Handbook of Material Weathering - 6th Edition - ISBN: 9781927885314, 9781927885321

Handbook of Material Weathering

6th Edition

Authors: George Wypych
eBook ISBN: 9781927885321
Hardcover ISBN: 9781927885314
Imprint: ChemTec Publishing
Published Date: 5th March 2018
Page Count: 982
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Handbook of Material Weathering, Sixth Edition, is an essential guide to the effects of weathering on polymers and industrial products, presenting theory, stress factors, methods of weathering and testing and the effects of additives and environmental stress cracking. The book provides graphical illustrations and numerical data to examine the weathering of major polymers and industrial products, including mechanisms of degradation, effect of thermal processes, and characteristic changes in properties. The book also discusses recycling, corrosion and weathering, and the weathering of stone. This sixth edition updates this seminal work with recent developments and the latest data.

Polymers and industrial plastics products are widely used in environments where they are vulnerable to the effects of weathering. Weathering stress factors can lead to deterioration or even complete failure. Material durability is therefore vital, and products for outdoor usage or actinic exposure are designed so that the effects of artificial and natural weathering are minimized.

This book is an important reference source for those involved in studying material durability, producing materials for outdoor use and actinic exposure, research chemists in the photochemistry field, chemists and material scientists designing new materials, users of manufactured products, those who control the quality of manufactured products and students who want to apply their knowledge to real materials.

Key Features

  • Offers detailed coverage of theory, stress factors and methods of weathering
  • Provides specific information and numerical data for 52 polymers and 42 groups of industrial products, including characteristic changes and degradation mechanisms
  • Discusses major additional topics, such as weathered materials for recycling and the interrelation between corrosion and weathering
  • Provides graphical illustrations and numerical data to examine the weathering of major polymers and industrial products


Research chemists in the photochemistry field, chemists and material scientists designing new materials, users of manufactured products, quality controllers of manufactured products, students who want to apply their knowledge to real materials, regulating agencies, and patent and litigating attorneys.

Table of Contents

1 Photophysics
1.1 Nature of radiation
1.2 Absorption of radiation by materials
1.3 Fate and utilization of absorbed energy
1.4 Radiative processes involving dimers
1.5 Modeling and photophysical data
2 Photochemistry
2.1 Typical routes of photochemical reactions
2.2 Photochemical reactivity and quantum yield
2.3 Excitation of excited state
2.4 Parameters of photochemical reactions
2.6 Quenchers and photosensitizers
3 Parameters of Exposure
3.1 Radiation
3.2 Temperature
3.3 Water
3.4 Atmosphere composition
3.5 Pollutants
3.6 Biological substances
3.7 Water pollutants
3.8 Stress
3.9 Cooperative action of different parameters
4 Measurements in Assessment of Weathering Conditions
4.1 Radiation
4.2 Sunshine duration
4.3 Temperature
4.4 Relative humidity
4.5 Time of wetness
4.5 Rain
4.6 Pollutants
5 Climatic Conditions
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Radiation
5.3 Sunshine duration
5.4 Temperature
5.5 Precipitation
5.6 Relative humidity
5.7 Wetness time
5.8 Pollutants
5.9 Surface soiling
6 Methods of Outdoor Exposure
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Climatic conditions and degradation rate
6.3 Variability of weather conditions and its impact on the strategy in outdoor exposures
6.4 Influence of specimen properties
6.5 Typical methods of outdoor exposure
6.6 Other parameters of exposure
6.7 Relevant Standards
7 Laboratory Degradation Studies
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Light sources
7.3 Filters
7.4 Radiation: delivery, monitoring, and control
7.5 Temperature control
7.6 Humidity control
7.7 Specimen spraying
7.8 Specimen racks and holders
7.9 Weathering equipment
7.10 Correlation between different devices
7.11 Pollutants
7.12 Precision of studies
8 Weathering Cycles
9 Sample Preparation
10 Weathering Data Interpretation. Lifetime Prediction
11 Artificial Weathering Versus Natural Exposure
12 Effect of Weathering on Material Properties
12.1 Mass loss
12.2 Depth of degradation
12.3 Mechanical properties
12.4 Changes of color and optical properties
12.5 Surface changes
12.6 Molecular weight
12.7 Chemical composition of surface and bulk
12.8 Morphology and structure of surface layers
12.9 Glass transition temperature
12.10 Self-healing
13 Testing Methods of Weathered Specimen
13.1 Visual evaluation
13.2 Microscopy
13.3 Imaging techniques
13.4 Gloss
13.5 Color changes
13.6 Visible Spectrophotometry
13.7 UV spectrophotometry
13.8 Infrared spectrophotometry
13.9 Near infrared spectroscopy
13.10 Raman spectroscopy
13.11 Nuclear magnetic resonance
13.12 Electron spin resonance
13.13 Mass spectrometry
13.14 Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy
13.15 Chemiluminescence, fluorescence, and phosphorescence
13.16 Atomic absorption spectroscopy
13.17 WAXS and SAXS
13.18 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS
13.19 X-ray microtomography
13.20 Mass change
13.21 Density
13.22 Contact angle
13.23 Diffusion of gasses and water transport in polymers
13.24 Electrical properties
13.25 Ultrasonic measurements
13.26 Thermal analysis
13.27 Rheological properties of materials
13.28 Other physical parameters
13.29 Tensile strength
13.30 Elongation
13.31 Flexural strength
13.32 Impact strength
13.33 Creep and constant strain tests
13.34 Residual stress
13.35 Scratch and mar resistance
13.36 Other mechanical properties
13.37 Surface roughness
13.38 Molecular weight
13.39 Gas and liquid chromatography
13.40 Titrimetry
13.41 Dehydrochlorination rate
13.42 Gel fraction
13.43 Oxygen uptake
13.44 Water absorption, porosity
13.45 Microorganism growth test
13.46 Environmental stress cracking resistance
14 Data on Specific Polymers
14.1 Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, ABS
14.2 Acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate, ASA
14.3 Alkyd resins
14.4 Acrylic resins
14.5 Cellulose
14.6 Chitosan
14.7 Epoxy resins
14.8 Ethylene-propylene rubber, EPR
14.9 Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, EVAc
14.10 Ethylene propylene diene monomer, EPDM
14.11 Fluoropolymers
14.12 Melamine resins
14.13 Phenoxy resins
14.14 Polyacrylamide
14.15 Polyacrylonitrile
14.16 Polyamides
14.17 Polyaniline
14.18 Polycarbonates
14.19 Polyesters
14.20 Polyethylene
14.21 Polyethylene, chlorinated
14.22 Poly(ethylene glycol)
14.23 Polyfluorene
14.24 Polyimides
14.25 Poly(lactic acid)
14.26 Polymethylmethacrylate
14.27 Polyoxyethylene
14.28 Polyoxymethylene
14.29 Poly(phenylene oxide)
14.30 Poly(phenylene sulfide)
14.31 Poly(-phenylene terephthalamide)
14.32 Poly(-phenylene vinylene)
14.33 Polypropylene
14.34 Polystyrenes
14.35 Polysulfones
14.36 Polytetrafluoroethylene
14.37 Polythiophene
14.38 Polyurethanes
14.39 Poly(vinyl alcohol)
14.40 Polyvinylchloride
14.41 Poly(vinylidene fluoride)
14.42 Poly(vinyl methyl ether)
14.43 Styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer
14.44 Silicones
14.45 Polymer blends
14.46 Rubbers
15 Effect of Additives on Weathering
15.1 Fillers and reinforcing fibers
15.2 Pigments
15.3 Plasticizers
15.4 Solvents and diluents
15.5 Flame retardants
15.6 Impact modifiers
15.7 Thermal stabilizers
15.8 Antioxidants
15.9 Antimicrobial additives
15.10 Curatives, crosslinkers, initiators
15.11 Catalysts
15.12 Compatibilizer
15.12 Impurities
15.13 Summary
16 Weathering of Compounded Products
16.1 Adhesives
16.2 Aerospace
16.3 Agriculture
16.4 Appliances
16.5 Automotive parts
16.6 Automotive coatings
16.7 Coated fabrics
16.8 Coil coated materials
16.9 Composites
16.10 Concrete
16.11 Conservation
16.12 Construction materials
16.13 Cosmetics
16.14 Dental materials
16.15 Electronics and electrical materials
16.16 Environmental pollutants
16.17 Foams
16.18 Food
16.19 Gel coats
16.20 Geosynthetics
16.21 Glass and glazing materials
16.22 Greenhouse film
16.23 Hair
16.24 Laminates
16.25 Medical equipment and supplies
16.26 Military applications
16.27 Molded materials
16.28 Packaging materials
16.29 Paints and coatings
16.30 Pavements
16.31 Pharmaceutical products
16.32 Pipes and tubing
16.33 Pulp and paper
16.34 Roofing materials
16.35 Sealants
16.36 Sheet
16.37 Siding
16.38 Solar cells and collectors
16.39 Textiles
16.40 Windows
16.41 Wire and cable
16.42 Wood
17 Stabilization and Stabilizers
17.1 Limiting the incoming radiation
17.2 Deactivation of excited states and free radicals
17.3 Elimination of singlet oxygen, peroxide decomposition, and limiting oxidative changes
17.4 Defect removal
17.5 Stability of UV stabilizers
17.6 Distribution of UV absorber
17.7 Stabilizer entrapment and interaction
17.8 Protective coatings
17.9 Examples of stabilization technology
18 Biodegradation
18.1 Biodegradation environment
18.2 Enzymatic reactions
18.3 Biodegradation of materials
18.4 Biocides
18.5 Methods of testing
18.6 Controlled biodegradation
19 Recycling
19.1 Effect of degradation on recycling
19.2 Re-stabilization of material for recycling
19.3 Multilayer materials
19.4 Removable paint
19.5 Chemical recycling
20 Environmental Stress Cracking
20.1 Definitions
20.2 Parameters controlling ESC
20.3 Mechanisms of environmental stress cracking
20.4 Kinetics of environmental stress cracking
20.5 Effect of ESC on material durability
20.6 Methods of testing
21 Interrelation Between Corrosion and Weathering
22 Weathering of Stones


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About the Author

George Wypych

George Wypych has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research and development. He has published 18 books, 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings.

Affiliations and Expertise

ChemTec Publishing, Ontario, Canada

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