Handbook of Biofuels Production

Handbook of Biofuels Production

2nd Edition - May 19, 2016

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  • Editors: Rafael Luque, Carol Lin, Karen Wilson, James Clark
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081004562
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081004555

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Handbook of Biofuels Production, Second Edition, discusses advanced chemical, biochemical, and thermochemical biofuels production routes that are fast being developed to address the global increase in energy usage. Research and development in this field is aimed at improving the quality and environmental impact of biofuels production, as well as the overall efficiency and output of biofuels production plants. The book provides a comprehensive and systematic reference on the range of biomass conversion processes and technology. Key changes for this second edition include increased coverage of emerging feedstocks, including microalgae, more emphasis on by-product valorization for biofuels’ production, additional chapters on emerging biofuel production methods, and discussion of the emissions associated with biofuel use in engines. The editorial team is strengthened by the addition of two extra members, and a number of new contributors have been invited to work with authors from the first edition to revise existing chapters, thus offering fresh perspectives.

Key Features

  • Provides systematic and detailed coverage of the processes and technologies being used for biofuel production
  • Discusses advanced chemical, biochemical, and thermochemical biofuels production routes that are fast being developed to address the global increase in energy usage
  • Reviews the production of both first and second generation biofuels
  • Addresses integrated biofuel production in biorefineries and the use of waste materials as feedstocks


Professional engineers in the biofuel industry and researchers in academia from postgraduate level onwards working on biofuels

Table of Contents

  • Part One. Key issues and assessment of biofuels production

    1. Introduction: An overview of biofuels and production technologies

    • 1.1. Introduction
    • 1.2. Development of (bio)chemical conversion technologies
    • 1.3. Development of biological conversion technologies
    • 1.4. Thermochemical conversion technologies
    • 1.5. Process integration and biorefinery
    • 1.6. Future trends

    2. Multiple objectives policies for biofuels production: Environmental, socio-economic, and regulatory issues

    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. Energy security and supply
    • 2.3. Emission reductions, land use, and other environmental impacts
    • 2.4. Food safety and development of rural areas
    • 2.5. Biofuels support policies
    • 2.6. Conclusions

    3. Life cycle sustainability assessment of biofuels

    • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.2. Main challenges for biofuel sustainability
    • 3.3. Life cycle sustainability assessment methodology
    • 3.4. LCA considerations of biomass to biofuel conversion routes
    • 3.5. Overview of major findings of selected LCA studies in biofuel production
    • 3.6. Conclusions

    4. Biofuels: Technology, economics, and policy issues

    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. Moving from fossil fuel to biofuels: insights from socio-technical transition theory
    • 4.3. Assessing first- and next-generation biofuels
    • 4.4. Economic, environmental, and social issues
    • 4.5. Policy actions and the regulatory framework
    • 4.6. Conclusions

    5. Feedstocks and challenges to biofuel development

    • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.2. Edible vegetable raw materials for biodiesel production
    • 5.3. Nonedible/low-cost raw materials for diesel engine biofuel production
    • 5.4. Raw materials for bioethanol production

    Part Two. Biofuels from chemical and biochemical conversion processes and technologies

    6. Production of biodiesel via catalytic upgrading and refining of sustainable oleagineous feedstocks

    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. General background to biodiesel
    • 6.3. Recent robust technology in biodiesel catalysis
    • 6.4. Concluding remarks

    7. Biochemical catalytic production of biodiesel

    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. Lipases
    • 7.3. Enzymatic production of biodiesel
    • 7.4. New tendencies in enzymatic production of biodiesel
    • 7.5. Biofuels similar to biodiesel produced using several acyl acceptors, different to methanol
    • 7.6. Industrial biodiesel production using enzymes
    • 7.7. Conclusions

    8. Production of fuels from microbial oil using oleaginous microorganisms

    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Oleaginous yeasts and raw materials used for microbial oil production
    • 8.3. The biochemistry of lipid accumulation in the oleaginous microorganisms
    • 8.4. Microbial oil production in fed-batch cultures
    • 8.5. Biodiesel production from microbial oil
    • 8.6. Techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production from microbial oil
    • 8.7. Perspective of biofuel production from microbial oil

    9. Biochemical production of bioalcohols

    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. Types of biomass for bioalcohol production
    • 9.3. Bioalcohols
    • 9.4. New technologies for bioethanol production

    10. Production of biogas via anaerobic digestion

    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. Factors affecting the anaerobic digestion process
    • 10.3. Advantages and limitations
    • 10.4. Reactor configurations
    • 10.5. Methods for enhancing the efficiency of anaerobic digestion
    • 10.6. Process modeling
    • 10.7. Process monitoring and control
    • 10.8. Biogas utilization
    • 10.9. Existing biogas installations
    • 10.10. Conclusions and future trends

    11. Biological and fermentative production of hydrogen

    • 11.1. Introduction
    • 11.2. Fundamentals of biohydrogen production
    • 11.3. Biological hydrogen production strategies
    • 11.4. Enhancing hydrogen production through metabolic engineering
    • 11.5. Hydrogen production by cell-free enzymatic systems
    • 11.6. Comparison of biohydrogen production techniques
    • 11.7. Conclusions and outlook

    12. Biological and fermentative conversion of syngas

    • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.2. Fundamentals of syngas fermentation
    • 12.3. Bacteria for syngas conversion
    • 12.4. Effects of process parameters
    • 12.5. Reactors for fermentative conversion of syngas
    • 12.6. Product recovery
    • 12.7. Examples of commercial and semicommercial processes
    • 12.8. Conclusions for biological fermentation of syngas

    13. Chemical routes for the conversion of cellulosic platform molecules into high-energy-density biofuels

    • 13.1. Introduction
    • 13.2. Oxygenated fuels via 5-HMF: furanic compounds
    • 13.3. Levulinic acid as platform molecule to oxygenated fuels: alkyl levulinates and valeric biofuels
    • 13.4. Oxygenated fuels via furfural: furan derivatives
    • 13.5. Blending effect of oxygenated biofuels with conventional fuels
    • 13.6. Catalytic conversion of γ-valerolactone to liquid hydrocarbon fuels
    • 13.7. Furan derivatives as platform molecules for liquid hydrocarbon fuels
    • 13.8. Sugars to hydrocarbon fuels: aqueous phase reforming process
    • 13.9. Final remarks and future outlook

    Part Three. Biofuels from thermal and thermo-chemical conversion processes and technologies

    14. Catalytic fast pyrolysis for improved liquid quality

    • 14.1. Introduction
    • 14.2. Pyrolysis background
    • 14.3. Catalytic pyrolysis
    • 14.4. Catalytic pyrolysis: catalysts used
    • 14.5. Catalytic pyrolysis: reactor setup
    • 14.6. Conclusion and future opportunities

    15. Production of bio-syngas and bio-hydrogen via gasification

    • 15.1. Introduction
    • 15.2. Biomass feedstock for gasification
    • 15.3. Biomass gasification process
    • 15.4. Gasification technology
    • 15.5. Syngas technology: composition, conditioning and upgrading to valuable products
    • 15.6. Current status in commercial gasification of biomass
    • 15.7. Challenges and opportunities

    16. Production of bioalcohols via gasification

    • 16.1. Introduction
    • 16.2. Gasification routes for alcohol production
    • 16.3. Technical and economical analysis of the oxidative coupling of methane process
    • 16.4. Conclusions and future perspectives

    17. Production of biofuels via hydrothermal conversion

    • 17.1. Introduction
    • 17.2. Process chemistry
    • 17.3. Process layout
    • 17.4. Feedstock considerations
    • 17.5. Product distribution and properties
    • 17.6. Development of technology and current research
    • 17.7. Lifecycle and techno-economic assessment
    • 17.8. Conclusions

    18. Production of biofuels via Fischer–Tropsch synthesis: Biomass-to-liquids

    • 18.1. Introduction
    • 18.2. Biomass-to-liquids process steps and technologies
    • 18.3. Biomass-to-liquids final fuel products
    • 18.4. Environmental and economic considerations of the BTL process
    • 18.5. Commercial status of the biomass-to-liquids processes
    • 18.6. Future prospects and challenges

    19. Production of biofuels via bio-oil upgrading and refining

    • 19.1. Introduction
    • 19.2. Upgrading of biomass liquefaction products
    • 19.3. Liquid fuel products from biomass through direct liquefaction and hydroprocessing
    • 19.4. Conclusions

    Part Four. Integrated production and application of biofuels

    20. Biofuel production from food wastes

    • 20.1. Introduction
    • 20.2. Characteristics of food waste
    • 20.3. Common food waste managements
    • 20.4. Biofuels production
    • 20.5. Conclusions and future trends
    • List of abbreviations

    21. Biochar in thermal and thermochemical biorefineries—production of biochar as a coproduct

    • 21.1. Introduction
    • 21.2. Biochar as a coproduct in biofuels and bioenergy production
    • 21.3. Biochar from biorefinery residues

    22. Algae for biofuels: An emerging feedstock

    • 22.1. Introduction
    • 22.2. Microalgal biomass and oil
    • 22.3. Oil biosynthesis in microalgae
    • 22.4. Mass cultivation
    • 22.5. Biomass harvesting and dewatering
    • 22.6. Oil extraction and transesterification
    • 22.7. Conclusions and future directions

    23. Utilization of biofuels in diesel engines

    • 23.1. Introduction
    • 23.2. Utilization of vegetable pure plant oil and crude oil in diesel engines
    • 23.3. Utilization of biodiesel-based palm oil, jatropha oil, coconut oil, and kapok nut oil in diesel engines
    • 23.4. Utilization of biodiesel B5-based cat-fish fat in diesel engines
    • 23.5. The concept of using biofuel on engines (prime mover)
    • 23.6. Conclusion and remarks

Product details

  • No. of pages: 770
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2016
  • Published: May 19, 2016
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081004562
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081004555

About the Editors

Rafael Luque

Rafael Luque (PhD in 2005 from the Universidad de Córdoba, Spain) has significant experience in biomass and waste valorization practices to materials, fuels, and chemicals as well as nanoscale chemistry, green chemistry, and catalysis (600+ publications, >37,000 citations, 7 patents, 10 edited books). He is Editor-in-chief of Molecular Catalysis (Elsevier) and serves on the Advisory/Editorial Board of over 10 Q1 RSC, Wiley, ACS, and Elsevier journals. He has been named Highly Cited Researcher by Clarivate Analytics in 2018, 2019, 2020, and 2021.

Affiliations and Expertise

Deputy Head, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidad de Cordoba, Spain

Carol Lin

Carol Lin received her BEng degree in Chemicals & Material Engineering from the University of Auckland, New Zealand and her Ph.D. from The University of Manchester, UK. Dr. Lin is currently Associate Professor at the School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong. She is internationally known for her work on bioconversion of agricultural, food and industrial residues for production of chemicals, materials and fuels through green and sustainable chemistry. Her current research interests include cultivation of anaerobic human gut microbial consortia in cellulose hydrogel-based immobilized bioreactors, waste and biomass valorisation. Dr. Lin leads a team of researchers with a current grant portfolio of over HK$18M and on-going collaborations with numerous companies. She has given numerous Keynote and Plenary speeches at major international conferences. In 2016 and 2018, her research team won the Gold Medal at the Geneva Invention Exhibition. In 2017, she received The President’s Awards, CityU.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Karen Wilson

Karen Wilson is Professor of Catalysis in the School of Science at RMIT University and was previously Chair of Catalysis and Research Director of the European Bioenergy Research Institute at Aston University (2013-17), where she also held a Royal Society Industry Fellowship in collaboration with Johnson Matthey. She holds a BA and PhD from the University of Cambridge, and MSc in heterogeneous catalysis from the University of Liverpool and has held academic positions at the University of York and Cardiff University. Her research interests lie in the design of tunable porous materials for sustainable biofuels and chemicals production from renewable resources. She is currently Associate Editor of the academic journals Sustainable Energy & Fuels, and Energy & Environmental Materials.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Catalysis, School of Science, RMIT University, Australia

James Clark

Prof James Clark is a founding director of the world-leading Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence at the University of York, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of York, UK

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  • José E. Tue Dec 17 2019

    Excellent Handbook of Biofuels Production.

    Excellent Handbook of Biofuels Production. Congratulations!