Handbook of Membrane Reactors - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857094155, 9780857097347

Handbook of Membrane Reactors

1st Edition

Reactor Types and Industrial Applications

Editors: Angelo Basile
eBook ISBN: 9780857097347
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857094155
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 4th April 2013
Page Count: 968
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

Foreword

Preface

Part I: Selected types of membrane reactor and integration with industrial processes

Chapter 1: Engineering aspects of membrane bioreactors

Abstract:

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Biocatalysts and their immobilization

1.3 Membranes as enzyme supports and for downstream processing

1.4 Membrane bioreactor configurations

1.5 Modelling and simulation: kinetics of enzyme reactions

1.6 Transport phenomena and the effectiveness of immobilized biocatalysts

1.7 Productivity of membrane bioreactors

1.8 Applications of membrane bioreactors

1.9 Conclusions and future trends

1.11 Appendix: nomenclature

Chapter 2: Membrane contactors: fundamentals, membrane materials and key operations

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Membranes for membrane contactors: techniques of fabrication

2.3 Membrane distillation (MD) technique: membranes and modules

2.4 Membrane distillation configurations

2.5 Heat and mass transport

2.6 Applications of membrane distillation in membrane bioreactors

2.7 Osmotic membrane distillation (OMD)

2.8 Membrane crystallisation

2.9 Conclusions and future trends

2.11 Appendix: nomenclature

Chapter 3: Pervaporation membrane reactors

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 The basic concepts of integrated pervaporation – reaction processes

3.3 Classification of pervaporation membrane reactors

3.4 Overview of pervaporation membrane reactor applications

3.5 Conclusions and future trends

3.7 Appendix: nomenclature

Chapter 4: Multi-phase catalytic membrane reactors

Abstract:

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Contact modalities in multi-phase catalytic membrane reactors

4.3 Multi-phase membrane reactors: fundamental concepts, modelling and operations

4.4 Materials and catalytic membranes for membrane reactors

4.5 Typical reactions with three-phase membrane reactors

4.6 Conclusion and future trends

4.8 Appendix: nomenclature

Chapter 5: Microreactors and membrane microreactors: fabrication and applications

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Microreactors

5.3 Microreactor design and fabrication methods

5.4 Micromembranes

5.5 Catalyst coating techniques and hydrogen production in microreactors

5.6 An overview of membrane microreactors

5.7 Conclusions and future trends

5.9 Appendix: nomenclature

Chapter 6: Photocatalytic membrane reactors: fundamentals, membrane materials and operational issues

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Physico-chemical and photocatalytic properties of semiconductor materials

6.3 Heterogeneous photoreactors and photocatalytic systems

6.4 Materials and design of photocatalytic membranes

6.5 Polymeric membranes

6.7 Photocatalytic membrane reactors with suspended photocatalyst

6.8 Conclusions and future trends

6.10 Appendix: nomenclature

6.10.2 Abbreviations

Chapter 7: Integrating different membrane operations and combining membranes with conventional separation techniques in industrial processes

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Water desalination

7.3 Wastewater treatment

7.4 Agro-food production

7.5 Polymeric membranes for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants

7.6 Integration of a membrane reactor with a fuel cell

7.7 Solar membrane reformer

7.8 Membrane integrated system in the fusion reactor fuel cycle

7.9 Conclusions and future trends

7.11 Appendices

Part II: Membrane reactors in chemical and large-scale hydrogen production from fossil fuels

Chapter 8: Applications of dense ceramic membrane reactors in selected oxidation and dehydrogenation processes for chemical production

Abstract:

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Oxygen-permeable membrane reactors

8.3 Hydrogen permeable membrane reactors

8.4 Conclusions and future trends

8.5 Acknowledgements

8.7 Appendix: nomenclature

Chapter 9: Chlor-alkali technology: fundamentals, processes and materials for diaphragms and membranes

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Main electrolysis technologies

9.3 Diaphragms

9.4 Membranes

9.5 Improved electrolysis concepts

9.6 Conclusions and future trends

9.7 Sources of further information

9.9 Appendix: nomenclature

Greek symbols

Subscripts and superscripts

9.9.2 Abbreviations

Chapter 10: Use of membranes in systems for electric energy and hydrogen production from fossil fuels

Abstract:

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Reference fossil-fuel-based technologies for hydrogen production and large-scale power generation

10.3 Commercially ready technologies for CO2 capture from reference plants

10.4 Integration of membranes in plants for power or hydrogen production

10.5 Integration of oxygen membranes

10.6 Integration of hydrogen membranes

10.7 Optimization of plant design specifications

10.8 Processes for treatment of off-gas streams

10.9 Conclusions and future trends

10.11 Appendix: nomenclature

Chapter 11: Palladium-based membranes for hydrogen separation: preparation, economic analysis and coupling with a water gas shift reactor

Abstract:

11.1 Hydrogen selective membrane classification

11.2 Membrane preparation techniques

11.3 Membrane cost analysis

11.4 Membrane application case study: water gas shift (WGS) reactor

11.5 Conclusions and future trends

Chapter 12: Membrane reactor for hydrogen production from natural gas at the Tokyo Gas Company: a case study

Abstract:

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Performance of the 40 Nm3/h-class membrane reformer

12.3 Advanced hydrogen separation module with membrane on catalyst

12.4 Conclusions and future trends

12.5 Acknowledgments

Chapter 13: Integrating membranes into industrial chemical processes: a case study of steam reforming with membranes for hydrogen separation

Abstract:

13.1 Integration of selective membranes in industrial plants

13.2 Reformer and membrane module Tecnimont KT plant

13.3 Reformer and membrane module plant behavior

13.4 Conclusions and future trends

Chapter 14: Economic analysis of systems for electrical energy and hydrogen production: fundamentals and application to two membrane reactor processes

Abstract:

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Calculation of the cost of electricity, hydrogen production and CO2 avoided

14.3 Calculation of construction and operating costs

14.4 Procedure application

14.5 Conclusions

14.6 Acknowledgments

14.8 Appendix: nomenclature

Part III: Electrochemical devices and transport applications of membrane reactors

Chapter 15: Electrochemical devices for energy: fuel cells and electrolytic cells

Abstract:

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Principles and features of fuel cells

15.3 Low-temperature fuel cells: proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuels (DMFCs)

15.4 Other types of low-temperature fuel cell

15.5 High-temperature fuel cells: solid oxide and proton conductor fuel cells

15.6 High-temperature fuel cells: molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) and new concepts

15.7 Economic aspects of fuel cell development

15.8 Principles, features and applications of electrolysis cells

15.9 Conclusions and future trends

15.11 Appendix: nomenclature

Chapter 16: Palladium-based hollow cathode electrolysers for hydrogen production

Abstract:

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Theory

16.3 Water electrolysers using thin-wall Pd–Ag tubes

16.4 Applications of Pd–Ag membrane cathodes

16.5 Conclusions and future trends

7 Appendix: nomenclature

Chapter 17: Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs): state-of-the-art with economic and environmental concerns

Abstract:

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Technical aspects in the development of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs)

17.3 Environmental impacts of FCVs

17.4 Economic analysis of FCVs

17.5 Comparing different hydrogen vehicle technologies: fuel cell vehicle (FCV), battery electric vehicle (BEV) and internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV)

17.6 Conclusion and future trends

17.8 Appendix: nomenclature

Chapter 18: Design and engineering of metallic membranes for on-board steam reforming of biofuels in transport applications

Abstract:

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Membrane materials, manufacturing and reactor design

18.3 Hydrogen permeation mechanism and solubility

18.4 Permeation kinetics

18.5 Membrane characterization and performances

18.6 Customized membranes for application in the automotive industry

18.7 Conclusions and future trends

18.8 Sources of further information

18.10 Appendix: nomenclature

Greek symbols

Part IV: Membrane reactors in environmental engineering, biotechnology and medicine

Chapter 19: Membrane operations in wastewater treatment: complexation reactions coupled with membranes, pervaporation and membrane bioreactors

Abstract:

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Coupling complexation reactions and membranes

19.3 Pervaporation

19.4 Membrane bioreactors (MBRs)

19.5 Selected applications in wastewater treatment

19.6 Conclusions and future trends

19.8 Appendix: nomenclature

Chapter 20: Biocatalytic membrane reactors for the removal of recalcitrant and emerging pollutants from wastewater

Abstract:

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Fundamentals of biocatalytic membrane reactors

20.3 Varieties of membranes for biocatalytic membrane reactors

20.4 Emerging pollutants removal by biocatalyst membrane bioreactors

20.5 Emerging pollutants removal by membrane biofilm and extractive membrane bioreactors

20.6 Hybrid biocatalytic membrane reactors and modeling studies

20.7 Development challenges

20.8 Conclusions and future trends

Chapter 21: Photocatalytic membrane reactors: configurations, performance and applications in water treatment and chemical production

Abstract:

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Performance of membrane reactors with photocatalytic membranes

21.3 Photocatalytic membrane reactors with suspended photocatalyst utilizing pressure driven membrane techniques

21.4 Degradation of pharmaceutical compounds: coupling of solar photocatalysis and membrane reactor

21.5 Photocatalytic membrane reactors utilizing other membrane techniques

21.6 Modeling and economic analysis of membrane photoreactors

21.7 Conclusions and future trends

21.9 Appendix: nomenclature

Chapter 22: Biocatalytic membrane reactors: principles, preparation and biotechnological, pharmaceutical and medical applications

Abstract:

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Principle of membrane bioreactors and biocatalytic membrane reactors

22.3 Preparation of biocatalytic membranes

22.4 Application of biocatalytic membrane reactors in biotechnology

22.5 Applications in the pharmaceutical field

22.6 Applications in the medical field

22.7 Conclusions and future trends

22.9 Appendix: nomenclature

Chapter 23: Economic aspects of membrane bioreactors

Abstract:

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Rules of economic analysis

23.3 The parameters involved in an economic analysis of membrane reactors

23.4 Economic analysis applied to membrane bioreactors

23.5 Economics of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment

23.6 Conclusions

23.8 Appendix: nomenclature

Index


Description

Membrane reactors are increasingly replacing conventional separation, process and conversion technologies across a wide range of applications. Exploiting advanced membrane materials, they offer enhanced efficiency, are very adaptable and have great economic potential. There has therefore been increasing interest in membrane reactors from both the scientific and industrial communities, stimulating research and development. The two volumes of the Handbook of membrane reactors draw on this research to provide an authoritative review of this important field.

Volume 2 reviews reactor types and industrial applications, beginning in part one with a discussion of selected types of membrane reactor and integration of the technology with industrial processes. Part two goes on to explore the use of membrane reactors in chemical and large-scale hydrogen production from fossil fuels. Electrochemical devices and transport applications of membrane reactors are the focus of part three, before part four considers the use of membrane reactors in environmental engineering, biotechnology and medicine. Finally, the book concludes with a discussion of the economic aspects of membrane reactors.

With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, the two volumes of the Handbook of membrane reactors provide an authoritative guide for membrane reactor researchers and materials scientists, chemical and biochemical manufacturers, industrial separations and process engineers, and academics in this field.

Key Features

  • Discusses integration of membrane technology with industrial processes
  • Explores the use of membrane reactors in chemical and large-scale hydrogen production from fossil fuels
  • Considers electrochemical devices and transport applications of membrane reactors

Readership

Membrane reactor researchers and materials scientists; Chemical and biochemial engineering/process engineers and manufacturers; Industrial separations and process engineers (including petrochemical, energy, environmental, biochemical and biomedical); Academics in this field


Details

No. of pages:
968
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780857097347
Hardcover ISBN:
9780857094155

Reviews

… a complete review of the state-of-the art in MR, a careful organization and details for a lot of applications for MRs, … an excellent investment., Prof. Miguel Menéndez - International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (IJHE)


About the Editors

Angelo Basile Editor

Basile, a Chemical Engineer, is a senior Researcher at the ITM-CNR where is responsible of the researches related to both the ultra-pure hydrogen production CO2 capture using Pd-based Membrane Reactors. Angelo Basile’s h-index is 36, with 187 document results (April 1st, 2016, www.scopus.com). He has 130 scientific papers in peer to peer journals and 230 papers in international congresses; editor/author of 27 scientific books and 80 chapters on international books on membrane science and technology; 6 Italian patents, 2 European patents and 5 worldwide patents. He is referee of 92 international scientific journals and Member of the Editorial Board of 18 of them. Basile is also Editor associate of the Int. J. Hydrogen Energy and Editor-in.-chief of the Int. J. Membrane Science & Technol. and Editor-in-chief of Membrane Processes (Applications), a section of the international journal Membranes: Basile also prepared 25 special issues on membrane science and technology for many international journals (IJHE, Chem Eng. J., Cat. Today, etc.). He participated to and was/is responsible of many national and international projects on membrane reactors and membrane science. Basile served as Director of the ITM-CNR during the period Dec. 2008 – May 2009. In the last years, he was tutor of 30 Thesis for master and Ph.D. students at the Chemical Engineering Department of the University of Calabria (Italy). Form 2014, Basile is Full Professor of Chemical Engineering Processes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Researcher, Institute on Membrane Technology (ITM) Italian National Research Council (CNR), Italy