Handbook of Crystal Growth

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Bulk Crystal Growth

2nd Edition - November 4, 2014

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  • Editor: Peter Rudolph
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444633033
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444633064

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Vol 2A: Basic TechnologiesHandbook of Crystal Growth, Second Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated.Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and DynamicsHandbook of Crystal Growth, Second Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy.

Key Features

Volume 2A

  • Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon
  • Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades
  • Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics
  • Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored

Volume 2B

  • Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt
  • Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics
  • Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures
  • Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity
  • Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability
  • Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process
  • Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries


Scientists and engineers from diverse (academic/industrial) backgrounds including crystal growers, physicists, chemists, engineers, bioengineers, solid state scientists, materials scientists, earth scientists, etc.

Table of Contents

  • General Preface
    Preface to Volume II
    List of Contributors
    Part A. Basic Techniques
    1. Crystal Growth in Geology: Patterns on the Rocks
    1.1. Introduction
    1.2. Geological Scenarios for Crystal Growth
    1.3. Deciphering Geological Information from Crystal Morphology
    1.4. Decoding Polycrystalline Textures from Nucleation and Growth
    1.5. The Case of Giant Crystals
    1.6. Decoding Disequilibrium Mineral Patterns
    1.7. Early Earth Mineral Growth, Primitive Life Detection, and Origin of Life
    1.8. From Deep Earth to Outer Space
    2. Czochralski Growth of Silicon Crystals
    2.1. Introduction
    2.2. Description of the Czochralski Process
    2.3. Global Heat Transfer and Convective Flow
    2.4. Transport and Incorporation of Dopants and Impurities
    2.5. Oxygen in Silicon
    2.6. Intrinsic Point Defects and Their Aggregates
    2.7. Economic Aspects of Cz Growth
    3. Liquid Encapsulation and Related Technologies for the Czochralski Growth of Semiconductor Compounds
    3.1. Introduction
    3.2. Pressure-Balancing Czochralski Growth
    3.3. Growth Constraints to Crystal Quality in LEC and Related Technologies
    3.4. Summary
    4. Czochralski Growth of Oxides and Fluorides
    4.1. Introduction
    4.2. Sapphire Single Crystals
    4.3. Calcium Fluoride Crystals
    4.4. Large Fluoride Crystals
    4.5. Scintillator Crystals
    4.6. Summary and Outlook
    5. Czochralski and Flux Growth of Crystals for Lasers and Nonlinear Optics
    5.1. Laser Crystals Grown by the Czochralski Method
    5.2. Nonlinear Optical Borate Crystals Grown by the Flux Method
    5.3. Conclusion
    6. Growth Measures to Achieve Bulk Single Crystals of Transparent Semiconducting and Conducting Oxides
    6.1. Introduction
    6.2. Basics of TSO Thermodynamics
    6.3. Growth Techniques
    6.4. Basic Electrical and Optical Properties of Bulk TSO Crystals
    6.5. Summary
    7. Floating Zone Growth of Silicon
    7.1. Basics of the Floating Zone Silicon Crystal Growth
    7.2. Automation of the Floating Zone Process Using Model-Based Control
    7.3. Mathematical Modeling of the Floating Zone Silicon Growth
    8. Floating Zone Growth of Oxides and Metallic Alloys
    8.1. Optical Floating Zone—Complementary Crystal Growth Technique for New Classes of Oxide Materials
    8.2. Floating-Zone Single Crystal Growth of Intermetallic Compounds Using a Two-phase RF Inductor
    9. Vertical Bridgman Growth of Binary Compound Semiconductors
    9.1. Introduction
    9.2. Equipment (Design and Engineering Issues)
    9.3. Growth of Binary Compound Semiconductors
    9.4. Conclusions
    10. Multicrystalline Silicon Crystal Growth for Photovoltaic Applications
    10.1. Introduction
    10.2. Ingot Growth Methods
    10.3. Hot-zone Design
    10.4. Nucleation and Grain Control
    10.5. Conclusions
    11. The Unidirectional Crystallization of Metals and Alloys (Turbine Blades)
    11.1. Introduction
    11.2. DS Castings Manufacturing
    11.3. Nickel-based Superalloys and Heat Treatment Process
    11.4. Methodology for Manufacture of Ceramic Shell Molds for Directional Solidification Casting
    11.5. Investigation Methods for Directional Solidification Castings
    11.6. Numerical Modeling of Thermal and Solidification Processes for Directional Solidification Castings
    11.7. Summary
    12. Crystal Growth by Traveling Heater Method
    12.1. Introduction
    12.2. Technology
    12.3. Versatile THM
    12.4. Materials Grown by THM
    12.5. Segregation, Purification
    12.6. Mass and Heat Transport, Simulation and Modeling
    12.7. Single Crystal Growth by THM
    12.8. Conclusions
    13. Growth of Bulk Nitrides from a Na Flux
    13.1. Introduction
    13.2. Growth Conditions and Mechanism of the Na Flux Method
    13.3. Nucleation Control
    13.4. LPE Growth of GaN by the Na Flux Method
    13.5. Point Seed and Coalescence Growth Technique
    13.6. Summary
    14. Hydrothermal Growth of Crystals—Design and Processing
    14.1. Introduction
    14.2. History of Hydrothermal Growth of Crystals and Current Trends in Hydrothermal Research
    14.3. Intelligent Engineering of the Hydrothermal Processes
    14.4. Apparatus
    14.5. Hydrothermal Processing of Some Selected Crystals
    14.6. Hydrothermal Growth of Fine to Nanocrystals
    14.7. Conclusions
    15. High-Pressure, High-Temperature Solution Growth and Ammonothermal Synthesis of Gallium Nitride Crystals
    15.1. Introduction
    15.2. High Nitrogen Pressure Solution Growth Method
    15.3. Ammonothermal Growth of GaN
    15.4. Overall Summary with an Outlook into the Future
    16. Vapor Transport Growth of Wide Bandgap Materials
    16.1. Introduction
    16.2. High Temperature Sublimation Growth of Wide Bandgap Materials (SiC and AlN)
    16.3. HVPE of Nitride Semiconductors (AlN, GaN, InN, and Ternary Alloys)
    16.4. Conclusion
    17. Crystal Growth of Diamond
    17.1. Introduction
    17.2. High Pressure Crystal Growth of Diamond
    17.3. Growth of Diamond from Gas Phase
    17.4. Applications
    17.5. Conclusions
    18. Wafer Processing
    18.1. Introduction
    18.2. Multi-wire Sawing Process
    18.3. Determination of Wafer Properties
    18.4. Basic Sawing Mechanisms
    18.5. Alternative Slicing Technologies
    18.6. Grinding, Lapping, and Polishing
    18.7. Conclusions and Outlook
    Part B. Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics
    19. Capillarity and Shape Stability in Crystal Growth from the Melt
    19.1. Introduction
    19.2. Fundamentals of Capillarity for the Crystal Grower
    19.3. Solutions of the Young–Laplace Equation
    19.4. Shape Stability Analysis
    19.5. Conclusions
    20. Heat Transfer Analysis and Design for Bulk Crystal Growth: Perspectives on the Bridgman Method
    20.1. Introduction
    20.2. Historical Perspective: Experimental Practice
    20.3. Heat Transfer Fundamentals
    20.4. Heat Transfer in Melt Crystal Growth
    20.5. Historical Perspective: Theoretical Developments
    20.6. Research Vignette: Bridgman Growth of Cadmium Zinc Telluride
    20.7. Final Remarks
    21. Fluid Dynamics: Modeling and Analysis
    21.1. Introduction
    21.2. Diffusion
    21.3. Natural and Forced Convections
    21.4. External Fields
    21.5. Flow Instability
    21.6. Impurity Transfer
    21.7. Summary
    22. The Role of Marangoni Convection in Crystal Growth
    22.1. Introduction
    22.2. Surface Tension of Molten Materials
    22.3. Marangoni Convection
    22.4. Marangoni Convection in Crystal Growth
    22.5. Concluding Remarks
    23. Flow Control by Magnetic Fields during Crystal Growth from Melt
    23.1. Introduction
    23.2. Selected Fundamentals of Magnetohydrodynamics
    23.3. Effects of Steady Magnetic Fields
    23.4. Effects of Nonsteady Magnetic Fields
    23.5. Combined Action of Various Types of Magnetic Fields and Electric Currents
    23.6. Conclusions and Outlook
    24. Oscillatory-Driven Fluid Flow Control during Crystal Growth from the Melt
    24.1. Introduction
    24.2. Constant-Speed Rotation in Melts
    24.3. Accelerated Crucible Rotation Technique
    24.4. Axial Vibration Control
    24.5. Other Types of Oscillatory Techniques
    24.6. Conclusions and Outlook
    25. Segregation and Component Distribution
    25.1. Introduction
    25.2. Segregation Coefficients
    25.3. Limit Theories: “Perfect Mixing” and “No-Mixing”
    25.4. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer
    25.5. Segregation Theories Based on Solute Layer Thickness
    25.6. Segregation Model with Nusselt Numbers and Mixed Convection
    25.7. Correlations for Nusselt Numbers
    25.8. Directional Solidification: Segregation without Forced Convection
    25.9. CZ Process: Segregation Controlled by Mixed Convection
    25.10. Zone Melting
    25.11. Lateral Segregation
    25.12. Microsegregation
    25.13. Summary
    26. Thermal Stress and Dislocations in Bulk Crystal Growth
    26.1. Overview
    26.2. Thermal Stress in Bulk Single Crystals
    26.3. Dislocations in Bulk Single Crystals
    26.4. Summary
    27. Defect Generation and Interaction during Crystal Growth
    27.1. Introduction
    27.2. Point Defects
    27.3. Dislocations
    27.4. Grain Boundaries
    27.5. Foreign Phase Particles
    27.6. Faceting and Twinning
    27.7. Concluding Remarks
    28. Automation of Crystal Growth from Melt
    28.1. Introduction
    28.2. Basics about Control Systems
    28.3. Cz Process
    28.4. Vertical Bridgman and Vertical Gradient Freeze Process
    28.5. Detached Bridgman Process
    28.6. Floating Zone Process
    28.7. Kyropoulos Process
    28.8. Conclusions
    29. Fundamentals of Crystal Growth from Solutions
    29.1. Introduction
    29.2. Low-Temperature Solution Growth
    29.3. High-Temperature Solution Growth
    29.4. Summary and Outlook
    30. Crystallization Mechanisms of High Critical Temperature Superconductors
    30.1. Introduction
    30.2. High Tc Oxide Superconductors
    30.3. Requirement for Applications of HTSC Materials; Key Factors for Higher Jc
    30.4. Phase Diagram of HTSC Material
    30.5. Bulk Crystal Growth Methods from the Melt
    30.6. Single Crystal Growth Methods from the Solution
    30.7. Controlling Factors of Crystal Growth from the Melt and Solution
    30.8. Crystal Growth Mechanism
    30.9. Tetragonal to Orthorhombic Phase Transition (Twin Formation)
    30.10. Conclusion
    31. Crystallization in Gels
    31.1. Introduction
    31.2. Hydrogels, Organic Gels, and Aerogels
    31.3. Crystal Growth in Gels of Small Molecules, Minerals, and Biological Macromolecules in Gels
    31.4. General Remarks and Future of Crystal Growth in Gels
    32. Fundamentals of Industrial Crystallization
    32.1. Introduction
    32.2. Product Quality
    32.3. Crystallization
    32.4. Crystal Nucleation
    32.5. Crystal Growth
    32.6. Crystallization Process Configuration
    32.7. Ensuring Product Quality in the Future

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1418
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2014
  • Published: November 4, 2014
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444633033
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444633064

About the Editor

Peter Rudolph

Affiliations and Expertise

Crystal Technology Consulting (CTC), Schönefeld, Germany

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