Handbook of Arsenic Toxicology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124186880, 9780124199552

Handbook of Arsenic Toxicology

1st Edition

Authors: Swaran Jeet Singh Flora
eBook ISBN: 9780124199552
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124186880
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 5th January 2015
Page Count: 752
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Description

Throughout history, arsenic has been used as an effective and lethal poison. Today, arsenic continues to present a real threat to human health all over the world, as it contaminates groundwater and food supplies. Handbook of Arsenic Toxicology presents the latest findings on arsenic, its chemistry, its sources and its acute and chronic effects on the environment and human health. The book takes readings systematically through the target organs, before detailing current preventative and counter measures. This reference enables readers to effectively assess the risks related to arsenic, and provide a comprehensive look at arsenic exposure, toxicity and toxicity prevention.

Key Features

  • Brings together current findings on the effects of arsenic on the environment and human health
  • Includes state-of-the-art techniques in arsenic toxicokinetics, speciation and molecular mechanisms
  • Provides all the information needed for effective risk assessment, prevention and countermeasure

Readership

Researchers in the fields of toxicology, pharmacology, biochemistry and environmental science medical practitioners.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • List of Contributors
  • 1. Arsenic: Chemistry, Occurrence, and Exposure
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Chemistry of Arsenic
    • 1.3 Arsenic Minerals and Compounds
    • 1.4 Organoarsenicals
    • 1.5 Arsenic Mobilization in the Environment
    • 1.6 Sources of Arsenic in the Biosphere
    • 1.7 Arsenic in Hydrothermal and Geothermal Fluids
    • 1.8 Arsenic Release from Mining and Mineral Processing
    • 1.9 Global Occurrence of Arsenic in Ground Water
    • 1.10 Methods of Arsenic Removal from Water
    • 1.11 Conclusions
    • References
  • 2. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination and Its Health Effects in Bangladesh
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh Ground Water
    • 2.3 Extent of Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh
    • 2.4 Arsenic in Different Environmental Media of Bangladesh
    • 2.5 Health Effects of Arsenic Toxicity in Bangladesh
    • 2.6 Epidemiology of Arsenicosis in Bangladesh
    • 2.7 Management of Arsenicosis Patients in Bangladesh
    • 2.8 Socio-Cultural Aspects of Arsenicosis in Bangladesh
    • 2.9 Conclusions
    • References
  • 3. Arsenic and Fluorescent Humic Substances in the Ground Water of Bangladesh: A Public Health Risk
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Materials and Methods
    • 3.3 Results and Discussion
    • 3.4 Conclusions
    • References
  • 4. Arsenic Risk Assessment
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Arsenic Chemistry
    • 4.3 Arsenic Occurrence and Exposure
    • 4.4 Hazard Identification
    • 4.5 Arsenic Metabolism, Mode of Action, and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling
    • 4.6 Potential Sources of Susceptibility
    • 4.7 Dose–Response Approaches
    • 4.8 Risk Characterization
    • References
  • 5. Evaluation of Novel Modified Activated Alumina as Adsorbent for Arsenic Removal
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Materials and Methods
    • 5.3 Results and Discussion
    • 5.4 Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • 6. Health Effects Chronic Arsenic Toxicity
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Dermatological Manifestations
    • 6.3 Epidemiological Study of Dermatological Manifestations
    • 6.4 Pregnancy Outcome
    • 6.5 Arsenicosis and Cancer
    • 6.6 Diagnosis
    • 6.7 Treatment
    • References
  • 7. Changing Concept of Arsenic Toxicity with Development of Speciation Techniques
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Conclusions
    • References
  • 8. Mechanism for Arsenic-Induced Toxic Effects
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Biological Consequences of Chronic Arsenic Exposure in Humans
    • 8.3 Arsenic Metabolism
    • 8.4 Pathophysiology of Arsenic Toxicity
    • 8.5 Mechanism for the Toxic Effects of Arsenic
    • 8.6 Preventing Arsenic-Induced Toxic Effects by Antioxidants
    • 8.7 Conclusions and Future Directions
    • References
  • 9. Arsenic-Induced Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis: A Possible Mechanism
    • 9.1 Arsenic, a Potent Mutagen and Carcinogen
    • 9.2 Epidemiological Perspectives of Arsenic-Induced Human Cancers
    • 9.3 Arsenic-Associated Metabolism and Carcinogenesis in Animal Models
    • 9.4 Human Arsenic Carcinogenesis
    • 9.5 Conclusions and Future Directions
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • 10. Arsenic Through the Gastrointestinal Tract
    • 10.1 General Aspects
    • 10.2 Arsenic in Foods: Household Processing and Toxicological Risk
    • 10.3 Role of the Gut in Arsenic Toxicity: Bioavailability and Intestinal Health
    • 10.4 Arsenic-Induced Metabolic/Immune Toxicity
    • 10.5 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
    • References
  • 11. Cutaneous Toxicology of Arsenic
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Epidemiology
    • 11.3 Clinical Manifestations
    • 11.4 Histopathology
    • 11.5 Molecular Pathogenesis
    • 11.6 Treatment
    • References
  • 12. Arsenic-Induced Liver Injury
    • 12.1 Introduction
    • 12.2 Source of Exposure
    • 12.3 Biotransformation and Elimination of Arsenic
    • 12.4 History of Arsenic-Related Liver Diseases
    • 12.5 Hepatoportal Sclerosis
    • 12.6 Arsenic-Related Hepatic Fibrosis and Cirrhosis
    • 12.7 Epidemiological Study to Assess Arsenic-Related Liver Dysfunction
    • 12.8 Animal Studies for Understanding the Pathogenesis
    • 12.9 Arsenic and Liver Cancer
    • References
  • 13. Arsenic and Respiratory Disease
    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Respiratory Health
    • 13.3 Early Life Arsenic Exposure and Lung Health
    • 13.4 Mechanistic Data on Arsenic Exposure and the Lung
    • 13.5 Conclusions
    • References
  • 14. Arsenical Kidney Toxicity
    • 14.1 Introduction
    • 14.2 Clinical Manifestations of Arsenical Toxicity in Humans
    • 14.3 Nephrotoxic Arsenical Compounds
    • 14.4 Mechanisms of Arsenical Toxicity
    • 14.5 Biomarkers of Nephrotoxicity
    • 14.6 Arsenical Interactions with Other Nephrotoxic Elements
    • 14.7 Summary and Future Research Needs
    • References
  • 15. Arsenic-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity
    • 15.1 Introduction
    • 15.2 Arsenic Exposure Impairs Intellectual Function in Children
    • 15.3 Developmental Neurobehavioral Toxicity in Animals
    • 15.4 Arsenic Distribution After Exposure in Early Life
    • 15.5 Mechanism of Developmental Neurotoxicity
    • 15.6 Neuroprotective Agents Against Arsenic Toxicity
    • 15.7 Conclusions
    • References
  • 16. Developmental Arsenic Exposure Impacts Fetal Programming of the Nervous System
    • 16.1 Introduction
    • 16.2 Accumulation of Arsenic in Fetal Brain Tissue
    • 16.3 Effect of Arsenic on the Development of the Nervous System
    • 16.4 Effect of Arsenic on Neurobehavior
    • 16.5 Mechanisms for the Effect of Arsenic on the Nervous System During Development
    • 16.6 Conclusions and Future Directions
    • References
  • 17. Health Effects of Prenatal and Early-Life Exposure to Arsenic
    • 17.1 Introduction
    • 17.2 Adverse Health Effects Associated with Chronic and Early-Life Arsenic Exposure
    • 17.3 Mechanisms Implicated in Disease Development Associated with Prenatal Exposure
    • 17.4 Conclusions and Future Directions
    • References
  • 18. Arsenic, Kidney, and Urinary Bladder Disorders
    • 18.1 Introduction
    • 18.2 Arsenic and Renal Disease
    • 18.3 Arsenic and Bladder Disease
    • References
  • 19. Developmental Arsenic Exposure: Behavioral Dysfunctions and Neurochemical Perturbations
    • 19.1 Introduction
    • 19.2 Toxicity
    • 19.3 Developmental Toxicity
    • 19.4 Conclusions
    • References
  • 20. Arsenic and the Cardiovascular System
    • 20.1 Introduction
    • 20.2 Cardiovascular System
    • 20.3 Arsenic Effects on Blood
    • 20.4 Arsenic Effects on the Vascular System
    • 20.5 Arsenic Effects on the Heart
    • 20.6 Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: Understanding Arsenic Toxicity
    • 20.7 Conclusions
    • References
  • 21. Immunotoxic Effects of Arsenic Exposure
    • 21.1 Introduction
    • 21.2 Influence of Nutritional Factors
    • 21.3 Effects on Blood Leukocytes
    • 21.4 Interruption of Energy Production
    • 21.5 Effects on ROS Production
    • 21.6 Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Potentials
    • 21.7 Hematological Effects on Experimental Animals
    • 21.8 Effect on Heme Synthesis
    • 21.9 Hepatic Effects and Lipid Peroxidation
    • 21.10 Effects on Immune Responses in Fish
    • 21.11 Effects on Immune Responses in Laboratory Animals
    • 21.12 Effects of Arsenic in Drinking Water on Human Health
    • 21.13 Immunotoxic Effects of Organic Arsenicals in Foods
    • 21.14 Medicinal Use of Arsenic and Its Mechanism of Action
    • 21.15 Effects of Arsenic Compounds on Human Cells in Culture
    • 21.16 Immunotoxic Effects on Murine and Human Monocytes/Macrophages
    • 21.17 Immunotoxic Effects on Murine Mononuclear Cells
    • 21.18 Decreased Cytokine Production by Human T Cells
    • 21.19 Effects of In Utero Exposure on Infant Immune System
    • 21.20 Gender-Related Immunotoxic Effects in Human
    • 21.21 Effects of Chronic Exposure on Immune Response
    • 21.22 Association with Respiratory Complications and Impaired Immune Responses
    • 21.23 Effects of Chronic Exposure on Serum Complement Function
    • 21.24 Conclusions
    • References
  • 22. Arsenic and Developmental Toxicity and Reproductive Disorders
    • 22.1 Introduction
    • 22.2 Developmental Toxicity
    • 22.3 Reproductive Toxicity
    • 22.4 Early-Life Exposures and Delayed Health Effects
    • 22.5 Reproductive Disorders
    • 22.6 Conclusions
    • References
  • 23. Arsenic and Cancer
    • 23.1 Arsenic and Arsenic-Containing Compounds
    • 23.2 Sources of Arsenic and Potential for Human Exposure
    • 23.3 Molecular Mechanisms of Arsenic-Induced Carcinogenesis
    • 23.4 Health Effects Associated with Arsenic Exposure
    • 23.5 Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • 24. The Association between Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis
    • 24.1 Introduction
    • 24.2 Methods and Materials
    • 24.3 Results
    • 24.4 Discussion
    • References
  • 25. Arsenic Biosensors: Challenges and Opportunities for High-Throughput Detection
    • 25.1 Arsenic: The Toxic Metalloid
    • 25.2 Arsenic Biosensors
    • 25.3 Nanosensor Platforms—Towards High-Throughput Detection
    • 25.4 Conclusions and Future Directions
    • References
  • 26. Medical Countermeasures—Chelation Therapy
    • 26.1 Introduction
    • 26.2 Clinical Aspects of Arsenic
    • 26.3 Diagnosis
    • 26.4 Chelation Therapy
    • 26.5 Chelators in Clinical Use
    • 26.6 Analogues of DMSA as Potential New Arsenic Chelators
    • 26.7 Role of Antioxidants in Preventing Arsenic Toxicity
    • 26.8 Newer Strategies
    • 26.9 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
    • References
  • 27. Biochemical and Molecular Basis of Arsenic Toxicity and Tolerance in Microbes and Plants
    • 27.1 Introduction
    • 27.2 Arsenic Toxicity and Tolerance in Microbes
    • 27.3 Arsenic Toxicity and Tolerance in planta
    • 27.4 Mechanisms of As Tolerance and Detoxification
    • 27.5 As Hyperaccumulation and Phytoextraction
    • 27.6 Summary Points
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • 28. Arsenic Contents and Its Biotransformation in the Marine Environment
    • 28.1 Introduction
    • 28.2 Arsenic Concentration in Sea Water
    • 28.3 Arsenic Concentration in Marine Sediments
    • 28.4 Arsenic Speciation in Marine Ecosystems
    • 28.5 Arsenic Cycle in the Marine Environment
    • 28.6 Role of Marine Biological Systems in Arsenic Biotransformation
    • 28.7 Arsenic in Seafood and Its Toxicity
    • 28.8 Future Directions
    • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
752
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124199552
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124186880

About the Author

Swaran Jeet Singh Flora

Swaran Jeet Singh Flora

Dr. Swaran J.S. Flora, Associate Director & Head of Pharmacology and Regulatory Toxicology Department at Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior, India, is engaged in research related to studying the mechanism and mode of action of heavy metals with particular interest in the development of a new molecule engineered for therapy of chronic arsenic poisoning.. He has delivered lectures in USA, Germany, Australia, Italy, Czech Republic, UK etc. He has published over 260 research papers in highly rated peer reviewed journals, including more than 60 Review article/ book chapters, which have been widely cited in international literature. He is Associate Editor and Member Editorial Board of more than 25 prestigious international journals including Food & Chemical Toxicology (Elsevier), Environmental Research (Elsevier), Journal of Trace Elements in Biology & Medicine (Elsevier), Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety (Elsevier), Human & Experimental Toxicology, Oxidative Medicine & Cell Longevity, Environmental Health & Preventive Medicine (Springer, USA), Journal of Occupational Health, BMC Journal of Integrative and Alternative Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Biology etc and Guest reviewer for more than 80 international journals. He served as Executive Board Member, International Society of Dietary Supplements and Phytotherapy (ISDSP), Italy, Member, Neurobiology Task Group, Department of Science and Technology, Govt of India, Member, Scientific Advisory Board (Drug Development), CCCRAS (Department of AAYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt of India) Member, Board of Expert Panel, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai Member, Doctoral Committee, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi, He is a Fellow of National Academy of Sciences (India) (FNASc), Association of Biotechnologists and Pharmacy (FABP), Academy of Environment Biology (FAEB) and Society of Science and Environment (FSSE) and has delivered more than 8 Oration lectures, 200 invited lecture and has been awarded by the Madhya Pradesh State Government, Indian Council of Medical Research, and Society of Toxicology (India). He has also supervised 24 students for their PhD degree.

Affiliations and Expertise

MSc, PhD, FNASc, FAEB, FABP, FSSE, Associate Director and Head, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Regulatory Toxicology Department, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Ministry of Defence, Government of India, Gwalior, India

Reviews

"... presents the information in a succinct way...This comprehensive review of the new advances in arsenic toxicology results in one essential reference for all those involved in the field. Score: 79 - 3 Stars" --Doody's

Ratings and Reviews