Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124045859, 9780124046450

Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas

1st Edition

Authors: Saeid Mokhatab John Mak Jaleel Valappil David Wood
eBook ISBN: 9780124046450
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124045859
Paperback ISBN: 9780128099964
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 24th October 2013
Page Count: 624
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Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a commercially attractive phase of the commodity that facilitates the efficient handling and transportation of natural gas around the world. The LNG industry, using technologies proven over decades of development, continues to expand its markets, diversify its supply chains and increase its share of the global natural gas trade. The Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas is a timely book as the industry is currently developing new large sources of supply and the technologies have evolved in recent years to enable offshore infrastructure to develop and handle resources in more remote and harsher environments. It is the only book of its kind, covering the many aspects of the LNG supply chain from liquefaction to regasification by addressing the LNG industries’ fundamentals and markets, as well as detailed engineering and design principles. A unique, well-documented, and forward-thinking work, this reference book provides an ideal platform for scientists, engineers, and other professionals involved in the LNG industry to gain a better understanding of the key basic and advanced topics relevant to LNG projects in operation and/or in planning and development.

Key Features

  • Highlights the developments in the natural gas liquefaction industries and the challenges in meeting environmental regulations
  • Provides guidelines in utilizing the full potential of LNG assets
  • Offers advices on LNG plant design and operation based on proven practices and design experience
  • Emphasizes technology selection and innovation with focus on a “fit-for-purpose” design
  • Updates code and regulation, safety, and security requirements for LNG applications


Professional LNG process engineers and technologists, LNG plant designers and operators, scientists and researchers working in the LNG industry

Table of Contents


Authors’ Biographical Sketches




Chapter 1. LNG Fundamentals


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Monetizing stranded gas

1.3 LNG characteristics

1.4 Traditional LNG supply chain

1.5 Offshore LNG supply chain

1.6 LNG environmental aspects

1.7 Costs and economic implications of LNG facilities

1.8 LNG contracts and project development

1.9 LNG trade


Chapter 2. Gas Conditioning and NGL Recovery Technologies


2.1 Introduction

2.2 LNG production plants


Chapter 3. Natural Gas Liquefaction


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Natural gas liquefaction technology

3.3 Offshore natural gas liquefaction


Chapter 4. Energy and Exergy Analyses of Natural Gas Liquefaction Cycles


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Refrigeration/liquefaction cycle principles

4.3 Refrigerant selections

4.4 Fundamentals of energy and exergy analysis

4.5 Energy and exergy analyses of natural gas liquefaction cycles


Chapter 5. Natural Gas Liquefaction Cycle Enhancements and Optimization


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Natural gas liquefaction cycle enhancement types

5.3 Energy consumption enhancement options by recovering process losses and waste heat

5.4 Brief introduction to optimization

5.5 Liquefaction cycle optimization

5.6 Driver cycle optimization

5.7 Mobile LNG plants optimal design challenges


Chapter 6. Process Control and Automation of LNG Plants and Import Terminals


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Objectives of LNG plant automation

6.3 LNG plant process control/automation development and functionalities

6.4 Process control of key units in LNG plants

6.5 Advanced process control and optimization of LNG plants

6.6 Process control and automation in LNG import terminals

6.7 Case study 1: advanced process control for APCI C3MR LNG process


Chapter 7. LNG Plant and Regasification Terminal Operations


7.1 Introduction

7.2 LNG plant normal operation

7.3 General startup sequence

7.4 LNG plant startup

7.5 LNG plant shutdown

7.6 Performance and acceptance test

7.7 LNG regasification terminal normal operation

7.8 LNG regasification terminal startup

7.9 LNG regasification terminal shutdown


Chapter 8. Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of LNG Plants and Import Terminals


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Life cycle dynamic simulation of LNG plants and import terminals

8.3 Dynamic modeling of LNG plants

8.4 Applications of dynamic simulation in LNG

8.5 Dynamic simulation of LNG import terminals


Chapter 9. LNG Safety and Security Aspects


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Hazards associated with LNG plants

9.3 Safety features of LNG facilities

9.4 LNG risk analysis and controls

9.5 LNG security


Chapter 10. Advances and Innovations in LNG Industry


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Innovations in LNG liquefaction

10.3 LNG regasification


Chapter 11. LNG Project Management


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Project management sequence

11.3 Success of engineering and design

11.4 Sponsor–contractor relationships

11.5 Defining business and project objectives

11.6 The project charter

11.7 Project risk assessments and risk management plans

11.8 Pre-FEED or conceptual risks

11.9 Key project management considerations for LNG projects

11.10 Scenario-based risk assessment

11.11 Technical and extreme risks (engineering and design)

11.12 Hazards and operability (HAZOP) studies

11.13 Project execution risks

11.14 Additional specific precommissioning risk assessments

11.15 Focusing planning stages on constructability

11.16 Developing a project constructability program

11.17 Project cost, schedule estimating, and modeling

11.18 Quality assurance, control, and inspection

11.19 Technology verification and risk-based verification

11.20 Engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contracts

11.21 EPC contractor selection and design competitions

11.22 Project management case study: Peru LNG

11.23 Ensuring continuity from project construction to plant operations

11.24 Integrated approaches to achieve high standards of performance

11.25 Conclusions


Appendix 1. An LNG Primer: Basic Facts, Safety and Security Clarifications

A1.1 Background of LNG

A1.2 LNG supply chain

A1.3 LNG regasification terminals

A1.4 Seismic design requirements

A1.5 LNG’s safety records

A1.6 LNG carriers

A1.7 LNG spills

A1.8 Security for LNG facilities and ships

A1.9 Risk of terrorism adds new dimension to LNG safety risk


Appendix 2. Modeling the Phase Behavior of LNG Systems with Equations of State

A2.1 Introduction

A2.2 Thermodynamics and topography of the phase behavior of LNG systems

A2.3 Numerical procedures for calculating the multiphase equilibrium

A2.4 Calculation of critical points at constant composition

A2.5 Calculation of K- and LCST-points at constant temperature

A2.6 Calculation of phase envelopes

A2.7 Thermodynamic models

A2.8 Examples of application


Appendix 3. LNG Plant Relief and Flare Systems Design Guideline

A3.1 Introduction

A3.2 Flare and relief design considerations

A3.3 Relief scenarios

A3.4 Plant failure causes

A3.5 Equipment or operation failure

A3.6 Operator intervention

A3.7 Operation relieves

A3.8 Design pressure

A3.9 Design temperature

A3.10 Other design considerations



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About the Author

Saeid Mokhatab

Saeid Mokhatab is one of the most recognizable names in the natural gas community through his contributions to advancing the technologies in the natural gas processing industry. He has worked in a variety of senior technical and managerial positions with major petroleum companies and has been actively involved in several large-scale gas-field development projects, concentrating on design, precommissioning and startup of processing plants. He has presented numerous invited lectures on gas processing technologies, and has authored or co-authored over 200 technical publications including two well-known Elsevier’s handbooks, which are considered by many as major references to be taken into account for any gas processing/LNG project in development. He founded the world’s first peer-reviewed journal devoted to the natural gas science and engineering (published by Elsevier, USA); has held editorial positions in many scientific journals/book publishing companies for the hydrocarbon processing industry; and served as a member of technical committees for a number of professional societies and famous gas-processing conferences worldwide. As a result of his outstanding work in the natural gas industry, he has received a number of international awards/medals including the Einstein Gold Medal of Honor and Kapitsa Gold Medal of Honor; and his biography has been listed in highly prestigious directories.

Affiliations and Expertise

Gas Processing Consultant, UAE

John Mak

John Y. Mak is a Senior Fellow and Technical Director at Fluor, USA, and leads the technology and design development for the chemical and energy sectors at Fluor. He has been with Fluor for over 40 years and has been leading domestic and global oil and gas and refinery projects from conceptual design, feasibility study, FEED and detailed engineering to plant startup and operation. John has made significant contributions to the technologies in natural gas treating, NGL recovery, LNG liquefaction and regasification, coal gasification and carbon capture. He is the co-author of the Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas - 1st edition (2013) published by Elsevier, USA, and has presented over 60 technical papers at the GPA (Gas Processors Association) and LRGCC (Laurance Reid Gas Conditioning Conference), China Coal Forum and other technical conferences. John is the inventor of over 80 patent and patent-pending processes, which have been used in projects at Fluor. His patented technologies have been proven to improve energy efficiency, lower emissions, and reduce cost for many of his clients. John’s current focus is on liquid recovery for shale gas projects and treating of the difficult gases, such as the high carbon dioxide and nitrogen content gases for offshore projects.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Fellow and Technical Director at Fluor, USA

Jaleel Valappil

Jaleel V. Valappil is a senior engineering specialist with Bechtel Oil, Gas & Chemicals in Houston, TX, USA. He has several years of experience in process simulation, advanced process control and optimization of various processes including LNG. Before joining Bechtel, he was a senior consulting engineer with the Advanced Control Services Group of Aspen Technology Inc., where he was responsible for developing and implementing advanced control and optimization solutions for a variety of processes. He has worked extensively on developing and deploying process simulation models for applications in design, engineering, and operations of LNG plant built by Bechtel in collaboration with Conoco Phillips over the years. He identified the benefits of lifecycle modeling for LNG plants and its use for plant design, operability/controllability studies, startup simulations and Operator Training Simulators, multi-train LNG facility debottlenecking and operational troubleshooting. Dr. Valappil has also developed and deployed Advanced Process Control technology for LNG processes, for plants in engineering stage and plants that are already operating. He has published several papers on LNG plant simulation and control in both industry conferences and journals and holds patents related to LNG plant control and turbo-machinery operation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Jaleel V. Valappil is a senior engineering specialist with Bechtel Oil, Gas & Chemicals in Houston, TX, USA

David Wood

Dr. David Wood is currently an independent international consultant, researcher, training provider and expert witness with DWA Energy Limited. He has more than thirty-five years of international oil and gas experience spanning technical and commercial exploration and production operations, midstream and downstream project, risk and fiscal analysis, optimization, contract evaluation and senior corporate management. His early energy industry experience includes Phillips Petroleum, Amoco (Africa, Europe and UK), Lundin Oil (South America, Africa, Middle and Far East) and several smaller international companies. David earned a Ph.D. from Imperial College and worked as a post-doctoral research fellow in the Institute de Physique du Globe (France) and Birmingham University (U.K.).

Affiliations and Expertise

Owner/Consultant, DWA Energy Limited, UK


"This book is a great primer on all aspects of the LNG Industry. It contains the key information we all search for in a single location and it does an excellent job of highlighting the key considerations that must be taken into account for any LNG project in development." --Tom Phalen, Vice President of Upstream Project Operations, Fluor, USA

"As well as covering some topics rarely discussed and hard to find in the literature, the complex elements of the LNG industry are fully addressed in a straightforward fashion that makes the book appealing to all parties who are involved in the global LNG business." --Philip Hunter, Senior LNG Consultant, Bechtel, UK

"This is the first book which has filled all the gaps in the treatment of complete LNG supply chain from conceptual to commissioning and beyond. I will highly recommend it as a textbook for any Natural Gas graduate degree program anywhere." --Dr. Suresh C. Sharma, Professor and Director of Natural Gas Engineering and Management, University of Oklahoma, USA

"This comprehensive handbook provides practical guidance for all professionals in the LNG industry while maintaining as much rigor as possible. I believe academic institutions that have courses in natural gas engineering should consider this handbook as a textbook." --Dr. Kenneth R. Hall, Professor of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, USA

"This book will be a welcome addition to libraries for anyone in the LNG Business from commercial, technical or operational. Even a brief review of the Table of Contents leaves one with a WOW and wondering where to start as it covers all the areas that one would want to either review or dive into something new. I highly recommend this valuable resource." --David Messersmith, Bechtel Fellow and Manager of LNG Technology Group, Bechtel OG&C, USA

"This well-balanced handbook is the only book of its kind, covering all aspects of the LNG supply chain in more detail. I highly recommend it as an excellent reference for all professionals, engineers, and scientists working in the LNG industry, and as a textbook for graduate students in the gas engineering curriculum." --Dr. Brian F. Towler, Professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and CEAS Fellow for Hydrocarbon Energy Resources, University of Wyoming, USA

"This book is an important contribution to the professional literature in the crucial area of the emerging energy scene, offering a complete coverage of key topics in the LNG supply chain. The complete, accurate, and easy-to-use description of issues is also extended to cross-cut controversial topics such as LNG safety. The book provides an excellent access to a number of design guidelines and operating procedures, which makes it a standalone reference for LNG industry professionals and a state-of-theart textbook for graduate programs on the subject." --Dr. Valerio Cozzani, Professor of Chemical Engineering and Director of Post-Graduate Program on Oil & Gas Process Design, University of Bologna, Italy

"It is the first book on LNG supply chain management and gives an accurate picture of where the LNG industry stands today. This high-quality, comprehensive book provides a better understanding of LNG plant design and operational considerations and covers subject areas missed by other references in these areas. I believe it is a valuable addition to the literature and will serve as a desk reference for practicing engineers and technologists, and as an excellent source of teaching and learning in undergraduate and graduate programs on the subject area." --Dr. Faisal Khan, Professor and Vale Research Chair of Safety and Risk Engineering Memorial University, Canada

"Given the fact that LNG is the fastest growing energy carrier in the world and the trend is toward a wider range of applications for LNG technologies, a handbook like this one covering the entire LNG supply chain with issues of design, operation, and safety will be highly appreciated by plant designers, engineers, and operators in the LNG industry. Of course, parts of the book also provide excellent textbook or reference material for graduate courses in the gas processing field." --Dr. Truls Gundersen, Professor of Energy and Process Engineering Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway

"The reference for liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant designers, engineers, and operators, and project developers and managers covers the complete LNG supply chain from liquefaction to regasification. It also summarizes the industry's fundamentals, engineering, and design principles, so can be used as a textbook for students in petroleum and chemical engineering curricula." --ProtoView.com, 2014

Ratings and Reviews