Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas

Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas

1st Edition - October 15, 2013

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  • Authors: Saeid Mokhatab, John Mak, Jaleel Valappil, David Wood
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128099964
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124046450

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Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a commercially attractive phase of the commodity that facilitates the efficient handling and transportation of natural gas around the world. The LNG industry, using technologies proven over decades of development, continues to expand its markets, diversify its supply chains and increase its share of the global natural gas trade. The Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas is a timely book as the industry is currently developing new large sources of supply and the technologies have evolved in recent years to enable offshore infrastructure to develop and handle resources in more remote and harsher environments. It is the only book of its kind, covering the many aspects of the LNG supply chain from liquefaction to regasification by addressing the LNG industries’ fundamentals and markets, as well as detailed engineering and design principles. A unique, well-documented, and forward-thinking work, this reference book provides an ideal platform for scientists, engineers, and other professionals involved in the LNG industry to gain a better understanding of the key basic and advanced topics relevant to LNG projects in operation and/or in planning and development.

Key Features

  • Highlights the developments in the natural gas liquefaction industries and the challenges in meeting environmental regulations
  • Provides guidelines in utilizing the full potential of LNG assets
  • Offers advices on LNG plant design and operation based on proven practices and design experience
  • Emphasizes technology selection and innovation with focus on a “fit-for-purpose” design
  • Updates code and regulation, safety, and security requirements for LNG applications


Professional LNG process engineers and technologists, LNG plant designers and operators, scientists and researchers working in the LNG industry

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. LNG Fundamentals


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Monetizing stranded gas

    1.3 LNG characteristics

    1.4 Traditional LNG supply chain

    1.5 Offshore LNG supply chain

    1.6 LNG environmental aspects

    1.7 Costs and economic implications of LNG facilities

    1.8 LNG contracts and project development

    1.9 LNG trade


    Chapter 2. Gas Conditioning and NGL Recovery Technologies


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 LNG production plants


    Chapter 3. Natural Gas Liquefaction


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Natural gas liquefaction technology

    3.3 Offshore natural gas liquefaction


    Chapter 4. Energy and Exergy Analyses of Natural Gas Liquefaction Cycles


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Refrigeration/liquefaction cycle principles

    4.3 Refrigerant selections

    4.4 Fundamentals of energy and exergy analysis

    4.5 Energy and exergy analyses of natural gas liquefaction cycles


    Chapter 5. Natural Gas Liquefaction Cycle Enhancements and Optimization


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Natural gas liquefaction cycle enhancement types

    5.3 Energy consumption enhancement options by recovering process losses and waste heat

    5.4 Brief introduction to optimization

    5.5 Liquefaction cycle optimization

    5.6 Driver cycle optimization

    5.7 Mobile LNG plants optimal design challenges


    Chapter 6. Process Control and Automation of LNG Plants and Import Terminals


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Objectives of LNG plant automation

    6.3 LNG plant process control/automation development and functionalities

    6.4 Process control of key units in LNG plants

    6.5 Advanced process control and optimization of LNG plants

    6.6 Process control and automation in LNG import terminals

    6.7 Case study 1: advanced process control for APCI C3MR LNG process


    Chapter 7. LNG Plant and Regasification Terminal Operations


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 LNG plant normal operation

    7.3 General startup sequence

    7.4 LNG plant startup

    7.5 LNG plant shutdown

    7.6 Performance and acceptance test

    7.7 LNG regasification terminal normal operation

    7.8 LNG regasification terminal startup

    7.9 LNG regasification terminal shutdown


    Chapter 8. Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of LNG Plants and Import Terminals


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Life cycle dynamic simulation of LNG plants and import terminals

    8.3 Dynamic modeling of LNG plants

    8.4 Applications of dynamic simulation in LNG

    8.5 Dynamic simulation of LNG import terminals


    Chapter 9. LNG Safety and Security Aspects


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Hazards associated with LNG plants

    9.3 Safety features of LNG facilities

    9.4 LNG risk analysis and controls

    9.5 LNG security


    Chapter 10. Advances and Innovations in LNG Industry


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Innovations in LNG liquefaction

    10.3 LNG regasification


    Chapter 11. LNG Project Management


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Project management sequence

    11.3 Success of engineering and design

    11.4 Sponsor–contractor relationships

    11.5 Defining business and project objectives

    11.6 The project charter

    11.7 Project risk assessments and risk management plans

    11.8 Pre-FEED or conceptual risks

    11.9 Key project management considerations for LNG projects

    11.10 Scenario-based risk assessment

    11.11 Technical and extreme risks (engineering and design)

    11.12 Hazards and operability (HAZOP) studies

    11.13 Project execution risks

    11.14 Additional specific precommissioning risk assessments

    11.15 Focusing planning stages on constructability

    11.16 Developing a project constructability program

    11.17 Project cost, schedule estimating, and modeling

    11.18 Quality assurance, control, and inspection

    11.19 Technology verification and risk-based verification

    11.20 Engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contracts

    11.21 EPC contractor selection and design competitions

    11.22 Project management case study: Peru LNG

    11.23 Ensuring continuity from project construction to plant operations

    11.24 Integrated approaches to achieve high standards of performance

    11.25 Conclusions


    Appendix 1. An LNG Primer: Basic Facts, Safety and Security Clarifications

    A1.1 Background of LNG

    A1.2 LNG supply chain

    A1.3 LNG regasification terminals

    A1.4 Seismic design requirements

    A1.5 LNG’s safety records

    A1.6 LNG carriers

    A1.7 LNG spills

    A1.8 Security for LNG facilities and ships

    A1.9 Risk of terrorism adds new dimension to LNG safety risk


    Appendix 2. Modeling the Phase Behavior of LNG Systems with Equations of State

    A2.1 Introduction

    A2.2 Thermodynamics and topography of the phase behavior of LNG systems

    A2.3 Numerical procedures for calculating the multiphase equilibrium

    A2.4 Calculation of critical points at constant composition

    A2.5 Calculation of K- and LCST-points at constant temperature

    A2.6 Calculation of phase envelopes

    A2.7 Thermodynamic models

    A2.8 Examples of application


    Appendix 3. LNG Plant Relief and Flare Systems Design Guideline

    A3.1 Introduction

    A3.2 Flare and relief design considerations

    A3.3 Relief scenarios

    A3.4 Plant failure causes

    A3.5 Equipment or operation failure

    A3.6 Operator intervention

    A3.7 Operation relieves

    A3.8 Design pressure

    A3.9 Design temperature

    A3.10 Other design considerationsIndex

Product details

  • No. of pages: 624
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Gulf Professional Publishing 2013
  • Published: October 15, 2013
  • Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128099964
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124046450

About the Authors

Saeid Mokhatab

Saeid Mokhatab is recognized globally as a process technology expert in the fields of natural gas processing and LNG. For over two decades, he has been actively involved in different aspects of several large-scale gas processing and LNG projects, from conceptual design through plant startup and operations support. He has contributed to the understanding of gas processing & LNG knowledge, practices, and technologies through 300 technical papers and 3 reference books (published by Elsevier in the US), which are widely read and highly respected. He founded the Elsevier peer-reviewed Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering and has served on the editorial/advisory boards of leading professional publications pertaining to gas processing and LNG. He has also been an active member of several professional societies, including the SPE and GPA Europe, and has served on the technical program/advisory committee of many acclaimed gas processing conferences worldwide. As a result of his outstanding work in the natural gas industry, he has received a number of international awards and medals and has been listed in highly prestigious biographical directories.

Affiliations and Expertise

Gas Processing Consultant, Canada

John Mak

John Y. Mak is a Senior Fellow and Technical Director at Fluor, the United States, and leads the technology and design development for Fluor chemical and energy division. He is the technical expert and SME with Fluor for over 40 years and has been leading major oil and gas, petrochemical and refinery projects from conceptual designs, feasibility studies, FEED development, detailed engineering, to plant start-up and performance testing. John has made contributions to innovations in natural gas treating and processing, NGL recovery, LNG liquefaction and regasification, synthesis gas purification, and carbon capture methods. John is the co-author of the Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas, first edition (2013) published by Elsevier, the United States. He has published over 80 technical papers and has frequently presented his findings at technical conferences such as GPA Midstream Convention, GPA Europe, Laurance Reid Gas Conditioning Conference, LNG Summit, Offshore Technology Conference, GASTECH, and China Coal Forum. John is the inventor of over 90 patents and patent pending processes. John is specializing in more complex NGL recovery designs for conventional and unconventional gases, treating high CO2 content gases using physical solvents, acid gas removal with amines, cryogenic nitrogen rejection and helium recovery.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Fellow and Technical Director, Fluor, USA

Jaleel Valappil

Jaleel V. Valappil is a senior engineering specialist with Bechtel Oil, Gas & Chemicals in Houston, TX, USA. He has several years of experience in process simulation, advanced process control and optimization of various processes including LNG. Before joining Bechtel, he was a senior consulting engineer with the Advanced Control Services Group of Aspen Technology Inc., where he was responsible for developing and implementing advanced control and optimization solutions for a variety of processes. He has worked extensively on developing and deploying process simulation models for applications in design, engineering, and operations of LNG plant built by Bechtel in collaboration with Conoco Phillips over the years. He identified the benefits of lifecycle modeling for LNG plants and its use for plant design, operability/controllability studies, startup simulations and Operator Training Simulators, multi-train LNG facility debottlenecking and operational troubleshooting. Dr. Valappil has also developed and deployed Advanced Process Control technology for LNG processes, for plants in engineering stage and plants that are already operating. He has published several papers on LNG plant simulation and control in both industry conferences and journals and holds patents related to LNG plant control and turbo-machinery operation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Jaleel V. Valappil is a senior engineering specialist with Bechtel Oil, Gas & Chemicals in Houston, TX, USA

David Wood

Dr. David Wood has more than forty years of international oil and gas experience spanning technical and commercial exploration and production operations, midstream and downstream projects, contract evaluation and senior corporate management. For the past two decades, David has worked as an independent international consultant, researcher, training provider and expert witness. He has published an extensive body of work including some 350 publications and four books. He frequently acts as an advisor and/or trainer to governments and companies on many technical and commercial aspects of the oil and gas industry through his consultancy, DWA Energy Limited. He has extensive editorial experience as a founding editor of Elsevier’s Journal of Natural Gas Science & Engineering in 2008/9 then serving as Editor-in-Chief for that journal from 2013 to 2016. David obtained his PhD from Imperial College, London (U.K.) and worked as a post-doctoral research fellow in the Institute de Physique du Globe (Paris, France) and Birmingham University (U.K.).

Affiliations and Expertise

Owner/Consultant, DWA Energy Limited, UK

Ratings and Reviews

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  • Alexandru D. Mon May 16 2022

    Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas

    I bought the book for its very generous content, and I confess that I was not at all disappointed. Even for subjects in which I consider I have a good expertise as Natural Gas Liquefaction (Chapter 3), Energy and Exergy Analysis of Natural Gas Liquefaction Cycles (Chapter 4), Natural Gas Liquefaction Cycle Enhancements and Optimization (Chapter 5), I found very interesting information. I enjoyed the graphics - very good schematics and suggestive graphs. I consider that LNG Handbook is very well, clear, and accessible written with detailed information for anyone involved or interested in this subject. I found in this book all I needed for this challenging and up to date subject. A book in equal measure interesting and useful for professionals in the LNG industry and graduate students. prof. Alexandru Dobrovicescu, Applied Thermodynamics Department, University Politehnica of Bucharest

  • GORDANAZERDUN Tue Jan 21 2020



  • RONTRABOULAY Thu Jul 18 2019

    A must have text...

    A comprehensively written text for starters and intermediates . It gives the foundational understanding in its simplest form. It is a great reference text for your home or work library.