Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials

Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials

2nd Edition - September 24, 2012

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  • Author: Myer Kutz
  • eBook ISBN: 9781437734560

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Description

Nothing stays the same for ever. The environmental degradation and corrosion of materials is inevitable and affects most aspects of life. In industrial settings, this inescapable fact has very significant financial, safety and environmental implications. The Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials explains how to measure, analyse, and control environmental degradation for a wide range of industrial materials including metals, polymers, ceramics, concrete, wood and textiles exposed to environmental factors such as weather, seawater, and fire. Divided into sections which deal with analysis, types of degradation, protection and surface engineering respectively, the reader is introduced to the wide variety of environmental effects and what can be done to control them. The expert contributors to this book provide a wealth of insider knowledge and engineering knowhow, complementing their explanations and advice with Case Studies from areas such as pipelines, tankers, packaging and chemical processing equipment ensures that the reader understands the practical measures that can be put in place to save money, lives and the environment.

Key Features

  • The Handbook’s broad scope introduces the reader to the effects of environmental degradation on a wide range of materials, including metals, plastics, concrete,wood and textiles
  • For each type of material, the book describes the kind of degradation that effects it and how best to protect it
  • Case Studies show how organizations from small consulting firms to corporate giants design and manufacture products that are more resistant to environmental effects

Readership

Engineers: Civil, Mechanical, Materials, Design, Maintenance, Chemical & Process; Industries: construction / civil engineering, automotive / aerospace / transportation, chemical processing, consumer packaging, paints and coatings, petrochemical, pipeline, plastics. Level: Practicing engineers and technicians, students seeking real-world examples and applied techniques

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface to the Second Edition

    Preface to the First Edition

    PART ONE: Analysis

    1. Analysis of Failures of Metallic Materials Due to Environmental Factors

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Classification of Failures

    1.3 Analysis of Failures

    1.4 Case Histories of Environmental-Related Failures

    1.5 Conclusions

    References

    2. Laboratory Assessment of Corrosion

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Immersion Tests

    2.3 Cabinet Tests

    2.4 Electrochemical Tests

    2.5 Conclusions

    Bibliography

    References

    3. Lifetime Predictions of Plastics

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Master Curves

    3.3 Chemical Kinetics

    3.4 Thermal Decomposition Experiments

    3.5 Mechanical Experiments

    3.6 Miscellaneous Experimentation

    3.7 Summary

    References

    PART TWO: Types of Degradation

    4. Electrochemical Corrosion

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Electrochemical Thermodynamics

    4.3 Electrochemical Kinetics and Corrosion Processes

    4.4 Experimental Polarization Curves

    4.5 Examples of Electrochemical Corrosion Measurements and Characterizations

    4.6 Summary

    References

    5. High Temperature Oxidation

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Criteria of Metal Oxidation

    5.3 Kinetics of Oxidation

    5.4 Techniques Involved in Measuring Oxidation Behavior

    5.5 Measurement of Oxidation Kinetics

    5.6 Identification and Characterization of Scales

    5.7 Wagner Hauffe Rules

    5.8 Marker Technique

    5.9 Oxygen Tracer Technique

    5.10 Initial Oxidation or Thin Layer Oxidation

    5.11 Oxidation of Pure Metals

    5.12 Oxidation of Alloys

    5.13 Influence of Alloy Addition on Oxidation Behavior

    5.14 Oxidation Behavior of Some Commercial Alloys

    5.15 Oxidation in Mixed Gas Environments

    5.16 Phase Stability Diagrams

    5.17 Scaling of Alloys in SO2 Containing Atmospheres

    5.18 Oxidation of Fe-Cr-Al and Ni-Cr-Al Alloys in SO2 and O2 Environments

    5.19 Hot Corrosion

    5.20 Oxide Spallation

    5.21 The Pilling Bedworth Ratio

    5.22 Stresses Developed During Thermal Cycling Conditions

    5.23 Examples of High Temperature Corrosion in Various Industries

    5.24 Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Processes

    References

    6. Chemical and Physical Aging of Plastics

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Chemical Aging

    6.3 Environmental Stress Cracking

    6.4 Physical Aging

    6.5 Summary

    References

    7. Thermal Degradation of Polymer and Polymer Composites

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 General Aspects

    7.3 Thermal Degradation of Various Polymers

    7.4 Thermal Degradation of Polymer Composites

    7.5 Preventing Degradation

    7.6 Thermal Degradation of Waste Polymers

    7.7 Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    8. Biofouling and Prevention: Corrosion, Biodeterioration and Biodegradation of Materials

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Bacterial Adhesion on Surfaces

    8.3 Mediators of Invertebrate Settlement

    8.4 An Example with Zebra Mussels

    8.5 Corrosion of Metals

    8.6 Biodeterioration of Polymeric Materials

    8.7 Summary

    Acknowledgements

    References

    9. Material Flammability

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Thermal Degradation of Materials

    9.3 Elements of Material Flammability

    9.4 Tests to Assess Material Flammability

    9.5 Methods to Improve Material Flammability

    9.6 Material Property Data

    9.7 Computer Modeling of Material Degradation in Fires

    References

    10. Flame Retardants

    10.1 Introduction—What Is an FR?

    10.2 Fire Statistics—Why Do We Use FRs?

    10.3 FR Applications—Where Are FRs Used?

    10.4 Flammability Standards and Test Methods—How Is FR Effectiveness Measured?

    10.5 UL94 (Issued by Underwriters Laboratories)

    10.6 Limiting Oxygen Index or LOI (ASTM D2863)

    10.7 Steiner Tunnel (ASTM E84)

    10.8 Vertical Tray Cable Test (IEEE 383)

    10.9 Smoke Measurement—What Is Smoke and How Is It Measured?

    10.10 FR Standards Issuing Organizations—Where Do All These Tests Come From?

    10.11 Market Drivers—What Else Should Be Known Before Formulating an FR Product?

    10.12 What Is Wrong with Halogen FRs?

    10.13 FRs—What Compounds Are Used?

    10.14 FR101—What Are the Major FR Technologies and How Do They Work?

    10.15 The Three Major FR Technologies

    10.16 Halogen FRs—Selected Products

    10.17 Halogen FR Synergists

    10.18 Halogen FRs and REACH

    10.19 Metal Hydrate FRs

    10.20 Phosphorus FRs

    10.21 Other FRs

    10.22 Smoke Suppressants

    10.23 Nanotechnology and Flame Retardance

    10.24 Conclusion

    References

    11. Environmental Degradation of Reinforced Concrete

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Concrete Properties Affecting Chloride Ingress and Threshold Values

    11.3 Corrosion Mechanisms of Steel in Concrete

    11.4 Mechanisms of Corrosion Protection Systems

    11.5 Reducing Chloride Ingress

    11.6 Corrosion Inhibitors

    11.7 Rebar Coatings

    11.8 Stainless Steel

    11.9 Cathodic Protection

    11.10 Life-Cycle Modeling

    11.11 Environment and Geometry

    11.12 Summary

    References

    PART THREE: Protective Measures

    12. Cathodic Protection

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Corrosion Fundamentals

    12.3 Galvanic Cathodic Protection Systems

    12.4 Impressed Cathodic Protection Systems

    12.5 Ground Bed Spacing

    References

    13. Thermal and Fire Protective Fabric Systems

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 General Concepts

    13.3 T&FFS Materials

    13.4 Exposure Process

    13.5 Testing Standards and Protection Assessment

    13.6 Sensing Devices

    13.7 Skin Burn Damage Evaluation

    13.8 Other Modeling Components

    13.9 Conclusion

    References

    14. Protection of Wood-Based Materials

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Abiotic Agents

    14.3 Biotic Agents

    14.4 Decay Organisms

    14.5 Insects

    14.6 Marine Borers

    14.7 Magnitude of Wood Deterioration Losses

    14.8 Wood Protection

    14.9 Treatment Methods

    14.10 Treatment Standards

    14.11 New Treatment Processes

    14.12 Environmental Considerations

    14.13 Preservatives

    14.14 Remedial Treatments

    14.15 Nonbiocidal Barriers

    14.16 The Future

    References

    PART FOUR: Surface Engineering

    15. The Intersection of Design, Manufacturing, and Surface Engineering

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Surface Engineering Design Needs

    15.3 Sensing of Degradation Effects on Surface Chemistry

    15.4 Traditional and Emerging Surface Engineering Technologies

    15.5 The Role of Computer Modeling

    15.6 Summary

    References

    16. Environmental Degradation of Engineered Nanomaterials: Impact on Materials Design and Use

    16.1 Current Uses of Engineered Nanomaterials

    16.2 Environmental Degradation of Metallic and Ceramic Nanoparticles

    16.3 Environmental Degradation of Carbon Nanotubes

    16.4 Environmental Degradation of Polymeric Nanostructures

    16.5 Environmental Degradation of Nanostructured Surfaces

    16.6 Environmental Degradation of Nanocomposites

    16.7 Impact on Health and Environment

    16.8 Impact of Consideration of Environmental Transformation on Design and Use of Engineered Nanomaterials: Guidelines

    References

    17. Protective Coatings for Aluminum Alloys

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Selecting the Alloy

    17.3 Coating System Engineering

    17.4 Metal Surface Pretreatment

    17.5 Conversion Coatings

    17.6 Primers

    17.7 Topcoating

    17.8 Unicoatings

    17.9 Summary

    References

    18. Corrosion Resistant Coatings and Paints

    18.1 Scope

    18.2 Corrosion Protection by Coatings and Paints

    18.3 Engineering Alloys and Their Need for Corrosion Resistant Coatings

    18.4 Characteristics and Uses of Corrosion Resistant Paint and Coatings–

    18.5 Application Methods and Surface Preparation

    18.6 Factors Affecting Coating Degradation

    18.7 Corrosion Under Coatings

    18.8 Coating Degradation and Evaluation Methods

    18.9 Key Applications

    18.10 Environmental Hazards

    References

    19. Thermal Spray Coatings

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Thermal Spray Basics and Processes

    19.3 Materials Consumables

    19.4 Manufacturing Processes

    19.5 The Function of a Coating and Its Applications

    19.6 General Applications

    19.7 Miscellaneous Applications

    19.8 Coating Selection

    19.9 Summary

    References

    20. Paint Weathering Tests

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Degradation Processes

    20.3 Outdoor Exposure

    20.4 Artificial Accelerated Weathering Tests

    20.5 Test Cycles

    20.6 Postexposure Testing

    20.7 Nontraditional Material Evaluations

    Further Reading

    References

    21. Polymer Coatings for Concrete Surfaces: Testing and Modeling

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Materials

    21.3 Testing Programs and Results

    21.4 Modeling Liquid Transport into Coated Concrete

    21.5 Conclusions

    Acknowledgment

    References

    22. The Role of Intrinsic Defects in the Protective Behavior of Organic Coatings

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Types of Coating Defects

    22.3 Electrochemical Methods for the Local Characterization of Coatings

    22.4 Findings Through the Use of Leim and Leis

    22.5 The Use of Molecular Probes

    Acknowledgments

    References

    23. Polymer Stabilization

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Degradation Chemistry

    23.3 Stabilizers

    23.4 Performance of Stabilizers

    23.5 Other Factors Determining the Choice of Stabilizers

    References

    PART FIVE: Industrial Applications

    24. Degradation of Spacecraft Materials

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Atomic Oxygen Effects

    24.3 Contamination Effects

    24.4 Space Radiation Effects

    24.5 Thermal and Thermal Cycling Effects

    24.6 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Effects

    24.7 Concluding Remarks

    References

    25. Cathodic Protection of Pipelines

    25.1 Fundamentals

    25.2 Cathodic Protection Criteria

    25.3 Field Data and Design Aspects

    25.4 Monitoring Methods

    25.5 Design of Cathodic Protection Systems

    25.6 Computer-Aided Design of Cathodic Protection

    References

    26. Tanker Corrosion

    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Tanker Structures

    26.3 Corrosion Mechanisms in Tankers

    26.4 Corrosion Statistics

    26.5 Corrosion Risk to Structural Integrity

    26.6 Measurement and Monitoring of Corrosion Degradation

    26.7 Prevention and Mitigation

    26.8 Related Requirements in Marine Industries

    References

    27. Barrier Packaging Materials

    27.1 Introduction

    27.2 Factors Determining the Barrier Properties of Polymers

    27.3 Food Packaging

    Acknowledgments

    References

    28. Corrosion Prevention and Control of Chemical Processing Equipment

    28.1 Introduction

    28.2 Different Types of Corrosion

    28.3 Preventing and Controlling Corrosion

    28.4 Selecting Corrosion Resistant Materials for Chemical Processing Equipment

    28.5 Corrosion Prevention and Control Through Corrosion Testing

    28.6 Chapter Summary

    28.7 Sources of Further Information

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 936
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2012
  • Published: September 24, 2012
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • eBook ISBN: 9781437734560

About the Author

Myer Kutz

Myer Kutz has been heading his own firm, Myer Kutz Associates, Inc., since 1990. For the past several years, he has focused on writing and developing engineering handbooks on a wide range of technical topics, such as mechanical, materials, biomedical, transportation, and environmentally conscious engineering. Earlier, his firm supplied consulting services to a large client roster, including Fortune 500 companies, scientific societies, and large and small publishers. He has been a trustee of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and chaired committees of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Association of American Publishers. He holds engineering degrees from MIT and RPI, served as an officer in the US Army Ordnance Corp, and worked in the aerospace industry on the Apollo project. He is the author of nine books. He writes “The Scholarly Publishing Scene”, a column for the magazine Against the Grain. He lives in Delmar, New York, with his wife, Arlene.

Affiliations and Expertise

Owner, Myer Kutz Associates. Inc., Delmar, NY, USA

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  • Gerardo H. Mon May 14 2018

    handbok of environmental degradation of materials

    Really good book