Handbook of Process Integration (PI)

Handbook of Process Integration (PI)

Minimisation of Energy and Water Use, Waste and Emissions

2nd Edition - September 1, 2022

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  • Editor: Jiri Klemes
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128238509

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Handbook of Process Integration (PI): Minimisation of Energy and Water Use, Waste and Emissions, Second Edition provides an up-to-date guide on the latest PI research and applications. Since the first edition published, methodologies and sustainability targets have developed considerably. Each chapter has been fully updated, with six new chapters added in this release, covering emissions, transport, water scarcity, reliability and maintenance, environmental impact and circular economy. This version also now includes worked examples and simulations to deepen the reader’s understanding. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, this book is an important reference work for managers and researchers in all energy and sustainability industries, as well as academics and students in Energy, Chemical, Process, and Environmental Engineering.

Key Features

  • Provides a fully updated handbook with six new chapters that reflect the latest research and applications on process integration
  • Reviews a wide range of process design and integration topics, ranging from heat and utility systems to water, recycling, waste and hydrogen systems
  • Covers equipment design and operability issues, with a strong extension to environmental engineering and suitability issues


Energy and environmental consultants, researchers and managers; Chemical and industrial process engineers and manufacturers New audience for this edition: strong extension to environmental engineering and environmentalists

Table of Contents

  • Part I: Overview of Process Integration and Analysis
    Chapter 1: Process Integration (PI): An Introduction
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 A Short History of Process Integration (PI)
    1.3 Current Centres of Expertise in PI
    1.4 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 2: Basic Process Integration Terminology
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Process Integration Terms: The Importance of Context
    2.3 Fundamental Process Integration Terms
    2.4 Conventions: Symbols for Heaters and Coolers
    2.6 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 3: Process Design, Integration and Optimisation: Advantages, Challenges and Drivers
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Grassroots Design versus Retrofit Design
    3.3 Process Integration
    3.4 Integration versus Intensification
    3.5 Process Integration Techniques
    3.6 Optimisation of Integrated Processes
    3.7 Controllability of Integrated Processes
    3.8 Process Integration under Disturbances

    Part II: Heat Integration
    Chapter 4: Heat Integration: Targets and Heat Exchanger Network Design
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Stages in the Design of Heat Recovery Systems
    4.3 Data Extraction
    4.4 Performance Targets
    4.5 Process Modifications
    4.6 Network Design
    4.7 Design Evolution
    4.8 Conclusion
    4.9 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 5: Application of Process Integration to the Synthesis of Heat and Power Utility Systems Including Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and Industrial Heat Pumps
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Targeting Utility Loads and Temperature Levels
    5.3 Integration of Advanced Energy Conversion Cycles as Process Utilities: Basic Concepts
    5.4 Process Integration of Heat Engines
    5.5 Process Integration of Heat Pumps
    5.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice

    Chapter 6: Total Site Methodology
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Data Extraction for Total Sites
    6.3 Total Site Profiles and Total Site Composite Curves
    6.4 Site Utility Grand Composite Curve (SUGCC)
    6.5 Conclusion
    6.6 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 7: Extending Total Site Methodology to Address Varying Energy Supply and Demand
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Characteristics of Energy Supply and Demand
    7.3 Thermal Energy Storage and Integrated Architecture
    7.4 Terminology for Process Streams and Utilities
    7.5 Identification of Time Slices
    7.6 Heat Cascades for the Evaluation of Total Site Targets When There Is Variation in Supply and Demand
    7.7 Case Study: Integration of Solar Thermal Energy into a Locally Integrated Energy Sector (LIES)
    7.8 Conclusion
    7.9 Sources of Further Information
    7.11 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 8: Analysis and Design of Heat Recovery Systems for Grassroots and Retrofit Situations
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Extended Procedures for Grassroots Analysis
    8.3 Extended Procedures for Grassroots Design
    8.4 Retrofit Analysis and Design
    8.5 Use of Optimisation for Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis
    8.6 Conclusion
    8.7 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 9: Heat Integration in Batch Processes
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Graphical Technique for Heat Integration in Batch Process
    9.3 Mathematical Technique for Heat Integration of Batch Plants
    9.4 Case Study of a Multipurpose Batch Facility
    9.5 Industrial Case Study
    9.6 Conclusion
    9.7 Sources of Further Information
    9.9 Appendix: Glover Transformation (Glover, 1975)

    Part III: Mass Integration
    Chapter 10: Water Pinch Analysis for Water Management and Minimisation: An Introduction
    10.1 Approaches for Water Management and Minimisation
    10.2 Water Integration and Water Pinch Analysis
    10.3 Water Pinch Analysis Steps
    10.4 Examples of Successful Case Studies
    10.7 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 11: Using Systematic Design Methods to Minimise Water Use in Process Industries
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Water Use in Process Industries
    11.3 Process Integration for Water Systems
    11.4 Conclusions and Future Trends
    11.5 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 12: Synthesis of Water Networks with Water Loss and Gain via an Extended Pinch Analysis Technique
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Targeting a Single Water-Using Process
    12.3 Process-based Graphical Approach (PGA) for Synthesis of Direct Reuse Water Networks
    12.4 Conclusion
    12.5 Sources of Further Information and Advice
    12.6 Acknowledgements
    12.8 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 13: Conserving Material Resources through Process Integration: Material Conservation Networks
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Overall Targeting of Material Conservation Networks
    13.3 Mass Exchange Networks
    13.4 Water-Pinch Analysis
    13.5 Direct Recycle and Material Recycle Pinch Diagram
    13.6 Property-Based Material Recycle Pinch Diagram
    13.8 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Part IV: Extended Process Integration
    Chapter 14: Process Integration for Cleaner Process Design
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 A Revised ‘Onion Diagram’
    14.3 Different Models for Total Material Network (TMN)
    14.4 Case Study: Water Minimisation in a Water Fabrication Plant
    14.5 Conclusion
    14.6 Sources of Further Information
    14.8 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 15: Process Integration Concepts for Combined Energy and Water Integration
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Water–Energy Specifics and Challenges
    15.3 Water Path Concept
    15.4 State-of-the-Art Methodology for Combined Energy and Water Integration
    15.5 Sequential, Simultaneous, Mathematical Programming
    15.6 Conclusion
    15.7 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 16: Process Integration Techniques for Cogeneration and Trigeneration Systems
    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 Combined Heat and Power
    16.3 Heat Integration of Trigeneration Systems
    16.4 Conclusions
    16.5 Sources of Further Information
    16.7 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 17: Pinch Analysis for Sustainable Energy Planning Using Diverse Quality Measures
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Generalised Problem Statement
    17.3 Graphical Targeting Procedure
    17.4 Case Studies
    17.5 Conclusion
    17.6 Sources of Further Information
    17.8 Appendix

    Chapter 18: A Unified Targeting Algorithm for Diverse Process Integration Problems
    18.1 Introduction to Targeting Algorithms
    18.2 Unified Approach to Diverse Resource Optimisation Problems
    18.3 Basis for Unification
    18.4 Unified Targeting Algorithm (UTA)
    18.5 Heat Exchange Networks (HENs) and Mass Exchange Networks (MENs)
    18.6 Water Networks: Case Study of a Specialty Chemical Plant
    18.7 Hydrogen and Other Gas Networks
    18.8 Property-Based Material Reuse Networks
    18.9 Alternative Approaches to Targeting
    18.10 Conclusion
    18.11 Sources of Further Information
    18.13 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 19: A Process Integration Approach for Supply Chain Development
    19.1 Introduction
    19.2 Supply Chain Characteristics and Performance Measurement
    19.3 Supply Chain Development with Process Integration
    19.4 Case Studies
    19.5 Future Trends
    19.6 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 20: Application of Heat Recovery Loops to Semi-continuous Processes for Process Integration
    20.1 Introduction
    20.2 Indirect Heat Recovery Systems
    20.3 Application of Heat Recovery Loops to Semi-continuous Plants
    20.4 A More Complex Example of a Heat Recovery Loop (HRL)
    20.5 Case Study: Semi-continuous Multi-plant Dairy Factory
    20.6 Conclusions and Future Trends
    20.7 Sources of Further Information

    Part V: Applications and Case Studies
    Chapter 21: Applications of Energy and Water Process Integration Methodologies in Oil Refineries and Petrochemical Complexes
    21.1 Introduction
    21.2 Heat and Power Integration
    21.3 Water and Wastewater Minimisation
    Results and Discussion
    Results and Discussion
    21.4 Effluent Treatment and Regeneration
    Results and Discussion
    Results and Discussion
    21.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 22: Process Integration of an Oil Refinery Hydrogen Network
    22.1 Introduction
    22.2 Technology Review
    22.3 An Industrial Case Study
    22.4 Hydrogen Management in the Wider Context of Process Integration: Future Trends
    22.5 Conclusion
    22.6 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 23: Retrofit Mass Integration of Acid Gas Removal Systems in Petrochemical Plants
    23.1 Introduction
    23.2 Review of Previous Work on Mass Exchanger Network Synthesis (MENS) and Retrofit of Existing Systems
    23.3 Systems Studied: Venturi Scrubber System and Ethanolamine Absorber System
    23.4 Pinch Approach
    23.5 Hybrid Approach
    23.6 Solution Equilibria
    23.7 Results and Discussion
    23.8 Conclusions and Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 24: Applications of Pinch Technology to Total Sites: A Heavy Chemical Industrial Complex and a Steel Plant
    24.1 Introduction
    24.2 Case Study of a Heavy Chemical Complex
    24.3 Case Study of a Steel Plant
    24.4 Conclusion
    24.5 Sources of Further Information
    24.6 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 25: Applications of Process Integration Methodologies in the Pulp and Paper Industry
    25.1 Introduction
    25.2 Energy Demands and Sources in the Kraft Pulping Process
    25.3 Relations between the Heat Exchanger and Water Networks
    25.4 Increasing Energy Efficiency in Existing Mills
    25.5 Methodological Developments for Heat Integration in Existing Mills
    25.6 Evolution of Pulp and Paper Mills
    25.7 Conclusion
    25.8 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 26: Application of Process Integration Methodologies to the Thermal Processing of Waste
    26.1 Introduction
    26.2 Types of Waste Thermal Processing Plants
    26.3 Analysis of Energy Efficiency in the TERMIZO Plant
    26.4 Application of Heat Integration Technology
    26.5 Conclusion
    26.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice

    Chapter 27: Application of Process Integration Methodologies in the Brewing Industry
    27.1 Introduction
    27.2 Process Flowsheet Analysis
    27.3 Calculating Maximum Heat Recovery in the System
    27.4 Defining the Energy Conversion System
    27.5 Conclusion
    27.6 Sources of Further Information
    27.8 Appendix A: Complementary Tables
    27.9 Appendix B: Nomenclature

    Chapter 28: Applications of Process Integration Methodologies in Dairy and Cheese Production
    28.1 Introduction
    28.2 Application of Process Integration Methodologies
    28.3 Selected Case Studies
    28.4 Future Trends
    28.5 Sources of Further Information

    Chapter 29: Applications of Process Integration Methodologies in Beet Sugar Plants
    29.1 Introduction
    29.2 Sugar Production from Sugar Beet
    29.3 Identification of Opportunities to Improve Energy and Water Use in Sugar Plants
    29.4 Reduction of Energy Consumption
    29.5 Reduction of Water Consumption
    29.6 Energy and Water Use in Sugar Production Directly from Raw Beet Juice
    29.7 Future Trends
    29.8 Sources of Further Information and Advice

    Chapter 30: Application of Process Integration Techniques for the Efficient Use of Energy in a Urea Fertiliser Plant: A Case Study
    30.1 Introduction
    30.2 Process Description
    30.3 Opportunities for the Reduction of Energy Consumption
    30.4 Conclusion
    30.5 Sources of Further Information
    30.7 Appendix: Nomenclature

    Chapter 31: Process Integration for Energy Saving in Buildings and Building Complexes
    31.1 Introduction
    31.2 Buildings as Consumers and Producers of Energy
    31.3 Commercial and Public Buildings and Building Complexes
    31.4 District Energy (DE) Systems and Total Site Analysis (TSA)
    31.5 The Use of Industrial Waste Heat
    31.6 Renewable Energy for Buildings
    31.7 Conclusion
    31.8 Sources of Further Information and Advice

    Chapter 32: Heat Transfer Enhancement in Heat Exchanger Networks
    32.1 Introduction to Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
    32.2 Heat Transfer Enhancement Techniques
    32.3 Heat Transfer Enhancement in Heat Exchanger Network Retrofit
    32.4 Heat Transfer Enhancement in Heat Exchanger Network Retrofit with Fouling Consideration
    32.5 Sources of Further Information
    32.6 Nomenclature

    Chapter 33: Applications of Pinch Analysis in the Design of Isolated Energy Systems
    33.1 Introduction
    33.2 Isolated Energy Systems: Descriptions and Models
    33.3 Grand Composite Curve and Storage Sizing
    33.4 Design Space
    33.5 Illustrative Applications
    33.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice

    Part VI: Software Tools and Epilogue
    Chapter 34: Software Tools for Heat Integration
    34.1 Heat Integration Software Tools
    34.2 Sources of Further Information and Advice
    Chapter 35: Mass and Water Integration Software Tools
    35.1 Mass and Water Integration Software Tools
    35.2 Sources of Further Information and Advice
    Chapter 36: Epilogue: The Importance of Problem Formulation and Data Extraction in Process Integration
    36.1 Introduction: Process Integration – from its Roots to its Present Strong Position
    36.2 Successful Applications of Process Integration
    36.3 Methods of Obtaining Credible High Integration HI Solutions
    36.4 Data Extraction
    36.5 Integration of Renewables – Fluctuating Demand and Supply
    36.6 Results Interpretation
    36.7 Conclusion: Making It Happen
    36.8 Sources of Further Information
    36.9 Acknowledgements

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1184
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2022
  • Published: September 1, 2022
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128238509

About the Editor

Jiri Klemes

Jiri Klemes
Prof Dr-Hab Jiří Jaromír KLEMEŠ, DSc, Dr h c (mult) and George Pólya Professor. Head of a Centre of Excellence “Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory – SPIL”, NETME Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology - VUT Brno, Czech Republic. Previously the Project Director, Senior Project Officer and Hon Reader at Department of Process Integration at UMIST, The University of Manchester and the University of Edinburgh, UK Founder and a long-term Head of the Centre for Process Integration and Intensification – CPI2, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary. Awarded by the EC with Marie Curie Chair of Excellence (EXC). Track record of managing and coordinating 97 major EC, NATO, bilateral and UK Know-How projects. Research funding attracted over 46 M€. Co-Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Cleaner Production (IF 2020 = 9.297) and Chemical Engineering Transactions, Editor in Chief Cleaner Technologies and Engineering and Cleaner Chemical Engineering (Elsevier); Subject Editor of Energy (IF 2020 = 7.147) Managing Guest Editor of Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (IF 2020 = 14.982). The founder and President of 25 y of PRES (Process Integration for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction) conferences. Seven years Chairperson of CAPE Working Party of European Federation of Chemical Engineering, a member of WP on Process Intensification. A Member of the IChemE, UK, Sargent Medal International Committee on CAPE. Awarded by the Web of Science and Publons as a Highly Cited Researcher, Top Peer Reviewer and Top Handling Editor. He authored and co-authored 792 papers (WoS) in 106 scientific journals, h-index in Google Scholar 78, Scopus 67, PUBLONS (WoS) 61. His Publons profile (Web of Science) has 2,552 reviews for 186 scientific journals and 17,020 Editor Merits for 24 Editorial boards. Invited lecturer at 68 universities, 14 Distinguished Visiting Professor, 6 Doctor Honoris causa, 36 PhD students, 44 Expert Evaluator. Invited lecturer at 52 universities world-wide including Cornell, Ithaca, and North-West University Chicago, USA; Fudan University and SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Shanghai; Tsinghua and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Xi’an Jiaotong University, China; Hong-Kong Polytechnic University; National Chengchi University and National Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan; Hanyang University, and Korea Universities, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, Imperial College, London, UK; Norwegian University of Science and Technology – NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; Tomsk Technological University, Tomsk, Russian Federation; S. Amanzholov East Kazakhstan State University, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan; University of Paderborn and Bayer Technology Services GmbH, Leverkusen and BASF Board of Directors Forum on Process Technology, Ludwigshafen, Germany; VTT Energy, Finland; VITO MOL, Belgium: MOL Hungarian Oil Company, DUSLO Šala, Slovakia, TNO Leiden, Groningen, Zeist and Eindhoven; Utrecht and Delft University, the Netherlands; University Politechnica Leonardo da Vinci, Milano, Università degli studi di Genova and Sapienza, Rome, Italy; Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia; King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Oporto, Portugal, CEA Grenoble, France; Charmers and Stockholm University, Sweden. Several times Distinguished Visiting Professor incl Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and University Technology Petronas, Malaysia; Xi’an Jiaotong University; the South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University Suzhou, JiangSu, and Tianjin University in China; University of Maribor, Slovenia; the Brno University of Technology, the Russian Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, Moscow and Cracow University of Technology, Poland. Doctor Honoris Causa of Kharkiv National University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, Ukraine, the University of Maribor, Slovenia, University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Romania, Széchenyi István University Györ, Hungary and “Honorary Doctor of Engineering” Universiti Teknologi Malaysia”. Awarded with “Honorary Membership of Czech Society of Chemical Engineering”, “European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE) Life-Time Achievements Award” and “Pro Universitaire Pannonica” Gold Medal.

Affiliations and Expertise

Head of Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory (SPIL) NETME CENTRE, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering BRNO UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY - VUT Brno Czech Republic

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