Handbook of Crystal Growth - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780444633033, 9780444633064

Handbook of Crystal Growth, Volume 2A-2B

2nd Edition

Bulk Crystal Growth

Editors: Peter Rudolph
eBook ISBN: 9780444633064
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444633033
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 14th November 2014
Page Count: 1418
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Description

Vol 2A:   Basic Technologies

Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated.

Vol 2B:   Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics

Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy.

Key Features

Volume 2A

  • Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon
  • Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades
  • Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics
  • Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored

Volume 2B

  • Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt
  • Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics
  • Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures
  • Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity
  • Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability
  • Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process
  • Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries

Readership

Scientists and engineers from diverse (academic/industrial) backgrounds including crystal growers, physicists, chemists, engineers, bioengineers, solid state scientists, materials scientists, earth scientists, etc.

Table of Contents

  • General Preface
  • Preface to Volume II
  • List of Contributors
  • Part A. Basic Techniques
    • 1. Crystal Growth in Geology: Patterns on the Rocks
      • 1.1. Introduction
      • 1.2. Geological Scenarios for Crystal Growth
      • 1.3. Deciphering Geological Information from Crystal Morphology
      • 1.4. Decoding Polycrystalline Textures from Nucleation and Growth
      • 1.5. The Case of Giant Crystals
      • 1.6. Decoding Disequilibrium Mineral Patterns
      • 1.7. Early Earth Mineral Growth, Primitive Life Detection, and Origin of Life
      • 1.8. From Deep Earth to Outer Space
    • 2. Czochralski Growth of Silicon Crystals
      • 2.1. Introduction
      • 2.2. Description of the Czochralski Process
      • 2.3. Global Heat Transfer and Convective Flow
      • 2.4. Transport and Incorporation of Dopants and Impurities
      • 2.5. Oxygen in Silicon
      • 2.6. Intrinsic Point Defects and Their Aggregates
      • 2.7. Economic Aspects of Cz Growth
    • 3. Liquid Encapsulation and Related Technologies for the Czochralski Growth of Semiconductor Compounds
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. Pressure-Balancing Czochralski Growth
      • 3.3. Growth Constraints to Crystal Quality in LEC and Related Technologies
      • 3.4. Summary
    • 4. Czochralski Growth of Oxides and Fluorides
      • 4.1. Introduction
      • 4.2. Sapphire Single Crystals
      • 4.3. Calcium Fluoride Crystals
      • 4.4. Large Fluoride Crystals
      • 4.5. Scintillator Crystals
      • 4.6. Summary and Outlook
    • 5. Czochralski and Flux Growth of Crystals for Lasers and Nonlinear Optics
      • 5.1. Laser Crystals Grown by the Czochralski Method
      • 5.2. Nonlinear Optical Borate Crystals Grown by the Flux Method
      • 5.3. Conclusion
    • 6. Growth Measures to Achieve Bulk Single Crystals of Transparent Semiconducting and Conducting Oxides
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. Basics of TSO Thermodynamics
      • 6.3. Growth Techniques
      • 6.4. Basic Electrical and Optical Properties of Bulk TSO Crystals
      • 6.5. Summary
    • 7. Floating Zone Growth of Silicon
      • Preface
      • 7.1. Basics of the Floating Zone Silicon Crystal Growth
      • 7.2. Automation of the Floating Zone Process Using Model-Based Control
      • 7.3. Mathematical Modeling of the Floating Zone Silicon Growth
    • 8. Floating Zone Growth of Oxides and Metallic Alloys
      • 8.1. Optical Floating Zone—Complementary Crystal Growth Technique for New Classes of Oxide Materials
      • 8.2. Floating-Zone Single Crystal Growth of Intermetallic Compounds Using a Two-phase RF Inductor
    • 9. Vertical Bridgman Growth of Binary Compound Semiconductors
      • 9.1. Introduction
      • 9.2. Equipment (Design and Engineering Issues)
      • 9.3. Growth of Binary Compound Semiconductors
      • 9.4. Conclusions
    • 10. Multicrystalline Silicon Crystal Growth for Photovoltaic Applications
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. Ingot Growth Methods
      • 10.3. Hot-zone Design
      • 10.4. Nucleation and Grain Control
      • 10.5. Conclusions
    • 11. The Unidirectional Crystallization of Metals and Alloys (Turbine Blades)
      • 11.1. Introduction
      • 11.2. DS Castings Manufacturing
      • 11.3. Nickel-based Superalloys and Heat Treatment Process
      • 11.4. Methodology for Manufacture of Ceramic Shell Molds for Directional Solidification Casting
      • 11.5. Investigation Methods for Directional Solidification Castings
      • 11.6. Numerical Modeling of Thermal and Solidification Processes for Directional Solidification Castings
      • 11.7. Summary
    • 12. Crystal Growth by Traveling Heater Method
      • 12.1. Introduction
      • 12.2. Technology
      • 12.3. Versatile THM
      • 12.4. Materials Grown by THM
      • 12.5. Segregation, Purification
      • 12.6. Mass and Heat Transport, Simulation and Modeling
      • 12.7. Single Crystal Growth by THM
      • 12.8. Conclusions
    • 13. Growth of Bulk Nitrides from a Na Flux
      • 13.1. Introduction
      • 13.2. Growth Conditions and Mechanism of the Na Flux Method
      • 13.3. Nucleation Control
      • 13.4. LPE Growth of GaN by the Na Flux Method
      • 13.5. Point Seed and Coalescence Growth Technique
      • 13.6. Summary
    • 14. Hydrothermal Growth of Crystals—Design and Processing
      • 14.1. Introduction
      • 14.2. History of Hydrothermal Growth of Crystals and Current Trends in Hydrothermal Research
      • 14.3. Intelligent Engineering of the Hydrothermal Processes
      • 14.4. Apparatus
      • 14.5. Hydrothermal Processing of Some Selected Crystals
      • 14.6. Hydrothermal Growth of Fine to Nanocrystals
      • 14.7. Conclusions
    • 15. High-Pressure, High-Temperature Solution Growth and Ammonothermal Synthesis of Gallium Nitride Crystals
      • 15.1. Introduction
      • 15.2. High Nitrogen Pressure Solution Growth Method
      • 15.3. Ammonothermal Growth of GaN
      • 15.4. Overall Summary with an Outlook into the Future
    • 16. Vapor Transport Growth of Wide Bandgap Materials
      • 16.1. Introduction
      • 16.2. High Temperature Sublimation Growth of Wide Bandgap Materials (SiC and AlN)
      • 16.3. HVPE of Nitride Semiconductors (AlN, GaN, InN, and Ternary Alloys)
      • 16.4. Conclusion
    • 17. Crystal Growth of Diamond
      • 17.1. Introduction
      • 17.2. High Pressure Crystal Growth of Diamond
      • 17.3. Growth of Diamond from Gas Phase
      • 17.4. Applications
      • 17.5. Conclusions
    • 18. Wafer Processing
      • 18.1. Introduction
      • 18.2. Multi-wire Sawing Process
      • 18.3. Determination of Wafer Properties
      • 18.4. Basic Sawing Mechanisms
      • 18.5. Alternative Slicing Technologies
      • 18.6. Grinding, Lapping, and Polishing
      • 18.7. Conclusions and Outlook
  • Part B. Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics
    • 19. Capillarity and Shape Stability in Crystal Growth from the Melt
      • 19.1. Introduction
      • 19.2. Fundamentals of Capillarity for the Crystal Grower
      • 19.3. Solutions of the Young–Laplace Equation
      • 19.4. Shape Stability Analysis
      • 19.5. Conclusions
    • 20. Heat Transfer Analysis and Design for Bulk Crystal Growth: Perspectives on the Bridgman Method
      • 20.1. Introduction
      • 20.2. Historical Perspective: Experimental Practice
      • 20.3. Heat Transfer Fundamentals
      • 20.4. Heat Transfer in Melt Crystal Growth
      • 20.5. Historical Perspective: Theoretical Developments
      • 20.6. Research Vignette: Bridgman Growth of Cadmium Zinc Telluride
      • 20.7. Final Remarks
    • 21. Fluid Dynamics: Modeling and Analysis
      • 21.1. Introduction
      • 21.2. Diffusion
      • 21.3. Natural and Forced Convections
      • 21.4. External Fields
      • 21.5. Flow Instability
      • 21.6. Impurity Transfer
      • 21.7. Summary
    • 22. The Role of Marangoni Convection in Crystal Growth
      • 22.1. Introduction
      • 22.2. Surface Tension of Molten Materials
      • 22.3. Marangoni Convection
      • 22.4. Marangoni Convection in Crystal Growth
      • 22.5. Concluding Remarks
    • 23. Flow Control by Magnetic Fields during Crystal Growth from Melt
      • 23.1. Introduction
      • 23.2. Selected Fundamentals of Magnetohydrodynamics
      • 23.3. Effects of Steady Magnetic Fields
      • 23.4. Effects of Nonsteady Magnetic Fields
      • 23.5. Combined Action of Various Types of Magnetic Fields and Electric Currents
      • 23.6. Conclusions and Outlook
    • 24. Oscillatory-Driven Fluid Flow Control during Crystal Growth from the Melt
      • 24.1. Introduction
      • 24.2. Constant-Speed Rotation in Melts
      • 24.3. Accelerated Crucible Rotation Technique
      • 24.4. Axial Vibration Control
      • 24.5. Other Types of Oscillatory Techniques
      • 24.6. Conclusions and Outlook
    • 25. Segregation and Component Distribution
      • 25.1. Introduction
      • 25.2. Segregation Coefficients
      • 25.3. Limit Theories: “Perfect Mixing” and “No-Mixing”
      • 25.4. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer
      • 25.5. Segregation Theories Based on Solute Layer Thickness
      • 25.6. Segregation Model with Nusselt Numbers and Mixed Convection
      • 25.7. Correlations for Nusselt Numbers
      • 25.8. Directional Solidification: Segregation without Forced Convection
      • 25.9. CZ Process: Segregation Controlled by Mixed Convection
      • 25.10. Zone Melting
      • 25.11. Lateral Segregation
      • 25.12. Microsegregation
      • 25.13. Summary
    • 26. Thermal Stress and Dislocations in Bulk Crystal Growth
      • 26.1. Overview
      • 26.2. Thermal Stress in Bulk Single Crystals
      • 26.3. Dislocations in Bulk Single Crystals
      • 26.4. Summary
    • 27. Defect Generation and Interaction during Crystal Growth
      • 27.1. Introduction
      • 27.2. Point Defects
      • 27.3. Dislocations
      • 27.4. Grain Boundaries
      • 27.5. Foreign Phase Particles
      • 27.6. Faceting and Twinning
      • 27.7. Concluding Remarks
    • 28. Automation of Crystal Growth from Melt
      • 28.1. Introduction
      • 28.2. Basics about Control Systems
      • 28.3. Cz Process
      • 28.4. Vertical Bridgman and Vertical Gradient Freeze Process
      • 28.5. Detached Bridgman Process
      • 28.6. Floating Zone Process
      • 28.7. Kyropoulos Process
      • 28.8. Conclusions
    • 29. Fundamentals of Crystal Growth from Solutions
      • 29.1. Introduction
      • 29.2. Low-Temperature Solution Growth
      • 29.3. High-Temperature Solution Growth
      • 29.4. Summary and Outlook
    • 30. Crystallization Mechanisms of High Critical Temperature Superconductors
      • 30.1. Introduction
      • 30.2. High Tc Oxide Superconductors
      • 30.3. Requirement for Applications of HTSC Materials; Key Factors for Higher Jc
      • 30.4. Phase Diagram of HTSC Material
      • 30.5. Bulk Crystal Growth Methods from the Melt
      • 30.6. Single Crystal Growth Methods from the Solution
      • 30.7. Controlling Factors of Crystal Growth from the Melt and Solution
      • 30.8. Crystal Growth Mechanism
      • 30.9. Tetragonal to Orthorhombic Phase Transition (Twin Formation)
      • 30.10. Conclusion
    • 31. Crystallization in Gels
      • 31.1. Introduction
      • 31.2. Hydrogels, Organic Gels, and Aerogels
      • 31.3. Crystal Growth in Gels of Small Molecules, Minerals, and Biological Macromolecules in Gels
      • 31.4. General Remarks and Future of Crystal Growth in Gels
    • 32. Fundamentals of Industrial Crystallization
      • 32.1. Introduction
      • 32.2. Product Quality
      • 32.3. Crystallization
      • 32.4. Crystal Nucleation
      • 32.5. Crystal Growth
      • 32.6. Crystallization Process Configuration
      • 32.7. Ensuring Product Quality in the Future
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
1418
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444633064
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444633033

About the Editor

Peter Rudolph

Affiliations and Expertise

Crystal Technology Consulting (CTC), Schönefeld, Germany

Reviews

"...any library in the materials science or chemical engineering departments of universities should carry these volumes.... I would recommend it to academics in the crystal growth field who want to have a complete reference work they can use to ensure their students are well grounded in the fundamentals and also to industrial crystal-growers who now and then need to understand why it is that what they do actually works." --Advanced Materials