Handbook of Immunohistochemistry and in situ Hybridization of Human Carcinomas - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123694027, 9780080457871

Handbook of Immunohistochemistry and in situ Hybridization of Human Carcinomas

1st Edition

Molecular Genetics, Gastrointestinal Carcinoma, and Ovarian Carcinoma

Editors: M. Hayat
eBook ISBN: 9780080457871
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123694027
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 18th May 2006
Page Count: 608
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Description

Classical histology has been augmented by immunohistochemistry (the use of specific antibodies to stain particular molecular species in situ). Immunohistochemistry has allowed the identification of many more cell types than could be visualized by classical histology, particularly in the immune system and among the scattered hormone-secreting cells of the endocrine system.

This book discusses all aspects of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization technologies and the important role they play in reaching a cancer diagnosis. It provides step-by-step instructions on the methods of additional molecular technologies such as DNA microarrays, and microdissection, along with the benefits and limitations of each method.

Key Features

  • The only book available that translates molecular genetics into cancer diagnosis
  • Methods were developed by internationally-recognized experts and presented in step-by-step manner
  • Results of each Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization are presented in the form of color illustrations

Readership

Academic/clinical professors, post-doctoral fellows, graduate and medical students in cancer research, oncology, pathology, biology, immunology, bioinformatics, endocrinology, gastroenterology, and reproductive oncology.

Table of Contents

Dedication

Authors and Coauthors of Volume 4

Foreword

Preface

Selected Definitions

Classification Scheme of Human Cancers

Identification of Tumor-Specific Genes

Tumor-Specific and Tumor-Associated Genes

Identification of Tumor-Associated Antigens

Identification of Tumor-Specific Genes via Differential Ribonucleic Acid Expression

Identification of Tumor-Specific Genes by Proteomic Approaches

Conclusion

Role of Bioinformatics in Identification of Tumor-Specific Genes

The Molecular Signature of a Tumor

Acknowledgment

The Post-Translational Phase of Gene Expression in Tumor Diagnosis

Introduction

General Aspects of Proprotein Processing

Examples of Proprotein Processing

Processing-Independent Analysis

Problems and Pitfalls of Processing-Independent Analysis Measurements

Processing-Independent Analysis in Tumor Diagnosis

Perspective

Summary

Acknowledgments

Role of Tumor Suppressor BARD1 in Apoptosis and Cancer

Epidemiology and Prognostic Factors of Cancer

Breast Cancer and the BRCA Genes

BARD1 Discovery and Structure Overview

BARD1 Expression Pattern and Subcellular Localization

Biological Functions of BARD1

BRCA1-Independent Function of BARD1 in Apoptosis

Expression of BARD1 in Cancer

Summary

Acknowledgments

Angiogenesis, Metastasis, and Epigenetics in Cancer

Introduction

Epigenetic Influence on Gene Expression

Tumor Angiogenesis

Tissue Invasion and the Metastatic Process

Epigenetic Influence on Angiogenesis and Metastasis

Therapeutic Implications

Beyond the Epigenome

Can Effector Cells Really “Effect” an Anti-Tumor Response as Cancer Therapy?

How Do We See the Immune System?

Diversity: Is It a True Reflection of Function?

Induction of Immunity

Passive Immunity

Chemokines as Regulators of T Cell Differentiation

Effector Populations and Breaking Immunologic Tolerance

Tumor Cell Escape from Effector Cells

Dendritic Cells as a Unique Immune Interloper

Vaccines for Cancer

Enhancing Cellular Immune Responses—The Prime-Boost Strategy

Acknowledgments

Circulating Cancer Cells

Introduction

Target Organ and Sample Collection

Investigation of Various Cancers

Future Prospects

Circulating Cancer Cells: Flow Cytometry, Video Microscopy, and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

Introduction

Acknowledgments

Gastrointestinal Carcinoma: An Introduction

Early Gastric Cancer

Granulomatous Gastritis

Genetics of Gastric Cancer

Role of Microsatellite Instability and Loss of Heterozygosity

Biomarkers for Gastric Carcinoma

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of p53 in Gastric Carcinoma

Introduction

Acknowledgments

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of p53 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gastric Carcinoma

Introduction

Protocol

Acknowledgment

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of p150 in Gastric Carcinoma: The Association with p53, Apoptosis, and Cell Proliferation

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Ki-67 in Adenocarcinoma of Large Intestine

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of KIT/CD117 in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Introduction

Summary

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of BUB1 Protein in Gastric Cancer

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor in Gastric Tumors

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Beta-Catenin and Mucin in Stomach Cancer

Introduction

Loss of Cyclin D2 Expression in Gastric Cancer

Introduction

Overexpression of Cyclin D2 and Cancer

Low or Absent Cyclin D2 Expression in Gastric Cancer

Possible Mechanisms of Cyclin D2 Gene Silencing

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of E-Cadherin in Diffuse-Type Gastric Cancer

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli and E-Cadherin in Gastric Carcinoma

Introduction

Immunohistochemical Expression of Chromogranin A and Leu-7 in Gastrointestinal Carcinoids

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of MUC5B in Gastric Carcinoma

Introduction

Immunohistochemical Evaluation of MUC5B Expression in Gastric Carcinoma

Association between MUC5B Expression and Clinicopathologic Parameters of Gastric Carcinoma

Association between MUC5B Expression and That of Mucins MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6

Angiogenin in Gastric Cancer and Its Roles in Malignancy

Introduction

Future Perspectives

Conclusions

Role of Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Cancer

Introduction

Mechanisms Responsible for Helicobacter pylori-Related Gastric Cancer

Multistep Process of Intestinal-Type Gastric Cancer “Correa’s Model”

Concluding Remarks

Protein Alterations in Gastric Adenocarcinoma

Introduction

Concluding Remarks

Vesicle Proteins in Neuroendocrine and Nonendocrine Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Introduction

Acknowledgments

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Caspase-3 in Gastric Carcinoma

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of PRL-3 Phosphatase in Gastric Carcinoma

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of DNA Methyltransferase 1 Protein in Gastric Carcinoma

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Cytoplasmic Trefoil Factor Family-2 in Gastric Cancer

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Cytokeratins in Small Intestinal Adenocarcinoma

Introduction

Summary

Quantitative Immunohistochemistry by Determining the Norm of the Image Data File

Introduction

Ovarian Carcinoma: An Introduction

Ovarian Carcinoma Classification

Ovarian Cancer Genetics

Role of Loss of Heterozygosity

Ovarian Metastasis

Biomarkers for Ovarian Carcinoma

Selected Biomarkers

Chemotherapy

Methods for Detecting Genetic Abnormalities in Ovarian Carcinoma Using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry

Introduction

Ovarian Carcinoma Specimen Preparation

Ovarian Carcinoma Chromosome and Gene Analysis with Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

Principles and Methods of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Assay Procedure

Ovarian Carcinoma Immunohistochemistry

Acknowledgments

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of HER2/neu in High-Grade Ovarian Serous Papillary Cancer

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of BRCA1 in Ovarian Carcinoma

Introduction

BRCA1 Antibodies for Immunohistochemical Analysis

Subcellular Localization of BRCA1 Assessed by Immunohistochemistry

Immunohistochemical Expression of BRCA1 as a Prognostic Factor in Sporadic Ovarian Carcinoma

Prediction for BRCA1 Mutation in Ovarian Carcinoma by Immunohistochemistry

Role of BRCA1/BRCA2 in Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Peritoneal Papillary Serous Carcinoma

Introduction

Conclusions

K-Ras Mutations in Serous Borderline Tumors of the Ovary

Introduction

Concluding Remarks

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Ki-67 in Ovarian Carcinoma

Introduction

Role of Expression of Estrogen Receptor β, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, and p53 in Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumors

Introduction

Concluding Remarks

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Ovarian Serous Carcinoma

Introduction

Evaluating/Scoring the Immunohistochemical for Cyclooxygenase-2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

Discussion

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Cyclooxygenase and Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor γ in Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

Introduction

Study Population

CDX2 Immunostaining in Primary and Secondary Ovarian Carcinomas

Introduction

Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and the E-Cadherin–Catenin Complex

Introduction

Role of Cytokeratin Immunohistochemistry in the Differential Diagnosis of Ovarian Tumors

Introduction

Interpretive Guidelines

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Cytokeratins and Mucins in Ampullary Carcinomas

Introduction

Role of Integrins in Ovarian Cancer

Introduction

Pathology and Staging

Histologic Grading

Integrins in Ovarian Cancer

Immunohistochemical Localization of Integrins in Ovarian Cancer Tissues

Choice of Antibody

Antigen-Retrieval Protocols

Quality Control

Detection of Integrins in Ovarian Cancer Cells by Immunoprecipitation Techniques

Choice of Antibody

Detection of Integrins in Ovarian Cancer Cells by Immunoblotting Techniques

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 in Ovarian Cancer

Introduction

Use of Microarray in Immunohistochemical Localization of SMAD in Ovarian Carcinoma

Introduction

Acknowledgments

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Fas in Ovarian Carcinoma

Introduction

Antibodies

Immunohistochemistry

Acknowledgments

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Lewis Y Antigen in Ovarian Carcinoma

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of ETS-1 Factor in Ovarian Carcinoma

Introduction

Role of MCL-1 in Ovarian Carcinoma

Introduction

Acknowledgments

Role of Elf-1 in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma: Immunohistochemistry

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of OCT4 in Ovarian Dysgerminoma

Introduction

Immunohistochemical Validation of B7-H4 (DD-O110) as a Biomarker of Ovarian Cancer: Correlation with CA-125

Introduction

Acknowledgments

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Alpha Glutathione S-Transferase in Ovarian Carcinoma

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Aminopeptidases in Ovarian Carcinoma

Introduction

Expression of Angiopoietin-1, Angiopoietin-2, and Tie2 in Normal Ovary with Corpus Luteum and in Ovarian Carcinoma

Introduction

Sample Collection

Tissue Specimen and Ribonucleic Acid Preparation

Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

Probe Synthesis

In situ Hybridization

Immunohistochemical Staining

Statistical Analysis

Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction and Ang1, Ang2, and Tie2 Gene Expression

Acknowledgments

The Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin-D3-Receptors in Ovarian Carcinoma

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Antigens in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Ovary and Its Differential Diagnostic Considerations

Introduction

Role of Immunohistochemistry

Adjunct Studies

Role of Immunohistochemistry in Elucidating Lung Cancer Metastatic to the Ovary from Primary Ovarian Carcinoma

Introduction

Immunohistochemistry Basics

Conclusion

Index

0–9

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Details

No. of pages:
608
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2006
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080457871
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123694027

About the Editor

M. Hayat

M. Hayat

Dr. Hayat has published extensively in the fields of microscopy, cytology, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and antigen retrieval methods. He is Distinguished Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Kean University, Union, New Jersey, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Kean University, Union, NJ, USA

Reviews

“The basics of cell biology and molecular biology precede each section that describes defects in genetic/epigenetic control. Gaining an understanding of molecular genetic defects in cancer, authors then proceed to tell you how to measure the defects, which reinforces your understanding of the basic pathobiologic process. The latest therapies are discussed in the context of how to repair these molecular defects. Timely chapters on specific molecular topics in ovarian and gastrointestinal tumors are presented in the format of formal research papers. Extremely well written and succinct, a perfect marriage of information for students at any level, from medical student to professors of oncology.” -- David J. Dabbs, M.D., Chief of Pathology, Magee Women’s Hospital University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine