Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781437734553, 9781437734560

Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials

2nd Edition

Authors: Myer Kutz
eBook ISBN: 9781437734560
Hardcover ISBN: 9781437734553
Paperback ISBN: 9780128101735
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 24th September 2012
Page Count: 936
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Nothing stays the same for ever. The environmental degradation and corrosion of materials is inevitable and affects most aspects of life. In industrial settings, this inescapable fact has very significant financial, safety and environmental implications.

The Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials explains how to measure, analyse, and control environmental degradation for a wide range of industrial materials including metals, polymers, ceramics, concrete, wood and textiles exposed to environmental factors such as weather, seawater, and fire. Divided into sections which deal with analysis, types of degradation, protection and surface engineering respectively, the reader is introduced to the wide variety of environmental effects and what can be done to control them. The expert contributors to this book provide a wealth of insider knowledge and engineering knowhow, complementing their explanations and advice with Case Studies from areas such as pipelines, tankers, packaging and chemical processing equipment ensures that the reader understands the practical measures that can be put in place to save money, lives and the environment.

Key Features

  • The Handbook’s broad scope introduces the reader to the effects of environmental degradation on a wide range of materials, including metals, plastics, concrete,wood and textiles
  • For each type of material, the book describes the kind of degradation that effects it and how best to protect it
  • Case Studies show how organizations from small consulting firms to corporate giants design and manufacture products that are more resistant to environmental effects


Engineers: Civil, Mechanical, Materials, Design, Maintenance, Chemical & Process; Industries: construction / civil engineering, automotive / aerospace / transportation, chemical processing, consumer packaging, paints and coatings, petrochemical, pipeline, plastics. Level: Practicing engineers and technicians, students seeking real-world examples and applied techniques

Table of Contents


Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition

PART ONE: Analysis

1. Analysis of Failures of Metallic Materials Due to Environmental Factors

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Classification of Failures

1.3 Analysis of Failures

1.4 Case Histories of Environmental-Related Failures

1.5 Conclusions


2. Laboratory Assessment of Corrosion

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Immersion Tests

2.3 Cabinet Tests

2.4 Electrochemical Tests

2.5 Conclusions



3. Lifetime Predictions of Plastics

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Master Curves

3.3 Chemical Kinetics

3.4 Thermal Decomposition Experiments

3.5 Mechanical Experiments

3.6 Miscellaneous Experimentation

3.7 Summary


PART TWO: Types of Degradation

4. Electrochemical Corrosion

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Electrochemical Thermodynamics

4.3 Electrochemical Kinetics and Corrosion Processes

4.4 Experimental Polarization Curves

4.5 Examples of Electrochemical Corrosion Measurements and Characterizations

4.6 Summary


5. High Temperature Oxidation

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Criteria of Metal Oxidation

5.3 Kinetics of Oxidation

5.4 Techniques Involved in Measuring Oxidation Behavior

5.5 Measurement of Oxidation Kinetics

5.6 Identification and Characterization of Scales

5.7 Wagner Hauffe Rules

5.8 Marker Technique

5.9 Oxygen Tracer Technique

5.10 Initial Oxidation or Thin Layer Oxidation

5.11 Oxidation of Pure Metals

5.12 Oxidation of Alloys

5.13 Influence of Alloy Addition on Oxidation Behavior

5.14 Oxidation Behavior of Some Commercial Alloys

5.15 Oxidation in Mixed Gas Environments

5.16 Phase Stability Diagrams

5.17 Scaling of Alloys in SO2 Containing Atmospheres

5.18 Oxidation of Fe-Cr-Al and Ni-Cr-Al Alloys in SO2 and O2 Environments

5.19 Hot Corrosion

5.20 Oxide Spallation

5.21 The Pilling Bedworth Ratio

5.22 Stresses Developed During Thermal Cycling Conditions

5.23 Examples of High Temperature Corrosion in Various Industries

5.24 Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Processes


6. Chemical and Physical Aging of Plastics

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Chemical Aging

6.3 Environmental Stress Cracking

6.4 Physical Aging

6.5 Summary


7. Thermal Degradation of Polymer and Polymer Composites

7.1 Introduction

7.2 General Aspects

7.3 Thermal Degradation of Various Polymers

7.4 Thermal Degradation of Polymer Composites

7.5 Preventing Degradation

7.6 Thermal Degradation of Waste Polymers

7.7 Concluding Remarks



8. Biofouling and Prevention: Corrosion, Biodeterioration and Biodegradation of Materials

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Bacterial Adhesion on Surfaces

8.3 Mediators of Invertebrate Settlement

8.4 An Example with Zebra Mussels

8.5 Corrosion of Metals

8.6 Biodeterioration of Polymeric Materials

8.7 Summary



9. Material Flammability

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Thermal Degradation of Materials

9.3 Elements of Material Flammability

9.4 Tests to Assess Material Flammability

9.5 Methods to Improve Material Flammability

9.6 Material Property Data

9.7 Computer Modeling of Material Degradation in Fires


10. Flame Retardants

10.1 Introduction—What Is an FR?

10.2 Fire Statistics—Why Do We Use FRs?

10.3 FR Applications—Where Are FRs Used?

10.4 Flammability Standards and Test Methods—How Is FR Effectiveness Measured?

10.5 UL94 (Issued by Underwriters Laboratories)

10.6 Limiting Oxygen Index or LOI (ASTM D2863)

10.7 Steiner Tunnel (ASTM E84)

10.8 Vertical Tray Cable Test (IEEE 383)

10.9 Smoke Measurement—What Is Smoke and How Is It Measured?

10.10 FR Standards Issuing Organizations—Where Do All These Tests Come From?

10.11 Market Drivers—What Else Should Be Known Before Formulating an FR Product?

10.12 What Is Wrong with Halogen FRs?

10.13 FRs—What Compounds Are Used?

10.14 FR101—What Are the Major FR Technologies and How Do They Work?

10.15 The Three Major FR Technologies

10.16 Halogen FRs—Selected Products

10.17 Halogen FR Synergists

10.18 Halogen FRs and REACH

10.19 Metal Hydrate FRs

10.20 Phosphorus FRs

10.21 Other FRs

10.22 Smoke Suppressants

10.23 Nanotechnology and Flame Retardance

10.24 Conclusion


11. Environmental Degradation of Reinforced Concrete

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Concrete Properties Affecting Chloride Ingress and Threshold Values

11.3 Corrosion Mechanisms of Steel in Concrete

11.4 Mechanisms of Corrosion Protection Systems

11.5 Reducing Chloride Ingress

11.6 Corrosion Inhibitors

11.7 Rebar Coatings

11.8 Stainless Steel

11.9 Cathodic Protection

11.10 Life-Cycle Modeling

11.11 Environment and Geometry

11.12 Summary


PART THREE: Protective Measures

12. Cathodic Protection

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Corrosion Fundamentals

12.3 Galvanic Cathodic Protection Systems

12.4 Impressed Cathodic Protection Systems

12.5 Ground Bed Spacing


13. Thermal and Fire Protective Fabric Systems

13.1 Introduction

13.2 General Concepts

13.3 T&FFS Materials

13.4 Exposure Process

13.5 Testing Standards and Protection Assessment

13.6 Sensing Devices

13.7 Skin Burn Damage Evaluation

13.8 Other Modeling Components

13.9 Conclusion


14. Protection of Wood-Based Materials

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Abiotic Agents

14.3 Biotic Agents

14.4 Decay Organisms

14.5 Insects

14.6 Marine Borers

14.7 Magnitude of Wood Deterioration Losses

14.8 Wood Protection

14.9 Treatment Methods

14.10 Treatment Standards

14.11 New Treatment Processes

14.12 Environmental Considerations

14.13 Preservatives

14.14 Remedial Treatments

14.15 Nonbiocidal Barriers

14.16 The Future


PART FOUR: Surface Engineering

15. The Intersection of Design, Manufacturing, and Surface Engineering

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Surface Engineering Design Needs

15.3 Sensing of Degradation Effects on Surface Chemistry

15.4 Traditional and Emerging Surface Engineering Technologies

15.5 The Role of Computer Modeling

15.6 Summary


16. Environmental Degradation of Engineered Nanomaterials: Impact on Materials Design and Use

16.1 Current Uses of Engineered Nanomaterials

16.2 Environmental Degradation of Metallic and Ceramic Nanoparticles

16.3 Environmental Degradation of Carbon Nanotubes

16.4 Environmental Degradation of Polymeric Nanostructures

16.5 Environmental Degradation of Nanostructured Surfaces

16.6 Environmental Degradation of Nanocomposites

16.7 Impact on Health and Environment

16.8 Impact of Consideration of Environmental Transformation on Design and Use of Engineered Nanomaterials: Guidelines


17. Protective Coatings for Aluminum Alloys

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Selecting the Alloy

17.3 Coating System Engineering

17.4 Metal Surface Pretreatment

17.5 Conversion Coatings

17.6 Primers

17.7 Topcoating

17.8 Unicoatings

17.9 Summary


18. Corrosion Resistant Coatings and Paints

18.1 Scope

18.2 Corrosion Protection by Coatings and Paints

18.3 Engineering Alloys and Their Need for Corrosion Resistant Coatings

18.4 Characteristics and Uses of Corrosion Resistant Paint and Coatings–

18.5 Application Methods and Surface Preparation

18.6 Factors Affecting Coating Degradation

18.7 Corrosion Under Coatings

18.8 Coating Degradation and Evaluation Methods

18.9 Key Applications

18.10 Environmental Hazards


19. Thermal Spray Coatings

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Thermal Spray Basics and Processes

19.3 Materials Consumables

19.4 Manufacturing Processes

19.5 The Function of a Coating and Its Applications

19.6 General Applications

19.7 Miscellaneous Applications

19.8 Coating Selection

19.9 Summary


20. Paint Weathering Tests

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Degradation Processes

20.3 Outdoor Exposure

20.4 Artificial Accelerated Weathering Tests

20.5 Test Cycles

20.6 Postexposure Testing

20.7 Nontraditional Material Evaluations

Further Reading


21. Polymer Coatings for Concrete Surfaces: Testing and Modeling

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Materials

21.3 Testing Programs and Results

21.4 Modeling Liquid Transport into Coated Concrete

21.5 Conclusions



22. The Role of Intrinsic Defects in the Protective Behavior of Organic Coatings

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Types of Coating Defects

22.3 Electrochemical Methods for the Local Characterization of Coatings

22.4 Findings Through the Use of Leim and Leis

22.5 The Use of Molecular Probes



23. Polymer Stabilization

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Degradation Chemistry

23.3 Stabilizers

23.4 Performance of Stabilizers

23.5 Other Factors Determining the Choice of Stabilizers


PART FIVE: Industrial Applications

24. Degradation of Spacecraft Materials

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Atomic Oxygen Effects

24.3 Contamination Effects

24.4 Space Radiation Effects

24.5 Thermal and Thermal Cycling Effects

24.6 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Effects

24.7 Concluding Remarks


25. Cathodic Protection of Pipelines

25.1 Fundamentals

25.2 Cathodic Protection Criteria

25.3 Field Data and Design Aspects

25.4 Monitoring Methods

25.5 Design of Cathodic Protection Systems

25.6 Computer-Aided Design of Cathodic Protection


26. Tanker Corrosion

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Tanker Structures

26.3 Corrosion Mechanisms in Tankers

26.4 Corrosion Statistics

26.5 Corrosion Risk to Structural Integrity

26.6 Measurement and Monitoring of Corrosion Degradation

26.7 Prevention and Mitigation

26.8 Related Requirements in Marine Industries


27. Barrier Packaging Materials

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Factors Determining the Barrier Properties of Polymers

27.3 Food Packaging



28. Corrosion Prevention and Control of Chemical Processing Equipment

28.1 Introduction

28.2 Different Types of Corrosion

28.3 Preventing and Controlling Corrosion

28.4 Selecting Corrosion Resistant Materials for Chemical Processing Equipment

28.5 Corrosion Prevention and Control Through Corrosion Testing

28.6 Chapter Summary

28.7 Sources of Further Information




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About the Author

Myer Kutz

Myer Kutz has headed his own firm, Myer Kutz Associates, Inc., since 1990. For the past several years, he has focused on writing and on developing engineering handbooks on a wide range of technical topics, such as mechanical, materials, biomedical, transportation, and environmentally conscious engineering, for a number of publishers, including Wiley, McGraw-Hill, and Elsevier. Earlier, his firm supplied consulting services to a large client roster, including Fortune 500 companies, scientific societies, and large and small publishers. The firm published two major multi-client studies, “The Changing Landscape for College Publishing” and “The Developing Worlds of Personalized Information.” Before starting his independent consultancy, Kutz held a number of positions at Wiley, including acquisitions editor, director of electronic publishing, and vice president for scientific and technical publishing. He has been a trustee of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and chaired committees of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Association of American Publishers. He holds engineering degrees from MIT and RPI, served as an officer in the US Army Ordnance Corp, and worked in the aerospace industry on the Apollo project. In addition to his edited reference works, he is the author of nine books, including Temperature Control, published by Wiley, Rockefeller Power, published by Simon & Schuster, the novel, Midtown North, published under the name Mike Curtis, and most recently the independently published novel, In the Grip. He is the editor of the Bulletin of the Professional Scholarly Publishing Division of the Association of American Publishers and writes The Scholarly Publishing Scene column for the magazine Against the Grain. He lives in Delmar, NY, with his wife, Arlene.

Affiliations and Expertise

Myer Kutz Associates. Inc., Delmar, NY, USA