This book is a review of the science and technology of the element carbon and its allotropes: graphite, diamond and the fullerenes. This field has expanded greatly in the last three decades stimulated by many major discoveries such as carbon fibers, low-pressure diamond, and the fullerenes. The need for such a book has been felt for some time. These carbon materials are very different in structure and properties. Some are very old (charcoal), others brand new (the fullerenes). They have different applications and markets and are produced by different segments of the industry. Few studies are available that attempt to review the entire field of carbon as a whole discipline. Moreover these studies were written several decades ago and a generally outdated since the development of the technology is moving very rapidly and scope of applications is constantly expanding and reaching into new fields such as aerospace, automotive, semiconductors, optics, and electronics. In this book the author provides a valuable, up-to-date account of both the newer and traditional forms of carbon, both naturally occurring and man-made. This volume will be a valuable resource for both specialists in, and occasional users of carbon materials.


Aerospace, automotive, semiconductors, optics, and electronics.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction and General Considerations 1.0 Book Objectives 2.0 The Carbon Element and Its Various Forms 3.0 The Carbon Element in Nature 4.0 Historical Perspective 5.0 Products Derived from the Carbon Element 6.0 Profile of the Industry 7.0 Glossary and Metric Conversion Guide 8.0 Background Reading References 2. The Element Carbon 1.0 The Structure of the Carbon Atom 2.0 The Isotopes of Carbon 3.0 Hybridization and the sp3 Carbon Bond 4.0 The Trigonal sp2 and Digonal sp Carbon Bonds 5.0 Carbon Vapor Molecules 6.0 The Carbon Allotropes References 3. Graphite Structure and Properties 1.0 The Structure of Graphite 2.0 The Various Polycrystalline Forms of Graphite 3.0 Physical Properties of Graphite 4.0 Thermal Properties of Graphite 5.0 Electrical Properties of Graphite 6.0 Mechanical Properties of Graphite 7.0 Chemical Properties References 4. Synthetic Carbon and Graphite: Carbonization and Graphitization 1.0 Types of Synthetic Carbon and Graphite 2.0 The Carbonization (Pyrolysis) Process 3.0 The Graphitization Process References 5. Molded Graphite: Processing, Properties, and Applications 1.0 General Considerations 2.0 Processing of Molded Graphites 3.0 Characteristics and Properties of Molded Graphite 4.0 Applications and Market of Molded Graphite References 6. Vitreous Carbon 1.0 General Considerations 2.0 Precursors and Processing 3.0 Structure and Properties of Vi


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© 1994
William Andrew
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Electronic ISBN:

About the author

Hugh O. Pierson

Hugh Pierson is a private consultant in Chemical Vapor Deposition. He was the head of the Deposition

Affiliations and Expertise

Sandia National Laboratories (retired)


"àa valuable addition to the literature in the field of carbon." - Journal of Materials