes: upgrading of petroleum residues by catalytic hydroprocessing, deep desulfurization and aromatics hydrogenation of diesel blending streams (clean fuels production), naphtha catalytic reforming for octane improvement, kinetics of hydrotreating reactions, catalyst deactivation and regeneration, spent catalyst reactivation and utilization, catalyst development, characterization, and performance testing. He has published over 100 scientific papers in International Journals and books.

Affiliations and Expertise

Petroleum Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait

Edward Furimsky

Dr. Furimsky has some forty years of research in the conversion of petroleum, coal and natural gas to various commercial products. The studies on upgrading petroleum feeds included hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, hydrodeoxygenation, catalyst deactivation and regeneration. The environmental and safety aspects as well as utilization options for spent refinery catalysts were part of the research as well. Scientific productivity includes two books, several book chapters and a dozen of reviews on various aspects of hydroprocessing catalysis, petroleum refining and utilization of refinery residues. Some 130 articles appeared in the referred scientific journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Scientific, IMAF Group, Canada

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