Handbook of Infrared Detection Technologies

Handbook of Infrared Detection Technologies

1st Edition - November 1, 2002

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  • Editors: M. Henini, M Razeghi
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781856173889
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080507910

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The use of lasers which emit infra-red radiation and sophisticated detectors of IR radiation is increasing dramatically: they are being used for long-distance fibre-optic communications and remote environmental monitoring and sensing. Thus they are of interest to the telecommunications industry and the military in particular. This book has been designed to bring together what is known on these devices, using an international group of contributors.


Those involved in the design, manufacture and processing of Infra-red devices; materials manufacture and use in corporate, government and academic facilities world-wide.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 - Introduction (M. Henini, M.Razeghi)

    Chapter 2 - Comparison of photon and thermal detector performance (A. Rogalski)

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Fundamental limits to infrared detector performance

    2.2.1 Photon detectors

    2.2.2 Thermal detectors

    2.2.3 Comparison of the fundamental limits of photon and thermal detectors

    2.3 Focal plane array performance

    2.4 FPAs of photon detectors

    2.4.1 InSb photodiodes

    2.4.2 HgCdTe photodiodes

    2.4.3 Photoemissive PtSi Schottky-barrier detectors

    2.4.4 Extrinsic photoconductors

    2.4.5 GaAs/AIGaAs QWIPs

    2.4.6 QWIP versus HgCdTe in the LWIR spectral region

    2.5 Dual-band FPAs

    2.5.1 Dual-band HgCdTe

    2.5.2 Dual-band QWIPs

    2.6 FPAs of thermal detectors

    2.6.1 Micromachined silicon bolometers

    2.6.2 Pyroelectric arrays

    2.6.3 Thermoelectric arrays

    2.6.4 Status and trends of uncooled arrays

    2.7 Conclusions



    Chapter 3 - GaAs/AIGaAs based quantum well intrared photodetector focal plane arrays (S.D. Gunapala, S.V. Bandara)

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Detectivity D* comparison

    3.3 Effect of nonuniformity

    3.4 640x512 pixel long-wavelength portable QWIP camera

    3.5 640x486 long-wavelength dual-band imaging camera

    3.6 640x512 pixel broad-band QWIP imaging camera

    3.7 640x512 spatially separated four-band QWIP focal plane array

    3.8 QWIPs for low background and low temerature operation

    3.9 Summary



    Chapter 4 - GaInAs(P) based QWIPs on GaAs, InP and Si substrates for focal plane arrays (J. Jaing, M. Razeghi)

    4.1 Introduction

    4.1.1 Overview of infrared detector

    4.1.2 Quantum well infrared photodetector

    4.1.3 State-of-the-art

    4.2 Fundamentals of QWIP

    4.2.1 Intersubband absorption

    4.2.2 QWIP parameters

    4.2.3 Comparison of n-type and p-type QWIPs

    4.2.4 Growth, fabrication and device characterization of a single QWIP device

    4.3 Fabrication of infrared FPA

    4.3.1 Infrared FPA fabrication steps

    4.3.2 Indium solder bump fabrication steps

    4.3.3 ROIC for infrared FPA

    4.4 p-type QWIPS

    4.4.1 p-type MWIR QWIPS

    4.4.2 p-type LWIR QWIPS

    4.5 n-type QWIPS

    4.5.1 n-type LWIR QWIPS

    4.5.2 n-type VLWIR QWIPS

    4.5.3 Multi-colour QWIPS

    4.6 Low Cost QWIP FPA integrated with Si substrate

    4.6.1 Overview of QWIPs on Si

    4.6.2 Growth of GaInAs/InP QWIP-on-Si

    4.6.3 Detector performance of GaInAs/InP QWIP-on-Si

    4.6.4 How to fabricate a monolithic integrated FPA with Si substrate

    4.7 New approaches of QWIP

    4.8 Conslusions


    Chapter 5 - InAs/(Galn)Sb superlattices: a promising material system for infrared detection (L. Burkle, F. Fuchs)

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Materials properties

    5.2.1 Bandstructure of InAs/(BaIn)Sb superlattices

    5.2.2 X-ray characterization


    5.2.4 Sample homogeneity

    5.2.5 Residual doping

    5.3 Superlattice photodiodes

    5.3.1 Diode structure

    5.3.2 Diode processing

    5.3.3 Photo response

    5.3.4 I-V measurements

    5.3.5 C-V measurements

    5.3.6 Noise measurement

    5.4 Summary and outlook


    Chapter 6 - GaSb/InAs superlattices for infrared FPAs (M. Razeghi, H. Mohseni)

    6.1 Type-II heterostructures

    6.1.1 Historical review

    6.1.2 Definition of type-II band alignment

    6.1.3 Features of type-II band alignment and their applications

    6.2 Type-II infrared detectors

    6.2.1 Principle of operation

    6.2.2 Band structure of type-II superlattices

    6.2.3 Optical absorption in type-II superlattices

    6.2.4 Modeling and simulation of type-II superlattices

    6.3 Experimental results from type-II photoconductors

    6.3.1 Uncooled type-II photoconductors in the &lgr;=8-12 &mgr;m range

    6.3.2 Cooled type-II photoconductors for &lgr; ⩽ 20 &mgr;m

    6.4 Experimental results from type-II photodiodes

    6.4.1 Uncooled type-II photodiodes in the &lgr;=8-12 &mgr;m range

    6.4.2 Cooled type-II photodiodes in the &lgr; ⩽ 14 &mgr;m range

    6.5 Future work


    Chapter 7 - MCT properties, growth methods and characterization (R.E. Longshore)

    7.1 Preface

    7.2 Introduction

    7.2.1 Brief history

    7.3 MCT Characteristics and material properties

    7.3.1 Composition and crystal structure

    7.3.2 Bandgap

    7.3.3 Intrinsic carrier concentration

    7.3.4 Doping and impurities

    7.3.5 Carrier mobility

    7.3.6 Carrier lifetime

    7.3.7 Defects

    7.4 MCT crystal growth methods

    7.4.1 Phase diagrams

    7.4.2 Bulk growth

    7.4.3 Expitaxial growth

    7.5 Material characterization methods

    7.5.1 Material composition

    7.5.2 Measurements of carrier concentration and mobility

    7.6 Summary


    Chapter 8 - HgCdTe 2D arrays - technology and performance limits (I.M. Baker)

    8.2 Introduction

    8.1.1 Historical perspective

    8.2 Applications and sensor design

    8.3 Comparison of HgCdTe with other 2D array materials

    8.4 Multiplexers for HgCdTe 2D arrays

    8.4.1 Photocurrent injection techniques

    8.4.2 Scanning architectures

    8.4.3 Future trends

    8.5 Theoretical foundations for HgCdTe array technology

    8.5.1 Thermal diffusion current in HgCdTe

    8.5.2 Leakage currents

    8.5.3 Photocurrent and quantum efficiency

    8.6 Technology of HgCdTe photovoltaic devices

    8.6.1 Materials growth technology

    8.6.2 Junction forming techniques in homojunction arrays

    8.6.3 Device structures

    8.7 Measurements and figures of merit for 2D arrays

    8.7.1 NETD - theoretical calcuation

    8.7.2 NETD - experimental measurement

    8.7.3 Relationship of NETD with other figures of merit

    8.8 HgCdTe 2D arrays for 3-5 &mgr;m (MW) band

    8.9 HgCdTe 2D arrays for 8-12 &mgr;m (LW) band

    8.9.1 Array design issues

    8.9.2 Introduction to performance limitations in LW arrays

    8.9.3 Cause of defective elements in HgCdTe 2D arrays

    8.10 HgCdTe 2D arrays for the 1-3 &mgr;m (SW) band

    8.11 Towards GEN III detectors

    8.11.1 Two-colour array technology

    8.11.2 Higher operating temperature (HOT) device structures

    8.11.3 Retina level processing

    8.12 Conclusion and future trends



    Chapter 9 - Status of HgCdTe MBE technology (T.J. de Lyon, R.D. Rajavel, J.A. Roth, J.E. Jensen)

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 HgCdTe MBE equipment and process sensors

    9.2.1 Vacuum equipment and sources

    9.2.2 HgCdTe MBE process senosors

    9.3 HgCdTe MBE growth process

    9.3.1 Substrate preparation

    9.3.2 Growth conditions

    9.3.3 Defects

    9.3.4 Doping

    9.4 Device applications

    9.4.1 Multispectral HgCdTe infrared detectors

    9.4.2 Near-infrared avalanche photodiodes

    9.4.3 High-performance MWIR detectors

    9.4.4 Large-format arrays on silicon substrates



    Chapter 10 - Silicon infrared focal plane arrays (M. Kimata)

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Cooled FPAs

    10.2.1 Schottky-barrier FPAs

    10.2.2 Heterojunction internal photoemission FPAs

    10.3 Uncooled FPAs

    10.3.1 Silicon On Insulator (SOI) diode FPAs

    10.3.2 Si-based resistance bolometer FPAs

    10.3.3 Thermopile FPAs

    10.4 Summary


    Chapter 11 - Infrared silicon/germanium detectors (H. Presting)

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Near Infrared detector

    11.2.1 General operation principle

    11.2.2 Detector growth and fabrication

    11.2.3 Results and discussion

    11.3. Mid-and long-wavelength SiGe IR detectors

    11.3.1 Introduction

    11.3.2 Principle of operation of HIP detectors

    11.3.3 Growth and material characterization

    11.3.4 Experimental results and discussion

    11.3.5 Calculation of optical properties of SiGe HIP detectors

    11.3.6 Résumeé and outlook for SiGe MWIR detectors



    Chapter 12 - PolySiGe uncooled microbolometers for thermal IR detection (C. Van Hoof, P. De Moor)

    12.1 Introduction

    12.1.1 Uncooled resistive microbolometers

    12.1.2 Microbolometer terminology

    12.1.3 Microbolometer process options

    12.2 Structural, thermal and electrical properties of polySiGe

    12.2.1 Deposition of polySiGe

    12.2.2 Structural properties

    12.2.3 Thermal properties

    12.2.4 Electrical properties

    12.2.5 High-temperature vs. low-temperature polySiGe

    12.3 PolySiGe bolometer pixel

    12.3.1 Process development

    12.3.2 Absorber comparison and trade-offs

    12.3.3 Pixel optimization

    12.3.4 Vapor HF processing

    12.3.5 Stiffness enhancement techniques

    12.4 Readout and system development

    12.4.1 Introduction

    12.4.2 Readout of polySiGe bolometer arrays

    12.5 Zero-level vacuum packaging

    12.5.1 Introduction

    12.5.2 Indent-Reflow Sealing using metal solder

    12.5.3 Zero-level packaging using BCB

    12.5.4 Hermeticity testing using microbolometers

    12.6 Conclusions and outlook



    Chapter 13 - Fundamentals of spin filtering in ferromagnetic metals with application to spin sensors (H.J. Drouhin)

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Theoretical IMFP variation

    13.2.1 The simplest model - mathematical bases of the calculation

    13.2.2 A more complete treatment

    13.2.3 An intuitive derivation

    13.2.4 Comparison with the Schönhense and Siegmann model

    13.3 Experimental study of ▴ &sgr;

    13.4 Spin precession and spin filters

    13.4.1 Density-operator formalism

    13.4.2 Electron transmission through ferromagnetic bilayers

    13.4.3 The bilayer with collinear magnetizations

    13.4.4 The bilayer with perpendicular magnetizations

    13.5 Discussion and conclusion



Product details

  • No. of pages: 532
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2002
  • Published: November 1, 2002
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781856173889
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080507910

About the Editors

M. Henini

M Razeghi

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Center for Quantum Devices, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northwestern University, USA

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