Handbook of Borehole Acoustics and Rock Physics for Reservoir Characterization - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128122044

Handbook of Borehole Acoustics and Rock Physics for Reservoir Characterization

1st Edition

Authors: Vimal Saxena Michel Krief Ludmila Adam
Paperback ISBN: 9780128122044
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 15th March 2018
Page Count: 480
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Handbook of Borehole Acoustics and Rock Physics for Reservoir Characterization serves as a technical guide and research reference for oil and gas professionals, scientists and students using petrosonics in the multidisciplinary fields of reservoir characterization. It provides the fundamentals, recent advances and areas for future study in borehole acoustics and rock physics, focusing on the geophysical applications. The book combines the fundamental concepts of rock physics, acoustic logging, waveform processing and geophysical application modeling through graphical examples derived from field data. Results from core studies and graphics are included to validate and support the modeling process.

Potential advantages and comparisons of acoustic based techniques with respect to other petrophysical techniques are covered. The book is dedicated to all possible facets of acoustic applications in reservoir evaluation for hydrocarbon exploration, development and drilling support.

Key Features

  • Provides a unique integration of borehole acoustics and rock physics in a singular reference
  • Presents theory, application and limitations of borehole acoustics and rock physics through field examples and case studies
  • Features petrosonic workflows for various acoustic applications and evaluations, which can be easily adopted for practical reservoir modeling and interpretation
  • Includes results from core studies and graphics to validate and support the modeling process


Geologists, petrophysicists, geophysicists, oil and gas industry

Table of Contents

Chapter 1:  General Introduction
1.1 Scope
1.2 Understanding Isotropy
1.3 Stress and displacement
  1.3.1 Stress tensor
  1.3.2 Strain tensor
 1.4 Constitutive equations of linear elasticity
 1.5 Isotropic linear elasticity
 1.6 Elastic constants and interrelation
 1.7 Equation of motion

Chapter 2:  Introduction to Wave Propagation
1.1 Wave propagation in Poroelastic Media
1.2 Biot’s Theory
1.3 High frequency and low frequency limits
1.4 Geerstma-Smit approximation
1.5 Gassmann’s theory of fluid saturated media
1.6 Dispersion in viscoelastic media
1.7 Wave propagation in anisotropic medium
1.8 Wavetrain propagation in a borehole

Chapter 3:  Borehole Acoustic Logging
 3.1 Acoustic tool Principle (Monopole)
  3.1.1 Single Transmitter Monopole Tool
3.1.2  Borehole Compensated Tool
3.1.3 Long Spaced Sonic (LSS) & BHC
  3.1.4 Array Sonic Tool
 3.2 Waveform in Monopole Tool
  3.2.1 Waveform in hard formation
3.2.2 Waveform in soft formation
 3.3 Dipole Shear Sonic tool
 3.4 Cross-Dipole-Multipole Logging
 3.5 Borehole scanner tool
 3.6 Waveform Processing
  3.6.1 First motion & Frequency filtration
  3.6.2 Semblance-time-coherence
  3.6.3 Dispersive processing
  3.6.4 High resolution processing
 3.7 Acoustic Attribute Properties
  3.7.1 Vertical resolution
  3.7.2 Depth of investigation
  3.7.3 Altered zone influence
  3.7.4 Bad sonic log and remedies

Chapter 4:  Rock Physics Models
 4.1 Elasticity of porous media: Theoretical Modeling
  4.1.1 Biot-Gassmann’s formulation
  4.1.2 Brown-Korringa generalization
  4.1.3 Kuster-Toksoz model
  4.1.4 Self-consistent approximation
  4.1.5 Differential Effective Medium theory
  4.1.6 Modified DEM Model
  4.1.7 Contact Theory
 4.2 Elasticity of composite porous media
  4.2.1 Generalized Gassmann’s theory
  4.2.2 Xu-White Model
  4.2.3 Voigt-Reuss bounds
  4.2.4 Hashin-Shtrikman bounds
  4.2.5 VRH approximation
 4.3 Fluid substitution modeling: Isotropic media
 4.4 Fluid substitution modeling: Layered media
 4.5 Velocity inversion
 4.6 Viscoelastic model: Anelasticity of saturated Rock
 4.7 Elasticity of porous media: Empirical relations
  4.7.1 Murphy-Schwartz Correlation
  4.7.2 Krief model
  4.7.3 Critical porosity model
  4.7.4 Other Equations
 4.8 Cementation effect

Chapter 5:  Sonic Porosity-Lithology
 5.1 Vp-Vs-Porosity
 5.2 Other effects on Vp/Vs
  5.2.1 Lithology influence
  5.2.2 Clay influence
 5.3 Critical Porosity
 5.4 Velocity-Porosity: Semi-empirical laws
  5.4.1 Wyllie time average concept
  5.4.2 Raymer-Hunt-Gardner relation
  5.4.3 Castanga relationship
  5.4.4 Tosaya relation
  5.4.5 Han equation
  5.4.6 Vernik model
 5.5 Compaction effect
 5.6 Effective Medium-Porosity implication
  5.6.1 Single porosity clastic model
  5.6.2 Double porosity carbonate model
 5.7 Pressure-Velocity interrelation
  5.7.1 Pore pressure and confining pressure
  5.7.2 Under-compacted reservoir
  5.7.2 Uniaxial pressure and anisotropy

Chapter 6:  Stoneley Permeability
 6.1 Borehole Stoneley wave
  6.1.1 Propagation concept
  6.1.2 Permeability interrelation
 6.2 Biot’s low frequency domain
 6.3 Permeability quantification modeling
  6.3.1 White’s model
  6.3.2 Biot’s solution
  6.3.3 Classical core studies
 6.4  Qualitative permeability Index
  6.4.1 Shear derived Stoneley
  6.4.2 Stoneley energy
 6.5 Tool effect and effective radii
 6.6 Borehole effect and advancement
 6.7 Sensitivity of Stoneley permeability
 6.8 Petrophysical limitations
 6.9 Practical problems and solutions
 6.10 Fractures Characterization from waveform
  6.10.1 Shear energy
  6.10.2 Stoneley permeability
  6.10.3 Fracture density

Chapter 7:  Sonic Saturation
 7.1 Saturation effect on sonic velocities
  7.1.1 Water saturation
  7.1.2 Oil saturation
  7.1.3 Gas saturation
  7.1.4 Partial saturation
  7.1.5 Patchy saturation
 7.2 Theoretical modeling
  7.2.1 Extension of poro-elastic models
  7.2.2 Results comparison
 7.3 Modulus decomposition
  7.3.1 Concept for clean formation
  7.3.2 Application to shaly-sand
  7.3.3 Application to carbonate composite
 7.4 Fluid substitution modeling
 7.5 Gassmann’s modeling in fluid mixtures
 7.6 Conventional hydrocarbon identification
 7.7 Saturation effect on sonic attenuation

Chapter 8:  Application to Rock Strength and Stress Analysis
8.1 Static Stress-Stain
8.2 Static and Dynamic Moduli
8.3 Mohr-Coulomb Failure Model
8.4 Empirical Rock strength
  8.4.1 Coats Denoo model
  8.4.2 Brie strength model
  8.4.3 Plumb correlation
 8.5 Empirical Uniaxial Compressive Strength
  8.5.1 Sandstone
  8.5.2 Carbonate
  8.5.3 Shales
  8.5.4 Deere-Miller correlation
 8.6 Pore pressure evaluation
  8.6.1 Geo-pressure concept
  8.6.2 Eaton’s equation
  8.6.3 Velocity and Differential Pressure
 8.7 Stress estimation
  8.7.1 Horizontal stress model
  8.7.2 Biaxial strain model
  8.7.3 Mohr-Coulomb Stress model
 8.8 Yield criterion and rock failure
 8.9 Pore compressibility
  8.9.1 Theoretical Model
  8.9.2 Uniaxial and Tri-axial measurement

Chapter 9:  Anisotropy-Stress Evaluation
 9.1  Anisotropy basics
 9.2 Thomsen parameters for weak elastic anisotropy
 9.3 Thomsen parameters for finely layer VTI media
 9.4 Shale Anisotropy
 9.5 Anisotropic consideration of borehole acoustic mode
 9.6 Crossed-dipole anisotropy analysis
 9.7  Stoneley waves VTI anisotropy analysis
 9.8 Dispersion crossover and anisotropy
 9.9 Intrinsic and stress-induced anisotropy
 9.10 Anisotropic consideration in inclined borehole
 9.11 Stress dependent anisotropy in fractured media

Chapter 10:  Core Acoustics
 10.1 Methods for elastic property measurements in the laboratory
10.1.1 Ultrasonic transducers
10.1.2 Resonance methods
10.1.3 Seismic frequency devices
10.1.4 New developments (multi-sensor transducers, laser ultrasonic)
10.2 Laboratory elastic wave velocity and moduli on sedimentary core
10.2.1 Ultrasonic datasets  Sand  Carbonate Shale
10.2.2 Benchmark Resonance measurement
10.2.3 Modern Seismic frequency datasets
10.3 Limitations and advantages of acoustic core measurements
10.4 Benchmark core-based acoustic models
10.5 Core calibration with log data and VSP.
10.6 Reservoir characterization aspect of core acoustics and the way ahead

Chapter 11:  Cased-hole Acoustics
 11.1 Compensated Cement Bond logging
  11.1.1 Tool principle
  11.1.2 CBL-VDL measurements
  11.1.3 Interpretation model
  11.1.4 Gas effects
 11.2 Ultrasonic cement evaluation
  11.2.1 Tool description
  11.2.2  Principle of measurement
 11.3  Open-hole sonic in cased hole
  11.3.1 Wave propagation cased hole
  11.3.2 Comparison with open-hole Vp-Vs
  11.3.3 Quality control
 11.4  Bypass hydrocarbon Interpretation

Chapter 12: Modern Borehole Acoustics and Seismic
 12.1 Acoustic logging while drilling
 12.2 Acoustic-seismic while drilling
 12.3 Deep water borehole acoustics
 12.4 Inter-relating borehole acoustics and seismic
 12.5  VSP and Check-shot survey
 12.6  Synthetic seismogram
 12.7 Petrophysics and seismic calibration

Appendix:  Petrosonic Analysis Workflow
1. Rock elastic properties
2. Fluid elastic properties

Author Index
Subject Index


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© Elsevier 2018
Paperback ISBN:

About the Author

Vimal Saxena

Vimal Saxena initially worked as a Solar Energy Scientist (1980 – 1982) and served as Lecture in Physics at Sagar University in India (1983-84). He joined Oil & Natural Gas Corporation, India in 1985, and served in different Petrophysics positions until 2006. He also worked as Research Petrophysicist in ONGC-Schlumberger Joint Research Center, India (1988-93) and served Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, India as Petrophysics Advisor (1997-2002). He joined Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) in 2006 and worked as Lead Petrophysicist until 2012. He also served as Exploration Team Lead (Petrophysics) in PDO. He later served Salamander Energy Singapore as Petrophysics Advisor & Head during 2012-15 and was responsible for company’s extensive exploration and development plans. He has authored or co-authored 12 research papers, and authored more than hundred interpretation reports, manuals and field development plans for ONGC, PDO and Salamander. Mr. Saxena also holds a patent for rock physics modelling.

Affiliations and Expertise

Independent Consultant, Petrophysics and Rock Physics, New Delhi, India

Michel Krief

Michel Krief’s vast experience covers Africa, Europe, South America and the Middle East. He started his career with Schlumberger and served at different fields as Field Engineer (1975-83). Later he joined Copgo-Hunting to serve as Production logging engineer (1984-87). He joined CGGVeritas and worked at various positions of Petrophysicist, Acoustic Petrophysicist and FE Software specialist (1988-2002). He served PDO, Oman as Senior Acoustic Petrophysicist (2002-05). Later he served as Consulting Petrophysicist at Ipedex-Spie, Paradigm Geophysical and Beicip-Franlab (2005-07). He joined Maersk Oil & Gas to serve as Senior Petrophysicist (2007-14). In 2104 Michel Krief joined OMV Exploration & Production as Senior Petrophysicist to strengthen not only the Formation Evaluation in the assessment of carbonate and fractured reservoirs but also to contribute significantly to the interdisciplinary rock-physics activities in quantitative interpretation, fluid-substitution and poroelastic modelling within the Petroleum Engineering function.

Affiliations and Expertise

OMV Exploration & Production

Ludmila Adam

Dr. Adam’s expertise and research interest include elastic and viscoelastic rock physics and well logging, quantitative seismic for reservoir properties, rock-fluid interactions and its effects on geophysical properties, 2D-3D and time-lapse seismic, CO2 sequestration, geothermal energy and volcanology. Her published research includes 30 peer-reviewed research articles and conference papers for SEG/EAGE/AGU. She has served as a reviewer for Geophysics, Geophysical Prospecting, Geophysical Research Letters, and Journal of Applied Geophysics. She has also served as Session Chairman in SEG and has organized various workshops on rock physics.

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Environment, University of Auckland, New Zealand

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