Handbook of Farm, Dairy and Food Machinery Engineering

Handbook of Farm, Dairy and Food Machinery Engineering

2nd Edition - June 10, 2013

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  • Editor: Myer Kutz
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123858825

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Handbook of Farm, Dairy and Food Machinery Engineering is the essential reference for engineers who need to understand those aspects of the food industry from farm machinery to food storage facilities to the machinery that processes and packages our foods. The process of getting food from "farm to fork," as the saying goes, involves more than planting, harvesting, shipping, processing, packaging and distributing—though those are all key components. Effective and efficient food delivery systems are built around processes that maximize the effort while minimizing cost, time, and resource depletion. This comprehensive reference is for engineers who design and build machinery and processing equipment, shipping containers, and packaging and storage equipment. It includes cutting-edge coverage of microwave vacuum application in grain processing, cacao processing, fruit and vegetable processing, ohmic heating of meat, facility design, closures for glass containers, double seaming, and much more.

Key Features

  • Provides cross-topic information for translational research and potential application
  • Focuses on design and controls – written for engineers by engineers – always with practical applications in mind
  • Includes design of machinery and facilities as well as theoretical basis for determining and predicting behavior of foods as they are handled and processed


Food process engineers, packagers and product development specialists

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface to the Second Edition

    Preface to the First Edition

    List of Contributors

    Chapter 1. The Food Engineer

    1 Nature of Work and Necessary Skills

    2 Academic and Industry Preparation

    3 Work Opportunities for a Food Engineer

    4 Engineering Jobs

    5 Future Opportunities

    6 Conclusions


    Further Reading

    Chapter 2. Food Regulations

    1 Background

    2 Federal Register

    3 Code of Federal Regulations

    4 United States Code

    5 State and Local Regulations

    6 USDA–FSIS Sanitation Programs

    7 FDA Sanitation Programs

    8 Food Safety Modernization Act

    9 Hazard Analyses and Critical Control Point Program (HACCP)

    10 Meat Processing

    11 Shell Eggs

    12 Seafood Processing

    13 Fruits, Vegetables, and Nuts

    14 Beverages

    15 Canned Foods

    16 Food Service/Restaurants

    17 Export Foods

    18 Imported Foods

    19 Conclusions

    20 Acronyms


    Chapter 3. Food Safety Engineering

    1 Introduction

    2 Intervention Technologies

    3 Control/Monitoring/Identification Techniques

    4 Packaging Applications in Food Safety

    5 Tracking and Traceability

    6 Byproducts of Processing

    7 Conclusions



    Chapter 4. Farm Machinery Automation for Tillage, Planting Cultivation, and Harvesting

    1 Introduction

    2 Vehicle Guidance

    3 Implement Guidance Systems

    4 Guidance Methods

    5 Challenges Facing Autonomous Vehicles

    6 Summary


    Other Contacts

    Chapter 5. Air Seeders for Conservation Tillage Crop Production

    1 Opener Design Options

    2 Managing Crop Residue

    3 Soil Disturbance and Environmental Impacts

    4 Seed/Fertilizer Placement, Row Spacing

    5 Depth Control and Packing

    6 Varying Conditions

    7 Precision Agriculture

    8 Energy Requirements

    9 Commercial Options


    Further Reading

    Chapter 6. Grain Harvesting Machinery

    1 General

    2 History

    3 Pre-Harvest Issues that Affect Machine Design

    4 Performance Factors

    5 Heads: Grain Platforms, Corn Heads, and Strippers

    6 Feederhouse

    7 Cylinder or Rotor and Concave

    8 Separation: Straw Walkers or Rotary Separation

    9 Cleaning Shoe

    10 Elevators: Clean Grain and Tailings

    11 Grain Bin and Unloading Auger

    12 Other Attachments

    13 Operator’s Station, Adjustments, and Monitoring Systems

    14 Field Performance

    15 Grain Damage

    16 Combine Trends


    Chapter 7. Grain Storage Systems Design

    1 Materials

    2 Drying

    3 Structural Loads

    4 Grain Handling

    5 Testers for Measuring Flow Properties


    Chapter 8. Milking Machines and Milking Parlors

    1 Introduction

    2 The Milking Machine

    3 Milking Parlors


    Chapter 9. Dairy Product Processing Equipment

    1 Introduction

    2 Clarification, Separation, and Standardization

    3 Pasteurization

    4 UHT Sterilization

    5 Homogenization

    6 Membrane Processing

    7 Evaporation

    8 Drying

    9 Ice Cream Manufacturing Equipment

    10 Butter Manufacturing Equipment

    11 Cheese Manufacturing Equipment


    Chapter 10. Grain Process Engineering

    1 Drying

    2 Pre-Storage Grain Treatments

    3 Post-Harvest Value Addition

    4 Cooking and Processing

    5 Quality Evaluation


    Chapter 11. Technology of Processing of Horticultural Crops

    1 Introduction

    2 Properties of Fruits and Vegetables

    3 Biological Deterioration and Control

    4 Methods for Minimizing Deterioration

    5 General Methods of Fruit and Vegetable Preservation

    6 Some Important Methods of Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

    7 Quality Control/Assurance

    8 Fruit and Vegetable Processing Units


    Chapter 12. Food Drying and Evaporation Processing Operations

    1 Introduction

    2 Water in Foods

    3 Types of Water in Foods

    4 Food Stability and Moisture Relationships

    5 Drying: Describing the Process

    6 Types of Dryers

    7 Quality Changes During Drying

    8 Evaporation

    9 The Basic Evaporator

    10 Tube Evaporators

    11 Single Effect Evaporators

    12 Multi-Effect Evaporators

    13 Mechanical Vapor Recompression

    14 Quality Changes During Evaporation

    15 Conclusion

    Further reading

    Chapter 13. Food Freezing Technology

    1 Introduction

    2 Freezing Point Depression

    3 Freezing Process

    4 Phase Change and Ice Crystal Formation

    5 Product Heat Load

    6 Freezing Time Estimations

    7 Freezing Equipment

    8 Effect of Freezing and Frozen Storage on Foods

    9 Developments in Freezing Techniques

    10 Energy Conservation in Freezing

    11 Scope for Future Work


    Chapter 14. Heat and Mass Transfer in Food Processing

    1 Basic Concepts of Heat and Mass Transfer

    2 Case Study 1: Thermal Sterilization using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    3 Case Study 2: New Approach to the Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer in Drying and Frying

    4 Case Study 3: Microwave Thawing of Frozen Meat


    Greek Symbols


    Chapter 15. Food Rheology

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Concepts in Rheology

    3 Rheology of Fluids

    4 Rheology of Semi-Solid Materials

    5 Interfacial Rheology

    6 Conclusions


    Chapter 16. Food Extruders

    1 Role of an Extruder

    2 Typical Components of an Extruder

    3 Types of Extruders

    4 Sources for More Information for Extrusion Technology


    Further reading

    Chapter 17. Thermal Processing for Food Sterilization and Preservation

    1 Introduction

    2 Retort Systems

    3 Automated Materials Handling Systems

    4 Aseptic Process Equipment Systems

    5 Low-Acid Canned Food Regulations


    Chapter 18. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Based Process Modeling

    1 Basics

    2 Examples

    3 Meatball Cooking Example in Detail


    Chapter 19. Design of Food Process Controls Systems

    1 Introduction

    2 Benefits of Automation

    3 Computer Integrated Manufacturing

    4 Automation Components and Terminology

    5 Control System Objectives

    6 Controllers

    7 Sensor Fundamentals

    8 Actuators

    Further Reading

    Chapter 20. Ohmic Pasteurization of Meat and Meat Products

    1 Introduction

    2 Conventional Thermal Methods for the Preservation of Meats

    3 Basic Principle of Ohmic Heating

    4 Microbial Inactivation during Ohmic Heating

    5 Quality of Ohmically Heated Meat Products

    6 Economics of Ohmic Processing

    7 Ohmic Heating for Commercial Scale Production of Cooked Meats

    8 Conclusion and Future Work




    Chapter 21. Food Processing Facility Design

    1 Introduction

    2 Background

    3 Key Facility Issues

    4 Project Phases

    5 Conclusion


    Chapter 22. Sanitary Pump Selection and Use

    1 Introduction

    2 Sanitation Standards for Pumps

    3 Sanitary Pump Classification

    4 Selecting Sanitary Pump Type

    5 Installation

    6 Cleaning and Maintenance

    7 Conclusion


    Chapter 23. Agricultural Waste Management in Food Processing

    1 Introduction

    2 Common Unit Processes Employed in Food Waste Treatment

    3 Characteristics of Wastes and Treatment Types

    4 Physical-Chemical Treatment Process

    5 Biological Treatment Process

    6 Land Treatment of Waste

    7 Bioprocess Technology from Waste

    8 Conclusions


    Further reading

    Chapter 24. Food Packaging Machinery

    1 Introduction

    2 Filling Machines

    3 Volumetric Fillers

    4 Weight Filling

    5 In-Line or Rotary Fillers

    6 Cap Application Machines

    7 Induction Cap Sealing

    8 Flexible Packaging

    9 Form–Fill–Seal Equipment

    10 Canning Machinery

    11 Carton Filling and Closing Machinery

    12 Metal Detectors

    Chapter 25. Damage Reduction to Food Products During Transportation and Handling

    1 Introduction

    2 Functions of Packaging

    3 Food Product Categories

    4 Food Product Distribution Environment

    5 Major Causes of Food Spoilage/Damage in Supply Chain

    6 Packaging Materials

    7 “Smart” Packaging

    8 Trends in Protective Food Packaging of 2000 and Beyond



Product details

  • No. of pages: 760
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: June 10, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123858825

About the Editor

Myer Kutz

Myer Kutz has been heading his own firm, Myer Kutz Associates, Inc., since 1990. For the past several years, he has focused on writing and developing engineering handbooks on a wide range of technical topics, such as mechanical, materials, biomedical, transportation, and environmentally conscious engineering. Earlier, his firm supplied consulting services to a large client roster, including Fortune 500 companies, scientific societies, and large and small publishers. He has been a trustee of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and chaired committees of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Association of American Publishers. He holds engineering degrees from MIT and RPI, served as an officer in the US Army Ordnance Corp, and worked in the aerospace industry on the Apollo project. He is the author of nine books. He writes “The Scholarly Publishing Scene”, a column for the magazine Against the Grain. He lives in Delmar, New York, with his wife, Arlene.

Affiliations and Expertise

Owner, Myer Kutz Associates. Inc., Delmar, NY, USA

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