Handbook of Biomedical Engineering - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124151451, 9780323142687

Handbook of Biomedical Engineering

1st Edition

Editors: Jacob Kline
eBook ISBN: 9780323142687
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 4th January 1988
Page Count: 754
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Handbook of Biomedical Engineering covers the most important used systems and materials in biomedical engineering. This book is organized into six parts: Biomedical Instrumentation and Devices, Medical Imaging, Computers in Medicine, Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Clinical Engineering, and Engineering in Physiological Systems Analysis. These parts encompassing 27 chapters cover the basic principles, design data and criteria, and applications and their medical and/or biological relationships. Part I deals with the principles, mode of operation, and uses of various biomedical instruments and devices, including transducers, electrocardiograph, implantable electrical devices, biotelemetry, patient monitoring systems, hearing aids, and implantable insulin delivery systems. Parts II and III describe the basic principle of medical imaging devices and the application of computers in medicine, particularly in the fields of data management, critical care, clinical laboratory, radiology, artificial intelligence, and research. Part IV focuses on the application of biomaterials and biomechanics in orthopedic and accident investigation, while Part V considers the major functions of clinical engineering. Part VI provides the principles and application of mathematical models in physiological systems analysis.
This book is valuable as a general reference for courses in a biomedical engineering curriculum.

Table of Contents



Part I Biomedical instrumentation and devices

Chapter 1 Biomedical Transducers

I. Introduction

II. Transducer Categories

III. Characteristics of Transducers

IV. Electrodes: Sensing and Stimulating

V. Physical Sensors

VI. Chemical Transducers


Chapter 2 Electrocardiograph: Specifications and Design Parameters

I. Introduction

II. The Cardiogram

III. Measurement Requirements

IV. Performance Standards and Overall Accuracy

V. Cardiograph Functional Elements

VI. Leads and Lead Switching

VII. Cardiograph Frequency Response

VIII. Patient Connection Considerations

IX. Interference and Noise

X. Cardiogram Recorder


Chapter 3 Electrosurgery

I. Introduction

II. Historical Development

III. Generator Characteristics

IV. Electrosurgical Waveforms

V. Dispersive Electrodes

VI. Summary


Chapter 4 Implantable Medical Electrical Devices

I. Introduction

II. Biocompatible Materials

III. Functions of an Implantable Electronic Device

IV. Cardiac Pacemakers

V. Neural Stimulators

VI. Tissue Growth Stimulators

VII. Sensory Aids

VIII. Summary


Chapter 5 Implantable Electrodes and Leads

I. Introduction

II. Connection

III. Conductor

IV. Insulation

V. Anchoring the Conductor

VI. Guidance System

VII. Anchoring the Distal End

VIII. Active Element

IX. Applications


Chapter 6 Biotelemetry

I. Introduction

II. Classification and Principles of Biotelemetry

III. Cable Transmission

IV. Radiotelemetry

V. Carrier Frequency

VI. Multiplexing

VII. Modulation

VIII. Pulse Modulation

IX. Passive Telemetry Systems

X. Implantable Systems

XI. Batteries

XII. Ultrasound and Light Telemetry

XIII. Telephonic Telemetry


Chapter 7 Patient Monitoring Systems

I. Introduction

II. Requirements of the System

III. The Modern System

IV. Arrhythmia Monitoring System

V. Design Parameters

VI. Summary


Chapter 8 Hearing Aids

I. Introduction

II . Hearing Fundamentals

III. Symptoms and Causes of Hearing Disorders

IV. Hearing Aid Implementation

V. Hearing Aid Fitting Procedures


Chapter 9 Implantable Insulin Delivery Systems

I. Introduction

II. New Techniques of Insulin Administration

III. Alternate Routes

IV. Conclusion


Part II Medical Imaging

Chapter 10 Beam/Ray Imaging

I. Introduction

II. Radiographic Imaging

III. Computed Tomography

IV. Nuclear Medicine (Gamma-Ray) Imaging

V. Ultrasonic Imaging

VI. Endoscopy


Chapter 11 Magnetic Resonance Imaging

I. Introduction

II. Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance

III. Vector Description of Magnetic Resonance

IV. The Two Domains

V. Signal Excitation and Detection

VI. Relaxation

VII. The Spin Echo

VIII. The NMR Spectrum

IX. Principles of NMR Imaging

X. Multiple Slice versus Volume Imaging

XI. The Imaging Pulse Sequence

XII. Factors Affecting Image Appearance

XIII. Effect of Field Strength in MRI

XIV. Pulse Sequences and Image Contrast

XV. Effect of Flow on Magnetic Resonance Images

XVI. Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI)

XVII. Instrumentation

XVIII. Safety


Part III Computers in Medicine

Chapter 12 Database Management

I. Introduction

II. Advantages and Disadvantages of a DBMS

III. In-House Systems

IV. Commercially Available Systems

V. Desirable Features

VI. Specific Medical Applications

VII. Access Control

VIII. Backup and Remote Storage


Chapter 13 Computerized Critical Care Areas

I. Introduction

II. Planning and Designing a Computerized Critical Care Unit

III. Selection of Monitoring Equipment


Chapter 14 Clinical Laboratory Systems

I. Operation of the Clinical Laboratory

II. The Computer in the Clinical Laboratory

III. Selection of a Computer System


Chapter 15 Radiology: Computer Diagnosis and Pattern Recognition

I. Introduction

II. Digitizing the Data

III. Preprocessing the Data

IV. Extracting Features and Segmentation

V. Classification

VI. Image Processing Literature


Chapter 16 Computers in Medical Research

I. Introduction

II. Hardware

III. Software

IV. Interacting with Experimental Preparations

V. Additional Sources of Information


Chapter 17 Artificial Intelligence in Medicine

I. Introduction

II. Artificial Intelligence

III. Medical Applications of Artificial Intelligence

IV. Developing a Medical Expert System

Recommended Reading

Part IV Biomaterials and Biomechanics

Chapter 18 Biomaterials

I. Introduction

II. Polymers and Plastics

III. Metals

IV. Ceramics

V. Treated Natural Materials

VI. Tissue Reaction

VII. Sterilization of Biomaterials


Chapter 19 Biomechanics of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation of the Musculoskeletal System

I. Properties of Calcified and Other Musculoskeletal Connective Tissues

II. Materials Properties of Orthopedic and Rehabilitiation Devices

III. Structural Mechanics of the Musculoskeletal System

IV. Prostheses and Orthoses


Chapter 20 Biomechanics and Accident Investigation

I. Introduction

II. Biomechanical Injury Threshold

III. Accident Reconstruction


Part V Clinical Engineering

Chapter 21 Hospital-Based Clinical Engineering Programs

I. Introduction

II. Hospital Organization and the Role of Clinical Engineering

III. Major Functions of a Clinical Engineering Department

IV. Conclusion


Chapter 22 Regulatory Requirements and Health Care Codes

I. Introduction

II. FDA Regulations

III. Joint Commission on Accreditation for Hospitals (JCAH)

IV. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standards


Part VI Engineering in Physiological Systems Analysis

Chapter 23 Mathematical Modeling of Physiological Systems

I. Introduction

II. Mathematical Modeling

III. Linear Systems: Approximation Expressions

IV. Block Diagram Representation of Physiological Systems

V. Simplification Using Analogous Systems


Chapter 24 Cardiopulmonary System Models

I. Introduction

II. Analog Computer Model

III. Myocardial Mechanics Model

IV. Distributed Parameter Models

V. Model Performance

VI. Cardiac Energy and Power Analysis

VII. Respiratory System Models


Chapter 25 Models of Gastrointestinal Tract Motility

I. Introduction

II . Mechanical Events

III. Electrical Activity

IV. Mathematical Models of Motor Activity

V. Conclusion


Chapter 26 Signal Transmission and Processing in the Nervous System

I. Introduction

II . Biopotentials

III. Electrical Transmission

IV. Synaptic Transmission

V. Neural Signal Processing and Modeling


Chapter 27 Noninvasive Biomedical Engineering Diagnostic Cardiology

I. Introduction

II . Doppler Echocardiography to Determine Flow Disturbances and Transvalvular Pressure Gradient

III. Phonoechocardiography for the Detection of Valvular Disease

IV. Ultrasonic Texture Analysis for the Detection of Myocardial Infarcts

V. Heart Wall Motion Studies to Determine Intracardiac Blood Flow Patterns and Assess Heart Pump Dysfunction




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© Academic Press 1988
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Jacob Kline

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