Handbook of Nucleating Agents

Handbook of Nucleating Agents

2nd Edition - January 25, 2021

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  • Author: George Wypych
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781927885819

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Handbook of Nucleating Agents, Second Edition gives engineers and materials scientists the information they need to increase the production rate, modify structure and morphology, improve mechanical performance, and reduce the haze of polymeric products through proper selection of nucleating agents (and/or the so-called clarifying agents). The book analyzes the existing literature paying special attention to recent developments, and is divided into 14 chapters, each of which concentrates on essential performances of nucleating agents. Chemical origin and related properties of nucleating agents are analyzed in general terms to highlight the differences in their properties and the book also provides the most essential theoretical knowledge required for proper selection and use of nucleating and clarifying agents. This includes polymer crystallization with and without nucleating agents, parameters of crystallization, essential influences on the nucleation processes, the measures of nucleation efficiency, the mechanisms of nucleation, and the effective methods of dispersion of nucleating agents. Later chapters concentrate on the application aspects in different formulations, outlining nineteen polymer processing methods which require use of nucleating agents, forty different polymers which are known to use nucleating agents, and sixteen applied examples of commercial products with nucleating agents. The final three chapters discuss the effects of nucleating agents on physical and mechanical properties of materials, the most essential analytical techniques, and health and safety in use of nucleating agents.

Key Features

  • Enables engineers to use nucleating agents more effectively to increase production rate, modify structure and morphology, and reduce haze of polymer products
  • Provides a theoretical grounding required for proper selection and use of nucleating and clarifying agents
  • Offers an extensive review of current applications of nucleating agents in different formulations
  • Includes analysis of the chemical origin and related properties of nucleating agents to highlight differences in their properties


Researchers in materials science and engineering; professional material scientists and engineers
Secondary audience: Grad students and professors

Table of Contents

  • 1 Introduction
    2 Chemical Origin of Nucleating Agents
    2.1 Acids
    2.2 Amides
    2.3 Carbon nanotubes
    2.4 Graphene derivatives
    2.5 Hydrazides
    2.6 Inorganic materials
    2.6.1 Boron nitride
    2.6.2 Calcium carbonate
    2.6.3 Hydroxides and oxides
    2.6.4 Silica
    2.6.5 Talc
    2.6.6 Others
    2.7 Masterbatch
    2.8 Phosphate salts
    2.9 Polymeric
    2.10 Proprietary nucleating agents
    2.11 Renewable resouce
    2.12 Salts of carboxylic acids
    2.13 Sorbitol derivatives
    2.14 Xylan esters
    2.15 Other nucleating agents
    3 Polymer Crystallization with and without Nucleating Agents
    4 Parameters of Crystallization
    5 What Influences Nucleation?
    5.1 Concentration
    5.2 Solubility of nucleating agent in polymer
    5.3 Shear rate and time
    5.4 Form of nucleating agent
    5.5 Mixtures of nucleating agents
    6 Nucleation Efficiency Measures
    6.1 Nuclei density
    6.2 Nucleation activity and constant
    6.3 Nucleation efficiency
    6.4 Activation energy
    7 Mechanisms of Crystallization
    8 Dispersion of Nucleating Agents
    9 Nucleating Agents in Different Processing Methods
    9.1 Blow molding
    9.2 Blown film extrusion
    9.3 Calendering
    9.4 Compression molding
    9.5 Dip coating
    9.6 Extrusion
    9.7 Foaming
    9.8 Hot-melt coating
    9.9 Injection molding
    9.10 Micro-injection molding
    9.11 Powder injection molding
    9.12 Pultrusion
    9.13 Reaction injection molding
    9.14 Rotational molding
    9.15 Sheet molding
    9.16 Spinning
    9.17 Thermoforming
    9.18 Welding and machining
    9.19 Wire coating
    10 Application of Nucleating Agents in Specific Polymers
    10.1 Poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene)
    10.2 Cellulose acetate
    10.3 Epoxy resin
    10.4 Ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer 
    10.5 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer
    10.6 Fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer
    10.7 Liquid crystalline polymer
    10.8 Polyamide
    10.9 Poly(acrylic acid)
    10.10 Polyacrylonitrile
    10.11 Polyaniline
    10.12 Poly(butylene terephthalate)
    10.13 Polycarbonate
    10.14 Poly(-caprolactone)
    10.15 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
    10.16 Polyethylene
    10.17 Polyetheretherketone
    10.18 Polyetherketoneketone
    10.19 Poly(ethylene oxide)
    10.20 Poly(ether sulfone)
    10.21 Poly(ethylene terephthalate)
    10.22 Polyethylene, silane-crosslinkable
    10.23 Poly(glycolic acid)
    10.24 Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)
    10.25 Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)
    10.26 Polyimide
    10.27 Poly(lactic acid)
    10.28 Polyoxymethylene
    10.29 Polypropylene
    10.30 Polyphthalamide
    10.31 Poly(p-phenylene sulfide)
    10.32 Polystyrene
    10.33 Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)
    10.34 Polyurethane
    10.35 Poly(vinyl alcohol)
    10.36 Poly(vinylidene fluoride)
    10.37 Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)
    10.38 Poly(vinyl fluoride)
    10.39 Poly(N-vinyl carbazole)
    10.40 Unsaturated polyester
    11 Nucleating Agents in Various Products
    11.1 Adhesives
    11.2 Aerospace
    11.3 Appliances
    11.4 Automotive materials
    11.5 Bottles
    11.6 Building construction
    11.7 Cable & wire
    11.8 Coatings & paints
    11.9 Electronics and electrical
    11.10 Fibers
    11.11 Films
    11.12 Medical applications
    11.13 Pharmaceutical applications
    11.14 Railway
    11.15 Roofing
    11.16 Window profiles
    12 Effect of Nucleating Agents on Physical-mechanical Properties
    12.1 Physical properties
    12.1.1 Agglomeration
    12.1.2 Aspect ratio
    12.1.3 Crystalline structure
    12.1.4 Hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties
    12.1.5 Melting temperature
    12.1.6 Moisture
    12.1.7 Optical properties
    12.1.8 Particle size
    12.1.9 Refractive index 
    12.1.10 Shape memory
    12.1.11 Solubility
    12.1.12 Surface energy
    12.1.13 Thermal conductivity
    12.1.14 Transition temperature
    12.1.15 Zeta potential
    12.2 Mechanical properties
    12.2.1 Flexural strength
    12.2.2 Hardness
    12.2.3 Impact strength
    12.2.4 Residual stress
    12.2.5 Scratch resistance
    12.2.6 Shrinkage
    12.2.7 Tear strength
    12.2.8 Thermal deformation
    12.2.9 Tensile strength
    13 Important Analytical Methods Used in the Studies of Nucleating Agents
    13.1 Crystallinity
    13.2 Crystallization half-time
    13.3 Differential scanning calorimetry
    13.4 Fast scanning chip calorimetry
    13.5 FTIR
    13.6 Haze
    13.7 Orientation degree
    13.8 Polarized light microscopy
    13.9 Quenching device
    13.10 Small angle x-ray diffraction
    13.11 Spherulite size
    13.12 Thermogravimetric analysis
    13.13 Vicat softening temperature
    13.14 Wide angle x-ray diffraction
    14 Health and Safety with Nucleating Agents

Product details

  • No. of pages: 288
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © ChemTec Publishing 2021
  • Published: January 25, 2021
  • Imprint: ChemTec Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781927885819

About the Author

George Wypych

George Wypych has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research and development. He has published 18 books, 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings.

Affiliations and Expertise

ChemTec Publishing, Ontario, Canada

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