Handbook of Antistatics - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781895198959, 9781927885147

Handbook of Antistatics

2nd Edition

Authors: George Wypych Jurgen Pionteck
eBook ISBN: 9781927885147
Hardcover ISBN: 9781895198959
Imprint: ChemTec Publishing
Published Date: 20th September 2016
Page Count: 496
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Description

Handbook of Antistatics, Second Edition, is the only comprehensive handbook to cover all aspects of antistatic agents, including a complete review of existing literature and patent information on additives capable of modifying properties of materials to make them antistatic, conductive, and/or EMI shielding.

Information on the use of additives in various polymers is divided into types and concentrations of antistatics used, the potential effect of antistatics on the polymer and other additives, and examples of typical formulations used for processing of polymers containing the antistatic additive.

Each chapter addresses specific properties and applications of antistatic agents, including methods of quality control, compatibility of antistatic agents, and various polymer matrices (along with performance implications), incorporation methods, health and safety, and environmental implications.

Key Features

  • Includes everything engineers and materials scientists need to know about the use of antistatics in polymers, from incorporation methods, to regulations and standards
  • Presents a combination of up-to-date properties data and authoritative analysis of materials performance
  • Contains detailed coverage of processing methods, giving information on the amount and type of antistatics used in each processing method, along with the typical formulations used

Readership

Engineers and Scientists involved in the design and development of plastics materials and products, and the design and optimization of production processes using plastics. Research and development, production chemists and engineers, environmental engineers, environmental professionals, industrial hygienists, legislators, medical professionals, civil engineers, university professors, students

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
    • 1.1 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN STUDIES ON STATIC ELECTRICITY
    • 1.2 THE TRIBOELECTRIC SERIES AND ELECTROSTATIC CHARGING
    • 1.3 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS
    • 1.4 ANTISTATIC AGENTS
    • 1.5 DEFINITIONS
  • Chapter 2: TYPES OF ANTISTATIC AGENTS
    • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 2.2 CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OF INDUSTRIAL ANTISTATIC AGENTS
  • Chapter 3: TYPICAL METHODS OF QUALITY CONTROL OF ANTISTATICS
    • 3.1 ABBREVIATIONS, TERMINOLOGY, AND VOCABULARY
    • 3.2 ACID NUMBER
    • 3.3 BROOKFIELD VISCOSITY
    • 3.4 CAPACITANCE
    • 3.5 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
    • 3.6 COLOR
    • 3.7 COMPRESSION SET
    • 3.8 DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE
    • 3.9 DIELECTRIC CONSTANT (RELATIVE PERMITTIVITY)
    • 3.10 DIELECTRIC STRENGTH
    • 3.11 DISSIPATION FACTOR
    • 3.12 DRY ARC RESISTANCE
    • 3.13 ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY
    • 3.14 EROSION RESISTANCE
    • 3.15 FLASH AND FIRE POINT
    • 3.16 HARDNESS
    • 3.17 KINEMATIC VISCOSITY
    • 3.18 LOSS INDEX
    • 3.19 MARKING (CLASSIFICATION)
    • 3.20 MELT RHEOLOGY
    • 3.21 REFRACTIVE INDEX
    • 3.22 RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION
    • 3.23 SAPONIFICATION VALUE
    • 3.24 SPECIFIC GRAVITY
    • 3.25 SPECIFICATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS AND STANDARD TEST METHODS
    • 3.25.2 ANESTHETIC APPARATUS BAGS
    • 3.25.3 AVIATION AND DISTILLATE FUELS
    • 3.25.4 BELTS AND BELT DRIVES
    • 3.25.5 CONDUCTIVE ADHESIVES
    • 3.25.6 CONVEYOR BELTING
    • 3.25.7 CROSSLINKABLE ETHYLENE PLASTICS
    • 3.25.8 ELECTRICAL INSULATING MATERIALS
    • 3.25.9 ELECTROCOAT BATH
    • 3.25.10 ELECTRONIC DEVICES
    • 3.25.11 ENDLESS BELTS
    • 3.25.12 EXTRUDED FILM AND TAPE
    • 3.25.13 FLOORING
    • 3.25.14 FOOTWEAR (PROTECTIVE)
    • 3.25.15 HOSES
    • 3.25.16 INSULATION SHIELDING MATERIALS
    • 3.25.17 LIQUID ANTISTATIC
    • 3.25.18 LIQUID PAINTS
  • Chapter 4: ELECTROSTATIC HAZARDS
    • 4.1 ELECTROSTATIC CHARGE GENERATION
    • 4.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE
    • 4.3 ELECTROSTATIC HAZARDS
  • Chapter 5: IGNITION HAZARDS AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES
    • 5.1 CONDITIONS OF IGNITION
    • 5.2 TYPES OF DISCHARGE AND DISCHARGE ENERGY
    • 5.3 MINIMUM IGNITION ENERGY
    • 5.4 CLASSIFICATION OF FLAMMABLE ATMOSPHERES
    • 5.5 PREVENTIVE MEASURES
  • Chapter 6: MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF ANTISTATIC AGENTS
    • 6.1 CONDUCTIVE MODIFICATION OF POLYMER SURFACES
    • 6.2 MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ANTISTATICS ADDED INTO BULK
    • 6.3 CONSIDERATION OF MECHANISM IN SELECTION OF ANTISTATIC AGENTS FOR APPLICATION
  • Chapter 7: COMPATIBILITY OF ANTISTATIC AGENTS WITH MATRIX AND THEIR PERFORMANCE
    • 7.1 WHAT INFLUENCES COMPATIBILITY OF ANTISTATIC AGENTS WITH THE MATRIX?
    • 7.2 METHODS OF ANTISTATIC AGENT SELECTION BASED ON PRINCIPLES OF COMPATIBILITY
    • 7.3 INFLUENCE OF COMPATIBILITY ON PERMANENCE OF ANTISTATIC AGENT INCORPORATION
  • Chapter 8: ANTISTATIC AGENT MOTION AND DIFFUSION
    • 8.1 ANTISTATIC AGENT DIFFUSION RATE AND THE METHODS OF STUDY
    • 8.2 ANTISTATIC AGENT MOTION AND DISTRIBUTION IN MATRIX
  • Chapter 9: STRUCTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF NON-MIGRATING ANTISTATICS
    • 9.1 MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF NON-MIGRATING ANTISTATICS
    • 9.2 PERCOLATION THRESHOLD
  • Chapter 10: ANTISTATIC AGENT INCORPORATION METHOD AND ITS PERFORMANCE
    • 10.1 GRAFTING
    • 10.2 CHEMICAL MODIFICATION
    • 10.3 SURFACE COATING
    • 10.4 UV AND ELECTRON BEAM CURING
    • 10.5 PLASMA TREATMENT
    • 10.6 PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION
    • 10.7 MIXING/DISPERSION
    • 10.8 CRYSTALLIZATION IN MATRIX
    • 10.9 NUCLEATION OF INORGANIC NANOPARTICLES
  • Chapter 11: ANTISTATIC AGENTS AND OTHER COMPONENTS OF FORMULATION
    • 11.1 CONSUMPTION OF ANTISTATIC AGENTS BY FILLERS
    • 11.2 ABSORPTION OF ANTISTATIC AGENTS
    • 11.3 MOLECULAR MOBILITY AND TRANSPORT IN THE PRESENCE OF ANTISTATIC AGENTS
    • 11.4 EFFECT OF ANTISTATIC AGENTS ON POLYMERIZATION AND CURING REACTIONS
    • 11.5 EFFECT OF MOISTURE AND HUMIDITY
  • Chapter 12: EFFECT OF ANTISTATIC AGENTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF COMPOUNDED MATERIALS
    • 12.3 SPECTRAL PROPERTIES
    • 12.5 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
    • 12.6 GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE
    • 12.7 THERMAL STABILITY
    • 12.8 EFFECT OF UV AND IONIZED RADIATION ON MATERIALS CONTAINING ANTISTATICS
    • 12.9 MORPHOLOGY, CRYSTALLIZATION, STRUCTURE, AND ORIENTATION OF MACROMOLECULES
    • 12.10 HYDROPHILIC PROPERTIES, SURFACE FREE ENERGY
  • Chapter 13: ANTISTATIC AGENT SELECTION FOR SPECIFIC POLYMERS
    • 13.1 ABS
    • 13.2 ACRYLICS
    • 13.3 POLYBENZOXAZINE
    • 13.4 CELLULOSE ACETATE
    • 13.5 CELLULOSE BUTYRATE AND PROPIONATE
    • 13.6 CELLULOSE NITRATE
    • 13.7 CHARGE TRANSFER POLYMERS
    • 13.8 CHITOSAN
    • 13.9 CHLORINATED POLYVINYLCHLORIDE
    • 13.10 CHLOROSULFONATED POLYETHYLENE
    • 13.11 EPOXY RESIN
    • 13.12 ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE-DIENE COPOLYMER, EPDM
    • 13.13 ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER, EVA
    • 13.14 IONOMERS
    • 13.15 NITRILE RUBBER
    • 13.16 POLYACENE
    • 13.17 POLYACETYLENE
    • 13.18 POLYACRYLONITRILE
    • 13.19 POLYAMIDE
    • 13.20 POLYANILINE
    • 13.21 POLYBUTADIENE
    • 13.22 POLYBUTYLMETHACRYLATE
    • 13.23 POLYCARBONATE
    • 13.24 POLYESTER
    • 13.25 POLYETHERETHERKETONE
    • 13.26 POLYETHERIMIDE
    • 13.27 POLYETHYLENE
    • 13.28 POLYIMIDE
    • 13.29 POLYISOPRENE
    • 13.30 POLYISOTHIONAPHTHENE
    • 13.31 POLYLACTIDE
    • 13.32 POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE
    • 13.33 POLYOXYETHYLENE
    • 13.34 POLYOXYMETHYLENE
    • 13.35 POLY(N-VINYL-2-PYRROLIDONE)
    • 13.36 POLYPARAPHENYLENE
    • 13.37 POLYPHENYLENE ETHER
    • 13.38 POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE
    • 13.39 POLYPHENYLENE VINYLENE
    • 13.40 POLYPROPYLENE
    • 13.41 POLYPYRROLE
    • 13.42 POLYSTYRENE
    • 13.43 POLYSULFONE
    • 13.44 POLYTHIOPHENE
    • 13.45 POLYVINYLACETATE
    • 13.46 POLYVINYLALCOHOL
    • 13.47 POLYVINYLBENZYLALCOHOL
    • 13.48 POLYVINYLBUTYRAL
    • 13.49 POLYVINYLCHLORIDE
    • 13.50 POLYVINYLENE SULFIDE
    • 13.51 POLYVINYLIDENECHLORIDE
    • 13.52 POLYVINYLIDENEFLUORIDE
    • 13.53 POLYURETHANES
    • 13.54 PROTEINS
    • 13.55 RUBBER, NATURAL
    • 13.56 SILICONE
    • 13.57 STYRENE BUTADIENE RUBBER
    • 13.58 STYRENE BUTADIENE STYRENE COPOLYMER
    • 13.59 STARCH
  • Chapter 14: ANTISTATIC AGENTS IN POLYMER BLENDS
    • 14.1 ANTISTATIC AGENT PARTITION BETWEEN BLEND OF COMPONENT POLYMERS
    • 14.2 INTERACTION OF ANTISTATIC AGENTS WITH BLEND COMPONENTS
    • 14.3 BLENDS OF CONDUCTIVE AND NON-CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS
  • Chapter 15: ANTISTATIC AGENTS IN VARIOUS INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS
    • 15.1 ADHESIVES AND SEALANTS
    • 15.2 AEROSPACE
    • 15.3 AGRICULTURE
    • 15.4 AUTOMOTIVE
    • 15.5 BOTTLES AND PLASTIC CONTAINERS
    • 15.6 BULK SHIPPING CONTAINERS
    • 15.7 BUSINESS MACHINES
    • 15.8 CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS
    • 15.9 CERAMICS
    • 15.10 COATED FABRICS
    • 15.11 COMPOSITES
    • 15.12 COSMETICS
    • 15.13 EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURE
    • 15.14 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
    • 15.15 ELECTRONICS
    • 15.16 FIBERS AND TEXTILE MATERIALS
    • 15.17 FILTRATION
    • 15.18 FLOORING
    • 15.19 FOAMS
    • 15.20 FOOTWEAR
    • 15.21 FUELS
    • 15.22 GASKETS
    • 15.23 GLASS
    • 15.24 INKS, VARNISHES, AND LACQUERS
    • 15.25 MAGNETIC TAPES AND DISKS
    • 15.26 MASKING TAPES
    • 15.27 MEDICAL APPLICATIONS
    • 15.28 MEMBRANES
    • 15.29 PACKAGING
    • 15.30 PAINTS AND COATINGS
    • 15.31 PAPER
    • 15.32 PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS
    • 15.33 PHOTOGRAPHIC MATERIALS
    • 15.34 PIPES AND CONVEYING SYSTEMS
    • 15.35 ROOFING AND PAVEMENT MATERIALS
    • 15.36 TIRES
    • 15.37 TUBING
    • 15.38 UPHOLSTERY
    • 15.39 WIRE AND CABLE
    • 15.40 WORK CLOTHING
  • Chapter 16: ANTISTATIC AGENTS IN VARIOUS PROCESSING METHODS
    • 16.1 BLOW MOLDING
    • 16.2 CALENDERING
    • 16.3 CASTING
    • 16.4 COIL COATING
    • 16.5 COMPRESSION MOLDING
    • 16.6 DIP COATING
    • 16.7 EXTRUSION
    • 16.8 INJECTION MOLDING
    • 16.9 MULTILAYERED LAMINATION
    • 16.10 POWDER MOLDING
    • 16.11 ROTATIONAL MOLDING
    • 16.12 RUBBER PROCESSING
    • 16.13 SPRAY COATING
    • 16.14 SPIN COATING AND FINISHING
    • 16.15 SPUTTERING
    • 16.16 THERMOFORMING
    • 16.17 VACUUM MOLDING
    • 16.18 WEB COATING
    • 16.19 WIRE COATING
  • Chapter 17: SPECIALIZED ANALYTICAL METHODS IN ANTISTATIC AGENT TESTING
    • 17.1 IDENTIFICATION
    • 17.2 METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF CONCENTRATION
    • 17.3 GENERAL METHODS
    • 17.4 SPECIFIC METHODS
  • Chapter 18: MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF ANTISTATIC PROPERTIES
    • 18.1 PERCOLATION CONCENTRATION OF ANTISTATIC FILLER
    • 18.2 CONDUCTION MECHANISM MODELLING
    • 18.3 CHARGE DECAY
    • 18.4 DIELECTRIC PERMITTIVITY
    • 18.5 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS
    • 18.6 ELECTRIFICATION OF TRANSFORMER OIL
  • Chapter 19: HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES WITH ANTISTATIC AGENTS
    • 19.1 ALUMINUM
    • 19.2 CARBON BLACK
    • 19.3 COPPER
    • 19.4 GOLD
    • 19.5 GRAPHITE
    • 19.6 NANOPARTICLES
    • 19.7 NICKEL AND ITS COMPOUNDS
    • 19.8 SILICON CARBIDE
    • 19.9 SILVER
    • 19.10 SORBITAN MONOOLEATE
    • 19.11 SORBITAN MONOSTEARATE
  • Chapter 20: THE ENVIRONMENTAL FATE OF REPRESENTATIVE ANTISTATIC AGENTS AND COMPONENTS
    • 20.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 20.2 CARBON BLACK
    • 20.3 ETHYLENE GLYCOL
    • 20.4 QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS
    • 20.5 TOLUENE
    • 20.6 POTASSIUM SULFATE
    • 20.7 SILVER AND NICKEL
    • CONCLUSIONS
  • Chapter 21: REGULATIONS AND DATA
    • 21.1 TOXIC SUBSTANCE CONTROL
    • 21.2 CARCINOGENIC EFFECT
    • 21.3 WORKPLACE EXPOSURE LIMITS
    • 21.4 FOOD REGULATORY ACTS
  • Chapter 22: PERSONAL PROTECTION
    • 22.1 CLOTHING
    • 22.2 GLOVES
    • 22.3 EYE PROTECTION
    • 22.4 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION
  • INDEX

Details

No. of pages:
496
Language:
English
Copyright:
© ChemTec Publishing 2017
Published:
Imprint:
ChemTec Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9781927885147
Hardcover ISBN:
9781895198959

About the Author

George Wypych

George Wypych has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research and development. He has published 18 books, 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings.

Affiliations and Expertise

ChemTec Publishing, Ontario, Canada

Jurgen Pionteck

Jorgen Pionteck, born in 1957, studied chemistry at the Dresden Technical University, where he obtai

Affiliations and Expertise

Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Germany