Handbook of Foaming and Blowing Agents - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781895198997, 9781927885185

Handbook of Foaming and Blowing Agents

1st Edition

Authors: George Wypych
eBook ISBN: 9781927885185
Hardcover ISBN: 9781895198997
Imprint: ChemTec Publishing
Published Date: 20th February 2017
Page Count: 258
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Description

Handbook of Foaming and Blowing Agents provides useful guidance to assist practitioners in the more efficient and effective selection of foaming methods and blowing agents. The book focuses on the selection of additives for a diverse range of foaming processes, which can be enhanced using modern chemical means to improve product quality, speed up the process, and broaden the range of products that can be produced using foaming technology.

Foamed polymers have many beneficial properties, including lower density, high heat and sound insulation, and shock absorbency. Foamed plastic parts are now a ubiquitous part of everyday life—from food packaging to seat cushions. As the application of foamed polymers expands and diversifies, a variety of foaming techniques and equipment are available to produce very diverse range of products.

Foaming methods are generally established, but very little is known about the composition of materials to be processed and the additives to enhance foam products or make the foam production more economical. The book introduces useful analytical techniques for foaming, and thoroughly discusses the environmental impact of foaming processes.

Key Features

  • Introduces the fundamental mechanisms of action of blowing agents and foaming
  • Includes best practice guidance to help engineers and technicians improve the efficiency of their existing foaming processes
  • Enables practitioners to select blowing agents and foaming methods more effectively, reducing the risk of poor specification
  • Introduces useful analytical techniques for foaming
  • Discusses the environmental impact of foaming processes

Readership

Engineers, researchers and technicians in the plastics industry

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
  • Chapter 2: CHEMICAL ORIGIN OF BLOWING AGENTS
    • 2.1 ACTIVATORS
    • 2.2 AZODICARBONAMIDE
    • 2.3 CROSSLINKERS
    • 2.4 DINITROSO PENTAMETHYLENE TETRAMINE COMPOUNDS
    • 2.5 GASSES
    • 2.6 HYDRAZIDES
    • 2.7 HYDROCARBONS
    • 2.8 HYDROCHLOROFLUOROCARBON
    • 2.9 HYDROFLUOROCARBONS
    • 2.10 KICKERS
    • 2.11 METHYL FORMATE
    • 2.12 MICROSPHERES
    • 2.13 NUCLEATING AGENTS
    • 2.14 PEROXYDICARBONATE
    • 2.15 PEROXYHEXANOATE
    • 2.16 PROPIONITRILE
    • 2.17 PROPRIETARY
    • 2.18 SALTS OF CARBONIC AND POLYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS
    • 2.19 SODIUM HYDROGEN CARBONATE
    • 2.20 SULFONYLSEMICARBAZIDES
    • 2.21 SURFACTANT
    • 2.22 TETRAZOLES
    • 2.23 WATER
  • Chapter 3: MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF BLOWING AGENTS
    • 3.1 MECHANISMS OF FOAMING BY DECOMPOSING SOLIDS
    • 3.2 PRODUCTION OF GASEOUS PRODUCTS BY CHEMICAL REACTION
    • 3.3 FOAMING BY GASSES AND EVAPORATING LIQUIDS
  • Chapter 4: DISPERSION AND SOLUBILITY OF BLOWING AGENTS
  • Chapter 5: PARAMETERS OF FOAMING
    • 5.1 AMOUNT OF BLOWING AGENT
    • 5.2 CLAMPING PRESSURE
    • 5.3 DELAY TIME
    • 5.4 DESORPTION TIME
    • 5.5 DIE PRESSURE
    • 5.6 DIE TEMPERATURE
    • 5.7 GAS CONTENT
    • 5.8 GAS FLOW RATE
    • 5.9 GAS INJECTION LOCATION
    • 5.10 GAS SORPTION AND DESORPTION RATES
    • 5.11 INTERNAL PRESSURE AFTER FOAMING
    • 5.12 MOLD PRESSURE
    • 5.13 MOLD TEMPERATURE
    • 5.14 OPERATIONAL WINDOW
    • 5.15 PLASTISOL VISCOSITY
    • 5.16 SATURATION PRESSURE
    • 5.17 SATURATION TEMPERATURE
    • 5.18 SCREW REVOLUTION SPEED
    • 5.19 SURFACE TENSION
    • 5.20 TIME
    • 5.21 TEMPERATURE
    • 5.22 VOID VOLUME
  • Chapter 6: FOAM STABILIZATION
  • Chapter 7: FOAMING EFFICIENCY MEASURES
    • 7.1 CELL SIZE
    • 7.2 CELL DENSITY
    • 7.3 CELL WALL THICKNESS (AVERAGE)
    • 7.4 FOAM DENSITY
    • 7.5 EXPANSION RATIO (BY VOLUME)
    • 7.6 OPEN CELL CONTENT
    • 7.7 VOID FRACTION
  • Chapter 8: MORPHOLOGY OF FOAMS
    • 8.1 BIMODAL MORPHOLOGY
    • 8.2 CELL DENSITY
    • 8.3 CELL MORPHOLOGY
    • 8.4 CELL SIZE
    • 8.5 CELL WALL THICKNESS
    • 8.6 CLOSED CELL
    • 8.7 CORE & SKIN THICKNESS
    • 8.8 MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF FOAMS
    • 8.9 OPEN CELL
  • Chapter 9: FOAMING IN DIFFERENT PROCESSING METHODS
    • 9.1 BLOWN FILM EXTRUSION
    • 9.2 CALENDERING
    • 9.3 CLAY EXFOLIATION
    • 9.4 COMPRESSION MOLDING
    • 9.5 DEPRESSURIZATION
    • 9.6 EXTRUSION
    • 9.7 FREE FOAMING
    • 9.8 INJECTION MOLDING
    • 9.9 MICROWAVE HEATING
    • 9.10 ROTATIONAL MOLDING
    • 9.11 SOLID STATE FOAMING
    • 9.12 SUPERCRITICAL FLUID-LADEN PELLET INJECTION MOLDING FOAMING TECHNOLOGY
    • 9.13 THERMOFORMING
    • 9.14 UV LASER
    • 9.15 VACUUM DRYING
    • 9.16 WIRE COATING
  • Chapter 10: SELECTION OF FOAMING AND BLOWING AGENTS FOR DIFFERENT POLYMERS
  • Chapter 11: ADDITIVES
    • 11.1 ACTIVATORS, ACCELERATORS, AND KICKERS
    • 11.2 CATALYSTS
    • 11.3 CROSSLINKING AGENTS
    • 11.4 CURING AGENTS
    • 11.5 DILUENTS
    • 11.6 EXFOLIATING ADDITIVE
    • 11.7 FIBERS
    • 11.8 FILLERS
    • 11.9 FIRE RETARDANTS
    • 11.10 FOAM STABILIZERS
    • 11.11 NUCLEATING AGENTS
    • 11.12 PLASTICIZERS
    • 11.13 POLYMERIC MODIFIERS
    • 11.14 RETARDERS
    • 11.15 SURFACTANTS
  • Chapter 12: EFFECT OF FOAMING ON PHYSICAL-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FOAMS
    • 12.1 COMPRESSION SET, STRENGTH, AND MODULUS
    • 12.2 CRYSTALLINITY
    • 12.3 DEFORMATION RECOVERY
    • 12.4 DENSITY
    • 12.5 ELASTIC MODULUS
    • 12.6 ELONGATION
    • 12.7 EMI SHIELDING
    • 12.8 EXPANSION RATIO
    • 12.9 FLEXURAL MODULUS
    • 12.10 GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE
    • 12.11 IMPACT STRENGTH
    • 12.12 RELATIVE PERMITTIVITY
    • 12.13 RESISTIVITY (ELECTRICAL)
    • 12.14 RHEOLOGY
    • 12.15 SHAPE MEMORY
    • 12.16 SHEAR MODULUS
    • 12.17 SHRINKAGE
    • 12.18 SOUND ABSORPTION
    • 12.19 SURFACE ROUGHNESS
    • 12.20 SURFACE TENSION
    • 12.21 TEAR STRENGTH
    • 12.22 TENSILE MODULUS
    • 12.23 TENSILE STRENGTH
    • 12.24 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
  • Chapter 13: ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES USEFUL IN FOAMING
    • 13.1 CELL DENSITY
    • 13.2 CELL SIZE
    • 13.3 DENSITY
    • 13.4 DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY
    • 13.5 FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED
    • 13.6 OPTICAL EXPANDOMETRY
    • 13.7 POLARIZING OPTICAL MICROSCOPE
    • 13.8 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
    • 13.9 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
    • 13.10 X-RAY ANALYSIS
  • Chapter 14: HEALTH AND SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF FOAMING PROCESSES
  • INDEX

Details

No. of pages:
258
Language:
English
Copyright:
© ChemTec Publishing 2017
Published:
Imprint:
ChemTec Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9781927885185
Hardcover ISBN:
9781895198997

About the Author

George Wypych

George Wypych has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research and development. He has published 18 books, 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings.

Affiliations and Expertise

ChemTec Publishing, Ontario, Canada