Handbook of Immunohistochemistry and in situ Hybridization of Human Carcinomas

Handbook of Immunohistochemistry and in situ Hybridization of Human Carcinomas

Molecular Genetics, Gastrointestinal Carcinoma, and Ovarian Carcinoma

1st Edition - May 10, 2006

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  • Editor: M. Hayat
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080457871

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Description

Classical histology has been augmented by immunohistochemistry (the use of specific antibodies to stain particular molecular species in situ). Immunohistochemistry has allowed the identification of many more cell types than could be visualized by classical histology, particularly in the immune system and among the scattered hormone-secreting cells of the endocrine system. This book discusses all aspects of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization technologies and the important role they play in reaching a cancer diagnosis. It provides step-by-step instructions on the methods of additional molecular technologies such as DNA microarrays, and microdissection, along with the benefits and limitations of each method.

Key Features

* The only book available that translates molecular genetics into cancer diagnosis
* Methods were developed by internationally-recognized experts and presented in step-by-step manner
* Results of each Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization are presented in the form of color illustrations

Readership

Academic/clinical professors, post-doctoral fellows, graduate and medical students in cancer research, oncology, pathology, biology, immunology, bioinformatics, endocrinology, gastroenterology, and reproductive oncology.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Authors and Coauthors of Volume 4

    Foreword

    Preface

    Selected Definitions

    Classification Scheme of Human Cancers

    Identification of Tumor-Specific Genes

    Tumor-Specific and Tumor-Associated Genes

    Identification of Tumor-Associated Antigens

    Identification of Tumor-Specific Genes via Differential Ribonucleic Acid Expression

    Identification of Tumor-Specific Genes by Proteomic Approaches

    Conclusion

    Role of Bioinformatics in Identification of Tumor-Specific Genes

    The Molecular Signature of a Tumor

    Acknowledgment

    The Post-Translational Phase of Gene Expression in Tumor Diagnosis

    Introduction

    General Aspects of Proprotein Processing

    Examples of Proprotein Processing

    Processing-Independent Analysis

    Problems and Pitfalls of Processing-Independent Analysis Measurements

    Processing-Independent Analysis in Tumor Diagnosis

    Perspective

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    Role of Tumor Suppressor BARD1 in Apoptosis and Cancer

    Epidemiology and Prognostic Factors of Cancer

    Breast Cancer and the BRCA Genes

    BARD1 Discovery and Structure Overview

    BARD1 Expression Pattern and Subcellular Localization

    Biological Functions of BARD1

    BRCA1-Independent Function of BARD1 in Apoptosis

    Expression of BARD1 in Cancer

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    Angiogenesis, Metastasis, and Epigenetics in Cancer

    Introduction

    Epigenetic Influence on Gene Expression

    Tumor Angiogenesis

    Tissue Invasion and the Metastatic Process

    Epigenetic Influence on Angiogenesis and Metastasis

    Therapeutic Implications

    Beyond the Epigenome

    Can Effector Cells Really “Effect” an Anti-Tumor Response as Cancer Therapy?

    How Do We See the Immune System?

    Diversity: Is It a True Reflection of Function?

    Induction of Immunity

    Passive Immunity

    Chemokines as Regulators of T Cell Differentiation

    Effector Populations and Breaking Immunologic Tolerance

    Tumor Cell Escape from Effector Cells

    Dendritic Cells as a Unique Immune Interloper

    Vaccines for Cancer

    Enhancing Cellular Immune Responses—The Prime-Boost Strategy

    Acknowledgments

    Circulating Cancer Cells

    Introduction

    Target Organ and Sample Collection

    Investigation of Various Cancers

    Future Prospects

    Circulating Cancer Cells: Flow Cytometry, Video Microscopy, and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    Introduction

    Acknowledgments

    Gastrointestinal Carcinoma: An Introduction

    Early Gastric Cancer

    Granulomatous Gastritis

    Genetics of Gastric Cancer

    Role of Microsatellite Instability and Loss of Heterozygosity

    Biomarkers for Gastric Carcinoma

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of p53 in Gastric Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Acknowledgments

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of p53 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gastric Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Protocol

    Acknowledgment

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of p150 in Gastric Carcinoma: The Association with p53, Apoptosis, and Cell Proliferation

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Ki-67 in Adenocarcinoma of Large Intestine

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of KIT/CD117 in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Introduction

    Summary

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of BUB1 Protein in Gastric Cancer

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor in Gastric Tumors

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Beta-Catenin and Mucin in Stomach Cancer

    Introduction

    Loss of Cyclin D2 Expression in Gastric Cancer

    Introduction

    Overexpression of Cyclin D2 and Cancer

    Low or Absent Cyclin D2 Expression in Gastric Cancer

    Possible Mechanisms of Cyclin D2 Gene Silencing

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of E-Cadherin in Diffuse-Type Gastric Cancer

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli and E-Cadherin in Gastric Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Immunohistochemical Expression of Chromogranin A and Leu-7 in Gastrointestinal Carcinoids

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of MUC5B in Gastric Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Immunohistochemical Evaluation of MUC5B Expression in Gastric Carcinoma

    Association between MUC5B Expression and Clinicopathologic Parameters of Gastric Carcinoma

    Association between MUC5B Expression and That of Mucins MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6

    Angiogenin in Gastric Cancer and Its Roles in Malignancy

    Introduction

    Future Perspectives

    Conclusions

    Role of Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Cancer

    Introduction

    Mechanisms Responsible for Helicobacter pylori-Related Gastric Cancer

    Multistep Process of Intestinal-Type Gastric Cancer “Correa’s Model”

    Concluding Remarks

    Protein Alterations in Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    Introduction

    Concluding Remarks

    Vesicle Proteins in Neuroendocrine and Nonendocrine Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Introduction

    Acknowledgments

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Caspase-3 in Gastric Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of PRL-3 Phosphatase in Gastric Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of DNA Methyltransferase 1 Protein in Gastric Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Cytoplasmic Trefoil Factor Family-2 in Gastric Cancer

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Cytokeratins in Small Intestinal Adenocarcinoma

    Introduction

    Summary

    Quantitative Immunohistochemistry by Determining the Norm of the Image Data File

    Introduction

    Ovarian Carcinoma: An Introduction

    Ovarian Carcinoma Classification

    Ovarian Cancer Genetics

    Role of Loss of Heterozygosity

    Ovarian Metastasis

    Biomarkers for Ovarian Carcinoma

    Selected Biomarkers

    Chemotherapy

    Methods for Detecting Genetic Abnormalities in Ovarian Carcinoma Using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry

    Introduction

    Ovarian Carcinoma Specimen Preparation

    Ovarian Carcinoma Chromosome and Gene Analysis with Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Principles and Methods of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Assay Procedure

    Ovarian Carcinoma Immunohistochemistry

    Acknowledgments

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of HER2/neu in High-Grade Ovarian Serous Papillary Cancer

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of BRCA1 in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Introduction

    BRCA1 Antibodies for Immunohistochemical Analysis

    Subcellular Localization of BRCA1 Assessed by Immunohistochemistry

    Immunohistochemical Expression of BRCA1 as a Prognostic Factor in Sporadic Ovarian Carcinoma

    Prediction for BRCA1 Mutation in Ovarian Carcinoma by Immunohistochemistry

    Role of BRCA1/BRCA2 in Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Peritoneal Papillary Serous Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Conclusions

    K-Ras Mutations in Serous Borderline Tumors of the Ovary

    Introduction

    Concluding Remarks

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Ki-67 in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Role of Expression of Estrogen Receptor β, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, and p53 in Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumors

    Introduction

    Concluding Remarks

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Ovarian Serous Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Evaluating/Scoring the Immunohistochemical for Cyclooxygenase-2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    Discussion

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Cyclooxygenase and Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor γ in Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    Introduction

    Study Population

    CDX2 Immunostaining in Primary and Secondary Ovarian Carcinomas

    Introduction

    Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and the E-Cadherin–Catenin Complex

    Introduction

    Role of Cytokeratin Immunohistochemistry in the Differential Diagnosis of Ovarian Tumors

    Introduction

    Interpretive Guidelines

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Cytokeratins and Mucins in Ampullary Carcinomas

    Introduction

    Role of Integrins in Ovarian Cancer

    Introduction

    Pathology and Staging

    Histologic Grading

    Integrins in Ovarian Cancer

    Immunohistochemical Localization of Integrins in Ovarian Cancer Tissues

    Choice of Antibody

    Antigen-Retrieval Protocols

    Quality Control

    Detection of Integrins in Ovarian Cancer Cells by Immunoprecipitation Techniques

    Choice of Antibody

    Detection of Integrins in Ovarian Cancer Cells by Immunoblotting Techniques

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 in Ovarian Cancer

    Introduction

    Use of Microarray in Immunohistochemical Localization of SMAD in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Acknowledgments

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Fas in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Antibodies

    Immunohistochemistry

    Acknowledgments

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Lewis Y Antigen in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of ETS-1 Factor in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Role of MCL-1 in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Acknowledgments

    Role of Elf-1 in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma: Immunohistochemistry

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of OCT4 in Ovarian Dysgerminoma

    Introduction

    Immunohistochemical Validation of B7-H4 (DD-O110) as a Biomarker of Ovarian Cancer: Correlation with CA-125

    Introduction

    Acknowledgments

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Alpha Glutathione S-Transferase in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Aminopeptidases in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Expression of Angiopoietin-1, Angiopoietin-2, and Tie2 in Normal Ovary with Corpus Luteum and in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Sample Collection

    Tissue Specimen and Ribonucleic Acid Preparation

    Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Probe Synthesis

    In situ Hybridization

    Immunohistochemical Staining

    Statistical Analysis

    Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction and Ang1, Ang2, and Tie2 Gene Expression

    Acknowledgments

    The Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin-D3-Receptors in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemical Expression of Antigens in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Ovary and Its Differential Diagnostic Considerations

    Introduction

    Role of Immunohistochemistry

    Adjunct Studies

    Role of Immunohistochemistry in Elucidating Lung Cancer Metastatic to the Ovary from Primary Ovarian Carcinoma

    Introduction

    Immunohistochemistry Basics

    Conclusion

    Index

    0–9

    A

    B

    C

    D

    E

    F

    G

    H

    I

    J

    K

    L

    M

    N

    O

    P

    Q

    R

    S

    T

    U

    V

    W

    X

    Y

    Z

Product details

  • No. of pages: 608
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2006
  • Published: May 10, 2006
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080457871

About the Editor

M. Hayat

M. Hayat
Dr. Hayat has published extensively in the fields of microscopy, cytology, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and antigen retrieval methods. He is Distinguished Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Kean University, Union, New Jersey, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Kean University, Union, NJ, USA

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