Handbook of Biosurveillance - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123693785, 9780080459998

Handbook of Biosurveillance

1st Edition

Editors: Michael Wagner Andrew Moore Ron Aryel
eBook ISBN: 9780080459998
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123693785
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 25th May 2006
Page Count: 624
Tax/VAT will be calculated at check-out
132.00
80.00
99.95
124.00
Unavailable
File Compatibility per Device

PDF, EPUB, VSB (Vital Source):
PC, Apple Mac, iPhone, iPad, Android mobile devices.

Mobi:
Amazon Kindle eReader.

Institutional Access


Description

Provides a coherent and comprehensive account of the theory and practice of real-time human disease outbreak detection, explicitly recognizing the revolution in practices of infection control and public health surveillance.

Key Features

  • Reviews the current mathematical, statistical, and computer science systems for early detection of disease outbreaks
  • Provides extensive coverage of existing surveillance data
  • Discusses experimental methods for data measurement and evaluation
  • Addresses engineering and practical implementation of effective early detection systems
  • Includes real case studies

Readership

Public health professionals, medical informaticians, and consultants for biodefense systems. Government health officials and decision-makers involved with public health and bioterrorism response will also find the book of interest.

Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

Contributors

PART I: THE CHALLENGE OF BIOSURVEILLANCE

Chapter 1: Introduction

1 INTRODUCTION

2 THE BIOSURVEILLANCE PROCESS

3 THE SCOPE OF BIOSURVEILLANCE

4 FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF THE BIOSURVEILLANCE PROCESS

5 BIOSURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

6 SCIENTIFIC FOUNDATIONS OF BIOSURVEILLANCE

7 OPEN RESEARCH PROBLEMS IN BIOSURVEILLANCE

8 THE ROLE OF BIOSURVEILLANCE IN BIODEFENSE

9 ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK

10 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Chapter 2: Outbreaks and Investigations

1 INTRODUCTION

2 HISTORICAL OUTBREAKS

3 THE 1918 PANDEMIC OF INFLUENZA

4 RECENT OUTBREAKS

5 DEFINITIONS OF “OUTBREAK” AND “EPIDEMIC”

6 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 3: Case Detection, Outbreak Detection, and Outbreak Characterization

1 INTRODUCTION

2 CASE DETECTION

3 OUTBREAK DETECTION

4 OUTBREAK CHARACTERIZATION

5 LEGAL, ETHICAL, AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ISSUES

6 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 4: Functional Requirements for Biosurveillance

1 INTRODUCTION

2 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS

3 EXAMPLE: FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR ANTHRAX BIOSURVEILLANCE

4 THE COMPLEXITY OF BIOSURVEILLANCE SYSTEM DESIGN

5 REDUCING COMPLEXITY: THREAT PATTERNS

6 SPECIFYING BIOSURVEILLANCE DATA

7 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

PART II: ORGANIZATIONS THAT CONDUCT BIOSURVEILLANCE AND THE DATA THEY COLLECT

Chapter 5: Governmental Public Health

1 INTRODUCTION

2 HISTORY OF PUBLIC HEALTH SURVEILLANCE

3 LEGAL BASIS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH SURVEILLANCE

4 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH

5 SURVEILLANCE DATA

6 GOVERNMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH PROFESSIONALS

7 INFORMATION SYSTEMS

8 INTEROPERATING WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

9 LIMITATIONS ON AND OF GOVERNMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH

10 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 6: The Healthcare System

1 INTRODUCTION

2 ORGANIZATION OF THE U.S. HEALTHCARE SYSTEM

3 PERSONNEL

4 ROLE OF THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM IN BIOSURVEILLANCE

5 DATA COLLECTED BY THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM

6 INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN HEALTH CARE

7 BIOSURVEILLANCE OF THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM

8 ASPs AND RHIOs

9 BARRIERS TO TIGHTER INTEGRATION BETWEEN HEALTH CARE AND GOVERNMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH

10 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 7: Animal Health

1 INTRODUCTION

2 ANIMAL HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS

3 FARMING SYSTEMS

4 ANIMAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS

5 ANIMAL HEALTH DATA

6 ANIMAL HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS

7 ORGANIZATIONS THAT USE ANIMAL HEALTH DATA

8 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Chapter 8: Laboratories

1 INTRODUCTION

2 CLINICAL LABORATORIES

3 ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORIES

4 COMMERCIAL LABORATORIES

5 GOVERNMENTAL LABORATORIES

6 SERVICES PROVIDED BY LABORATORIES

7 TESTING TECHNOLOGIES

8 LABORATORY INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

9 NETWORKS OF LABORATORIES

10 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Chapter 9: Water Suppliers

1 INTRODUCTION

2 WATER SURVEILLANCE

3 TESTING INFRASTRUCTURE

4 WATER MONITORING TESTS

5 SURVEILLANCE DATA

6 SYNDROMIC SURVEILLANCE CASE STUDIES

7 LABORATORY INFRASTRUCTURE

8 LABORATORY NETWORKS

9 SUMMARY

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 10: Food and Pharmaceutical Industries

1 THE FOOD INDUSTRY

2 FOOD PROCESSORS AND MANUFACTURERS

3 RESTAURANTS AND RETAILERS

4 GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES

5 THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

6 SUMMARY

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 11: Coroners and Medical Examiners

1 INTRODUCTION

2 FUNCTION OF THE MEDICAL EXAMINER

3 ROLE OF MEDICAL EXAMINER IN BIOSURVEILLANCE

4 MEDICAL EXAMINERS’ DATA: ACCESSIBILITY—USE OF ELECTRONIC RECORDS

5 TIMELINESS

6 RELIABILITY AND UTILITY

7 SUMMARY

Chapter 12: Other Organizations That Conduct Biosurveillance

1 INTRODUCTION

2 DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY

3 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

4 U.S. POSTAL SERVICE (USPS)

5 PLANES, TRAINS, AND SHIPS

6 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

7 SUMMARY

8 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

PART III: DATA ANALYSIS

Chapter 13: Case Detection Algorithms

1 INTRODUCTION

2 PERFECTING CASE DETECTION

3 DIAGNOSTIC EXPERT SYSTEMS

4 EXAMPLES OF DIAGNOSTIC EXPERT SYSTEMS: BOSSS AND ILIAD

5 KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION AND INFERENCE IN DIAGNOSTIC EXPERT SYSTEMS

6 RULE-BASED EXPERT SYSTEMS

7 EMBEDDED EXPERT SYSTEMS

8 DIAGNOSTIC EXPERT SYSTEMS FOR BIOSURVEILLANCE

9 PERFECTING CASE AND OUTBREAK DETECTION

10 COMPUTER-INTERPRETABLE CASE DEFINITIONS

11 SUMMARY

12 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

13 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 14: Classical Time-Series Methods for Biosurveillance

1 INTRODUCTION

2 SYNTHESIZING HEALTHCARE UTILIZATION DATA

3 CONTROL CHARTS

4 CHANGES FROM YESTERDAY

5 MOVING AVERAGE

6 CUSUM

7 COMPARING THE UNIVARIATE ALGORITHMS

8 EXPONENTIALLY WEIGHTED MOVING AVERAGE

9 REGRESSION

10 SICKNESS AVAILABILITY

11 FURTHER COMPARISON OF THE UNIVARIATE ALGORITHMS

12 ADDITIONAL METHODS

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 15: Combining Multiple Signals for Biosurveillance

1 INTRODUCTION

2 THE IMPORTANCE OF MULTIPLE SOURCES OF DATA

3 COMBINING MULTIPLE TIME SERIES USING REGRESSION ANALYSIS

4 COMBINING MULTIPLE TIME SERIES USING THE HOTELLING STATISTIC

5 COMBINING MULTIPLE TIME SERIES USING PROBABILITY

6 COMBINING FIELDS IN EVENT DATA: THE “WHAT’S STRANGE ABOUT RECENT EVENTS” APPROACH

7 FURTHER MULTIVARIATE APPROACHES

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Chapter 16: Methods for Detecting Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Clusters

1 INTRODUCTION

2 OVERVIEW OF SPATIAL CLUSTER DETECTION

3 THE SPATIAL SCAN STATISTIC

4 RELATED METHODS

SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Chapter 17: Natural Language Processing for Biosurveillance

1 INTRODUCTION

2 THE ROLE OF NLP IN BIOSURVEILLANCE

3 EXAMPLE USE OF NLP

4 HOW HARD IS NLP?

5 LINGUISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CLINICAL TEXT—WHAT MAKES NLP HARD?

6 TECHNOLOGIES FOR NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING

7 EVALUATION METHODS FOR NLP IN BIOSURVEILLANCE

8 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 18: Bayesian Methods for Diagnosing Outbreaks

1 INTRODUCTION

2 BACKGROUND

3 BIOSURVEILLANCE USING BAYESIAN NETWORKS

4 EMPIRICAL EVALUATION

5 SUMMARY

6 EXTENSIONS

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 19: Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling in Biosurveillance

1 INTRODUCTION

2 EXAMPLE OF USING AN ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODEL TO PROVE WIND AS ROUTE OF OUTBREAK TRANSMISSION

3 ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELS

4 ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELS AND THE ANALYSIS OF BIOSURVEILLANCE DATA

5 OTHER USES OF DISPERSION MODELS IN BIOSURVEILLANCE

6 WEATHER DATA

7 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 20: Methods for Algorithm Evaluation

1 INTRODUCTION

2 GOALS OF ALGORITHM EVALUATION

3 EVALUATING ALGORITHMS FOR CASE DETECTION

4 EVALUATING ALGORITHMS FOR OUTBREAK DETECTION

5 EVALUATING ALGORITHMS FOR OUTBREAK CHARACTERIZATION

6 DETERMINING WHETHER BAYESIAN ALGORITHMS ARE WELL CALIBRATED

7 EVALUATING THE COMBINATION OF ALGORITHM AND DATA

8 DIAGNOSTIC PRECISION AND THE QUESTION OF “HOW GOOD IS GOOD ENOUGH?”

9 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

PART IV: NEWER TYPES OF SURVEILLANCE DATA

Chapter 21: Methods for Evaluating Surveillance Data

1 INTRODUCTION

2 ATTRIBUTES OF SURVEILLANCE DATA RELEVANT TO ACQUISITION DECISIONS

3 METHODS FOR ESTIMATING INFORMATIONAL VALUE OF SURVEILLANCE DATA FOR CASE DETECTION

4 METHODS FOR ESTIMATING INFORMATIONAL VALUE OF SURVEILLANCE DATA FOR OUTBREAK DETECTION/CHARACTERIZATION

5 VALUE OF INFORMATION

6 GOLD STANDARDS FOR EVALUATION OF SURVEILLANCE DATA

SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 22: Sales of Over-the-Counter Healthcare Products

1 INTRODUCTION

2 DESCRIPTION OF OTC DATA

3 AVAILABILITY OF OVER-THE-COUNTER SALES DATA

4 THE INFORMATIONAL VALUE OF OTC SALES DATA

5 ANALYTICAL ISSUES IN MONITORING SALES OF OTC PRODUCTS

6 A “DATA UTILITY” MODEL: NRDM

7 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 23: Chief Complaints and ICD Codes

1 INTRODUCTION

2 CHIEF COMPLAINTS

3 ICD CODES

4 USING CHIEF COMPLAINTS AND ICD-CODED DIAGNOSES IN BIOSURVEILLANCE

5 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 24: Absenteeism

1 INTRODUCTION

2 PUBLIC/PRIVATE SCHOOLS

3 EMPLOYER AND MILITARY ATTENDANCE REPORTING

4 LIMITATIONS TO ABSENTEEISM DATA

SUMMARY

Chapter 25: Emergency Call Centers

1 INTRODUCTION

2 911 CALL CENTER/DISPATCH COMPUTER SYSTEMS

3 MILITARY CALL CENTER/DISPATCH

4 COMMERCIAL ASSISTANCE CALL CENTERS

5 POISON INFORMATION CENTERS

6 USE OF CALL CENTERS IN BIOSURVEILLANCE

7 SUMMARY

Chapter 26: The Internet as Sentinel

1 INTRODUCTION

2 INTERNET AS SENTINEL I: PROMED-MAIL

3 INTERNET PRIMER

4 INTERNET AS SENTINEL III: MONITORING USAGE OF HEALTH WEBSITES AND HEALTH-RELATED QUERIES TO SEARCH ENGINES

5 INTERNET AS SENTINEL IV: SELF-REPORTING

6 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 27: Physiologic and Space-Based Sensors

1 INTRODUCTION

2 SENSORS FOR MONITORING THE HEALTH STATUS OF PEOPLE OR ANIMALS

3 IMAGE ANALYSIS

4 SATELLITES

5 MONITORING WEATHER AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

6 SUMMARY

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 28: Data NOS (Not Otherwise Specified)

1 INTRODUCTION

2 CLINICAL DATA

3 PRECLINICAL DATA

4 PRESYMPTOMATIC DATA

5 PERMISSIVE ENVIRONMENT

6 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

PART V: DECISION MAKING

Chapter 29: Decision Analysis

1 INTRODUCTION

2 THE DECISION TO ISSUE A BOIL-WATER ADVISORY (GLASGOW, 2002)

3 THE SCIENCE OF DECISION MAKING

4 DECISION ANALYSIS: ISSUE A BOIL-WATER ADVISORY OR WAIT FOR RESULTS OF DEFINITIVE TESTING

5 COMPUTATIONAL DECISION ANALYSIS

6 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 30: Probabilistic Interpretation of Surveillance Data

1 INTRODUCTION

2 CURRENT METHODS FOR INTERPRETING BIOSURVEILLANCE DATA

3 BAYESIAN WRAPPER METHOD

4 PROBABILITIES AND COSTS

5 GENERALIZATION OF THE BAYESIAN WRAPPER METHOD

6 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 31: Economic Studies in Biosurveillance

1 INTRODUCTION

2 DEFINITIONS AND BASIC CONCEPTS

3 TYPES OF ECONOMIC ANALYSES

4 SENSITIVITY ANALYSES

5 EXAMPLES OF ECONOMIC ANALYSES IN BIOSURVEILLANCE

6 CURRENT LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

7 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

PART VI: BUILDING AND FIELD TESTING BIOSURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

Chapter 32: Information Technology Standards in Biosurveillance

1 INTRODUCTION

2 THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY

3 TYPES OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS

4 LANGUAGE STANDARDS

5 STANDARDS WITH WHICH YOU NEED PASSING FAMILIARITY

6 ADOPTION OF STANDARDS

7 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Chapter 33: Architecture

1 INTRODUCTION

2 DEFINITIONS

3 ENTERPRISE AND PAN-ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES

4 AN ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE FOR BIOSURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

5 A PAN-ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE FOR BIOSURVEILLANCE

6 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 34: Advancing Organizational Integration: Negotiation, Data Use Agreements, Law and Ethics

1 INTRODUCTION

2 AGREEMENTS TO PROVIDE OR EXCHANGE DATA

3 LEGAL AND ETHICAL CHALLENGES

4 SERVICE AGREEMENTS

5 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 35: Other Design and Implementation Issues

1 INTRODUCTION

2 HOSTING FACILITY

3 SOFTWARE

4 SUPPORTING THE BIOSURVEILLANCE PROCESSES

5 MAKING USE OF DATA UTILITIES

6 SUMMARY

Chapter 36: Project Management

1 CBBS AND CBBS PROJECTS

2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT

3 PROJECT LIFE CYCLES

4 UNIQUE CBBS PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

5 APPLYING PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES IN THE REAL WORLD

6 SUMMARY

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 37: Methods for Field Testing of Biosurveillance Systems

1 INTRODUCTION

2 QUESTIONS NOT ADDRESSED BY BENCH TESTING OF DATA AND ALGORITHMS

3 GOALS OF FIELD TESTING

4 ATTRIBUTES OF SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS

5 AN EXAMPLE EVALUATION: FIELD TESTING OF THE DATA LAYER

6 SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Epilogue: The Future of Biosurveillance

APPENDICES

CDC™ Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

Sample Questionnaire/Survey

Surveillance Data Tables

Derivation of Bayes’ Rule

Predictive Value Positive and Negative

Data Communication to RODS: Technical Specifications

Data Use Agreement

Department of Health Authorized Use Agreement for Clinical Data

National Retail Data Monitor/RODS Account Access Agreement

Data Security Agreement—Personnel

Data Use Agreement with Commercial Data Provider

Glossary

Index

Details

No. of pages:
624
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2006
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080459998
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123693785

About the Editor

Michael Wagner

Affiliations and Expertise

Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Informatics University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

Andrew Moore

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

Ron Aryel

Affiliations and Expertise

Del Rey Technologies, Kansas City, Missouri, USA