Handbook of Material Weathering

Handbook of Material Weathering

6th Edition - February 22, 2018

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  • Author: George Wypych
  • eBook ISBN: 9781927885321
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781927885314

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Description

Handbook of Material Weathering, Sixth Edition, is an essential guide to the effects of weathering on polymers and industrial products, presenting theory, stress factors, methods of weathering and testing and the effects of additives and environmental stress cracking. The book provides graphical illustrations and numerical data to examine the weathering of major polymers and industrial products, including mechanisms of degradation, effect of thermal processes, and characteristic changes in properties. The book also discusses recycling, corrosion and weathering, and the weathering of stone. This sixth edition updates this seminal work with recent developments and the latest data. Polymers and industrial plastics products are widely used in environments where they are vulnerable to the effects of weathering. Weathering stress factors can lead to deterioration or even complete failure. Material durability is therefore vital, and products for outdoor usage or actinic exposure are designed so that the effects of artificial and natural weathering are minimized. This book is an important reference source for those involved in studying material durability, producing materials for outdoor use and actinic exposure, research chemists in the photochemistry field, chemists and material scientists designing new materials, users of manufactured products, those who control the quality of manufactured products and students who want to apply their knowledge to real materials.

Key Features

  • Offers detailed coverage of theory, stress factors and methods of weathering
  • Provides specific information and numerical data for 52 polymers and 42 groups of industrial products, including characteristic changes and degradation mechanisms
  • Discusses major additional topics, such as weathered materials for recycling and the interrelation between corrosion and weathering
  • Provides graphical illustrations and numerical data to examine the weathering of major polymers and industrial products

Readership

Research chemists in the photochemistry field, chemists and material scientists designing new materials, users of manufactured products, quality controllers of manufactured products, students who want to apply their knowledge to real materials, regulating agencies, and patent and litigating attorneys.

Table of Contents

  • 1 Photophysics
    1.1 Nature of radiation
    1.2 Absorption of radiation by materials
    1.3 Fate and utilization of absorbed energy
    1.4 Radiative processes involving dimers
    1.5 Modeling and photophysical data
    2 Photochemistry
    2.1 Typical routes of photochemical reactions
    2.2 Photochemical reactivity and quantum yield
    2.3 Excitation of excited state
    2.4 Parameters of photochemical reactions
    2.6 Quenchers and photosensitizers
    3 Parameters of Exposure
    3.1 Radiation
    3.2 Temperature
    3.3 Water
    3.4 Atmosphere composition
    3.5 Pollutants
    3.6 Biological substances
    3.7 Water pollutants
    3.8 Stress
    3.9 Cooperative action of different parameters
    4 Measurements in Assessment of Weathering Conditions
    4.1 Radiation
    4.2 Sunshine duration
    4.3 Temperature
    4.4 Relative humidity
    4.5 Time of wetness
    4.5 Rain
    4.6 Pollutants
    5 Climatic Conditions
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Radiation
    5.3 Sunshine duration
    5.4 Temperature
    5.5 Precipitation
    5.6 Relative humidity
    5.7 Wetness time
    5.8 Pollutants
    5.9 Surface soiling
    6 Methods of Outdoor Exposure
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Climatic conditions and degradation rate
    6.3 Variability of weather conditions and its impact on the strategy in outdoor exposures
    6.4 Influence of specimen properties
    6.5 Typical methods of outdoor exposure
    6.6 Other parameters of exposure
    6.7 Relevant Standards
    7 Laboratory Degradation Studies
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Light sources
    7.3 Filters
    7.4 Radiation: delivery, monitoring, and control
    7.5 Temperature control
    7.6 Humidity control
    7.7 Specimen spraying
    7.8 Specimen racks and holders
    7.9 Weathering equipment
    7.10 Correlation between different devices
    7.11 Pollutants
    7.12 Precision of studies
    8 Weathering Cycles
    9 Sample Preparation
    10 Weathering Data Interpretation. Lifetime Prediction
    11 Artificial Weathering Versus Natural Exposure
    12 Effect of Weathering on Material Properties
    12.1 Mass loss
    12.2 Depth of degradation
    12.3 Mechanical properties
    12.4 Changes of color and optical properties
    12.5 Surface changes
    12.6 Molecular weight
    12.7 Chemical composition of surface and bulk
    12.8 Morphology and structure of surface layers
    12.9 Glass transition temperature
    12.10 Self-healing
    13 Testing Methods of Weathered Specimen
    13.1 Visual evaluation
    13.2 Microscopy
    13.3 Imaging techniques
    13.4 Gloss
    13.5 Color changes
    13.6 Visible Spectrophotometry
    13.7 UV spectrophotometry
    13.8 Infrared spectrophotometry
    13.9 Near infrared spectroscopy
    13.10 Raman spectroscopy
    13.11 Nuclear magnetic resonance
    13.12 Electron spin resonance
    13.13 Mass spectrometry
    13.14 Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy
    13.15 Chemiluminescence, fluorescence, and phosphorescence
    13.16 Atomic absorption spectroscopy
    13.17 WAXS and SAXS
    13.18 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS
    13.19 X-ray microtomography
    13.20 Mass change
    13.21 Density
    13.22 Contact angle
    13.23 Diffusion of gasses and water transport in polymers
    13.24 Electrical properties
    13.25 Ultrasonic measurements
    13.26 Thermal analysis
    13.27 Rheological properties of materials
    13.28 Other physical parameters
    13.29 Tensile strength
    13.30 Elongation
    13.31 Flexural strength
    13.32 Impact strength
    13.33 Creep and constant strain tests
    13.34 Residual stress
    13.35 Scratch and mar resistance
    13.36 Other mechanical properties
    13.37 Surface roughness
    13.38 Molecular weight
    13.39 Gas and liquid chromatography
    13.40 Titrimetry
    13.41 Dehydrochlorination rate
    13.42 Gel fraction
    13.43 Oxygen uptake
    13.44 Water absorption, porosity
    13.45 Microorganism growth test
    13.46 Environmental stress cracking resistance
    14 Data on Specific Polymers
    14.1 Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, ABS
    14.2 Acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate, ASA
    14.3 Alkyd resins
    14.4 Acrylic resins
    14.5 Cellulose
    14.6 Chitosan
    14.7 Epoxy resins
    14.8 Ethylene-propylene rubber, EPR
    14.9 Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, EVAc
    14.10 Ethylene propylene diene monomer, EPDM
    14.11 Fluoropolymers
    14.12 Melamine resins
    14.13 Phenoxy resins
    14.14 Polyacrylamide
    14.15 Polyacrylonitrile
    14.16 Polyamides
    14.17 Polyaniline
    14.18 Polycarbonates
    14.19 Polyesters
    14.20 Polyethylene
    14.21 Polyethylene, chlorinated
    14.22 Poly(ethylene glycol)
    14.23 Polyfluorene
    14.24 Polyimides
    14.25 Poly(lactic acid)
    14.26 Polymethylmethacrylate
    14.27 Polyoxyethylene
    14.28 Polyoxymethylene
    14.29 Poly(phenylene oxide)
    14.30 Poly(phenylene sulfide)
    14.31 Poly(-phenylene terephthalamide)
    14.32 Poly(-phenylene vinylene)
    14.33 Polypropylene
    14.34 Polystyrenes
    14.35 Polysulfones
    14.36 Polytetrafluoroethylene
    14.37 Polythiophene
    14.38 Polyurethanes
    14.39 Poly(vinyl alcohol)
    14.40 Polyvinylchloride
    14.41 Poly(vinylidene fluoride)
    14.42 Poly(vinyl methyl ether)
    14.43 Styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer
    14.44 Silicones
    14.45 Polymer blends
    14.46 Rubbers
    15 Effect of Additives on Weathering
    15.1 Fillers and reinforcing fibers
    15.2 Pigments
    15.3 Plasticizers
    15.4 Solvents and diluents
    15.5 Flame retardants
    15.6 Impact modifiers
    15.7 Thermal stabilizers
    15.8 Antioxidants
    15.9 Antimicrobial additives
    15.10 Curatives, crosslinkers, initiators
    15.11 Catalysts
    15.12 Compatibilizer
    15.12 Impurities
    15.13 Summary
    16 Weathering of Compounded Products
    16.1 Adhesives
    16.2 Aerospace
    16.3 Agriculture
    16.4 Appliances
    16.5 Automotive parts
    16.6 Automotive coatings
    16.7 Coated fabrics
    16.8 Coil coated materials
    16.9 Composites
    16.10 Concrete
    16.11 Conservation
    16.12 Construction materials
    16.13 Cosmetics
    16.14 Dental materials
    16.15 Electronics and electrical materials
    16.16 Environmental pollutants
    16.17 Foams
    16.18 Food
    16.19 Gel coats
    16.20 Geosynthetics
    16.21 Glass and glazing materials
    16.22 Greenhouse film
    16.23 Hair
    16.24 Laminates
    16.25 Medical equipment and supplies
    16.26 Military applications
    16.27 Molded materials
    16.28 Packaging materials
    16.29 Paints and coatings
    16.30 Pavements
    16.31 Pharmaceutical products
    16.32 Pipes and tubing
    16.33 Pulp and paper
    16.34 Roofing materials
    16.35 Sealants
    16.36 Sheet
    16.37 Siding
    16.38 Solar cells and collectors
    16.39 Textiles
    16.40 Windows
    16.41 Wire and cable
    16.42 Wood
    17 Stabilization and Stabilizers
    17.1 Limiting the incoming radiation
    17.2 Deactivation of excited states and free radicals
    17.3 Elimination of singlet oxygen, peroxide decomposition, and limiting oxidative changes
    17.4 Defect removal
    17.5 Stability of UV stabilizers
    17.6 Distribution of UV absorber
    17.7 Stabilizer entrapment and interaction
    17.8 Protective coatings
    17.9 Examples of stabilization technology
    18 Biodegradation
    18.1 Biodegradation environment
    18.2 Enzymatic reactions
    18.3 Biodegradation of materials
    18.4 Biocides
    18.5 Methods of testing
    18.6 Controlled biodegradation
    19 Recycling
    19.1 Effect of degradation on recycling
    19.2 Re-stabilization of material for recycling
    19.3 Multilayer materials
    19.4 Removable paint
    19.5 Chemical recycling
    20 Environmental Stress Cracking
    20.1 Definitions
    20.2 Parameters controlling ESC
    20.3 Mechanisms of environmental stress cracking
    20.4 Kinetics of environmental stress cracking
    20.5 Effect of ESC on material durability
    20.6 Methods of testing
    21 Interrelation Between Corrosion and Weathering
    22 Weathering of Stones

Product details

  • No. of pages: 982
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © ChemTec Publishing 2018
  • Published: February 22, 2018
  • Imprint: ChemTec Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9781927885321
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781927885314

About the Author

George Wypych

George Wypych has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research and development. He has published 18 books, 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings.

Affiliations and Expertise

ChemTec Publishing, Ontario, Canada

Ratings and Reviews

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  • YingzhiZeng Mon Dec 10 2018

    Handbook of Material Weathering (Sixth Edition)

    It is a very good book which covers a wide range of topics and provides comprehensive and useful information. Chapter 10 (Weathering Data Interpretation. Lifetime Prediction) can be further improved by including recent developments of more complicated methods such statistic models, artificial neural network methods, and Monte Carlo Simulations, etc.