Handbook for Radio Engineering Managers

Handbook for Radio Engineering Managers

1st Edition - January 1, 1980

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  • Author: J. F. Ross
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483165097

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Handbook for Radio Engineering Managers deals with management, organization, engineering economy, safety practices, fires, environmental aspects, specifications, and contract administration of projects. The text explains project management concerning initiation of the planning and design stages, establishment of controls, staffing supervision, installation work, commissioning, and turnover to the operating and maintenance staff. Engineering economy involves cost/benefit analysis, preparation of budget for new installations, maintenance, and repairs. The book also discusses safety practices such as staff responsibilities, aid facilities, electrical or radio equipment, radiation hazards, maintenance of mast and towers. The text discusses fires in radio installations, fire detecting facilities, transformer problems, lighting hazards, and electric shock hazards. The environmental aspects in radio engineering include equipment or materials performance, corrosion, structural failures, environmental obligations in mast or tower design, as well as radio frequency spectrum management. The radio engineering manager should also be knowledgeable regarding specifications and contract administration covering radio engineering specifications, inspection, acceptance tests, and contract administration. The methods and practices explained in the book are applicable for large, medium, or small sized stations or project. The book is a useful reference for radio station managers, radio station technicians, radio engineers, electrical engineers, and for administrators of radio stations or other communications facilities.

Table of Contents

  • Section 1 Management and Organisation


    Chapter 1 Project Management

    Fundamentals of Programme Management

    Desirable Attributes of a Programme


    Project Activities

    Management Information

    Release of Information

    Contract Payments

    Commercial Considerations

    Engineering Resources

    Chapter 2 Project Control

    Control of System Basics

    Project Objectives

    Allocation of Resources


    Programme Review

    Corrective Action

    Programme Comparisons

    Computer Programs for Network Analysis

    Computer Program Features

    Chapter 3 Project Programming

    The Project Programme

    The Critical Path

    Programming Methods

    Master Network Functions

    Network Appreciation

    Monitoring the Programme

    Progress Review

    PERT and CPM


    Chapter 4 Design Programmes

    Requirements of a Design/Decision Programme

    Decision Making

    Problems of Decision/Design

    Co-ordination with other Groups

    Preparation of Design/Decision Programme

    Design Freeze: Change Procedure

    Degree of Uncertainty

    Chapter 5 Planning and Tender Schedule Stages

    Aim of Planning Operations

    Benefits of Time/Cost System

    The Need for Monitoring and Reporting

    Planning Staff

    Engagement of Consultants

    Type of Contract

    Programme Stages

    The Provisional Year

    Intermediate Year

    Final Planning and Tender Schedule Year

    Contract Stages and Action Required

    Programmes for Standard Equipment

    Programmes for Stations or Systems

    Project Proposals

    Chapter 6 External Plant Programmes

    The Design Programme

    Manufacturing Programme

    Programme Servicing

    Erection and Installation Programme

    Installation Resources

    Programme Preparation

    Expenditure Programme

    Chapter 7 Internal Equipment Programmes

    The Programme

    Programme Content

    Ductwork, Conduit and Cabling

    Auxiliary Equipment

    Activity Durations

    Chapter 8 Site Installation and Construction


    Installation Staff

    Site Inspections

    Chapter 9 PERT/Cost Techniques

    Management Reports

    Project Status Reporting

    Form of Presentation

    Chapter 10 Trend Analysis

    The Moving Annual Trend

    The Moving Average

    Rate of Expenditure

    Accomplishment Analysis


    Crash Cost

    The Cost Slope

    Re-allocation of Resources

    Total Project Costs

    Chapter 11 Productivity and Efficiency

    Utilisation of Resources

    Human Factors

    Factors Determining High Productivity

    Computers and Resources

    Manpower Sources

    Engineering Efficiency

    Chapter 12 Engineering Budgets and Costing

    Restrictions of Annual Budgets

    Planning and Implementation

    The Co-ordination Procedure

    Materials Purchasing Budget

    Flexibility in Budgeting

    Budgetary Control


    Benefits of Costing Facilities

    Chapter 13 Engineering Organisation

    Organisation Requirements

    Organisation Design

    Organisation Planning

    Project Type Organisation

    Section Type Organisation

    Matrix Type Organisation

    Integrative and Co-ordinative Relationships


    The Matrix Chart

    Line and Staff

    Line and Staff Relationship

    Duties of Staff

    Staff Assistance

    Delegation and Responsibility

    Limits of Authority

    Principles of Delegation

    Position Descriptions

    Importance of Position Descriptions

    Senior Engineering Managers


    Position Statement

    General Features of Duties

    Position Classifications

    Section 2 Engineering Economy


    Chapter 14 Economic Studies

    Characteristics of Radio Installations

    Value of Economic Studies

    The Basic Questions

    The Objective of Cost Studies

    Rate of Return

    Demand for Capital

    Cost Comparisons

    Rate of Return Studies


    Cost/Benefit Analysis

    Chapter 15 Capital Costs

    Economic Life

    Cost Considerations


    Estimating First Cost

    Types of Estimates

    Main Factors in Estimating

    Causes of Deviations

    Typical First Cost Examples

    Chapter 16 Maintenance and Operating Costs

    Cost Factors

    Need for Co-ordination

    Adding New Equipment

    Estimating Future Charges

    Maintenance Programme Factors

    Preventative Maintenance

    Corrective Maintenance

    Fault Analysis

    Typical Maintenance and Operation Cost Examples

    Chapter 17 Retirement

    Reasons for Retirement

    Retirement Cost

    Replacement Based on Annual Costs

    Life of Equipment or Plant

    Optimal Replacement Age, Re-Use of Equipment or Plant

    Chapter 18 Depreciation

    Value Depreciation

    Straight Line Depreciation

    Fixed Percentage Depreciation

    Sinking Fund Depreciation

    Annuity Method

    Sum-of-the-Year's Digits Method

    Typical Depreciation Examples

    Chapter 19 Cost Comparison Studies

    Broadband Radio Relay System and Coaxial Cable

    Parallel and Standby Transmitters

    Staffed and Unstaffed Transmitter

    Power Supplies for a Radio Relay Station

    Transmission Lines

    Section 3 Safety Practice


    Part 1 Philosophy and Responsibility

    Chapter 20 Philosophy and Plans

    Safety Engineering Philosophy

    Interpretation of Safety Rules

    Classification of Accidents

    Lessons to be Learned

    Emergency Organisation Plans

    Development of Emergency Plans

    Storm Emergencies

    Bomb Threat

    Shut-Down Procedures

    Countermeasures Against Failure in Communication Networks

    Chapter 21 Staff Responsibilities

    The Engineer

    The Station Manager

    Supervisory Staff

    The Problem of the Small Station

    Organisation Chart

    Safety Rules

    First Aid Rules

    Instructing Workmen

    Qualifications and Fitness of Employees

    Visitors to Radio Stations

    Chapter 22 Aids and Facilities

    Safety Aids


    Emergency Exits

    Working Alone

    Fire Extinguishing Facilities

    Part 2 Operations and Maintenance

    Chapter 23 Electrical and Radio Equipment

    Working Near High Voltage Equipment

    Earthing Procedure

    Earthing High Voltage Capacitors

    Isolating Transmission Lines and Antennas

    Battery Systems

    Portable Electrical Tools

    Care of Glass Envelope Components

    Chapter 24 Mechanical Plant

    Compressed Air Plant

    Refrigeration Plant

    Lifting Hoists

    Workshop Machinery

    Chapter 25 Radiation Hazards

    Radiation Classifications

    Biological Effects

    Effects of Frequency

    Safe Continuous Exposure Level

    Safe Non-Continuous Exposure Level

    Effects of Peak Powers

    Power Densities

    Power Density Measurement


    Safety Precautions


    Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet Radiation

    Typical Safety Instruction

    Chapter 26 Maintenance of Masts and Towers

    Methods and Procedures

    Mast and Tower Inspection Equipment

    Guy Inspection Equipment

    Ladder Fall Arresters

    Maintenance Platform

    Safety Belts

    Marking and Lighting of Structures

    Typical Safety Rules

    Damage to Structures in Service

    Part 3 Installation and Construction

    Chapter 27 Designing for Safety

    Analysis for Safe Design


    Unsafe Voltages

    Working on Live Equipment

    Levels of Illumination

    Bonding Earthing and Shielding in Buildings

    Shielded Matching and Combining Huts

    Switchyard and Mast Enclosures

    Chapter 28 Installation of Equipment and Plant

    Safety Features in Transmitter Design

    Oil Filled Equipment

    Guarding Exposed Live Parts

    High Current Filament Leads

    Safe Distances

    Clearance of Conductors Above Ground

    Clearance of Conductors from Walls

    Chapter 29 Protection

    Equipment Protection

    Earthing of Equipment

    Protection by Disconnection

    Protection Against Lightning

    Emergency Shut-Down Switches

    Circuit Breakers, Switches and Fuses

    Station Site Enclosure

    Chapter 30 Installation and Construction Hazards

    Materials and Equipment Handling

    Handling Harmful Substances

    Construction Site Workshop

    Hazards in The Use of Mechanical Aids

    Explosive Powered Tools

    Welding Hazards

    Blasting Operations

    Electro-Explosive Devices

    Warning Signs

    Failure of Structures During Erection

    Section 4 Fires in Radio Installations


    Chapter 31 Fire Hazards

    Spread of Fire

    Fire Prevention



    Chapter 32 Organisation

    Management Involvement

    Fire Fighting Organisation

    Staff Training

    Bomb Threat

    Equipment Required

    Chapter 33 Equipment and Buildings

    Design Considerations


    Ducts and Chases

    Underfloor Cabling

    Storage of Flammable Liquids

    Domestic Type Radio and Television Equipment

    Protection Requirements

    Chapter 34 Detection and Facilities

    Fire Detection

    Planning Facilities

    Dry Pipe Sprinkler System


    Reducing Fire Protection Needs


    Isolation of Power

    Oil Filled Components

    Typical Facilities

    Specification Example

    Chapter 35 Electric Shock Hazards

    Electrical Conductivity of Water

    Safe Distance from Energised Equipment

    Use of Sprays

    Portable Fire Extinguishers

    Chapter 36 The Transformer Problem

    Non-flammable Coolants

    Oil Deterioration

    Breathing Arrangements

    Acid Levels


    Short Circuits and Re-Cycling

    Transformer Protection

    Oil Circuit Breakers

    Protection of Wall Openings

    Chapter 37 Lightning Hazards

    Lightning Phenomenon

    Discharge Paths

    The Earthing Problem

    Earth System Behaviour

    Current Carrying Capacity

    Protection Economics

    Probability of Being Struck

    Isoceraunic Maps

    Cone of Protection

    Chapter 38 Lightning Protection

    Structure Protection

    Earthing Systems

    Radial System

    Cage System

    Counterpoise System

    Buried Plate System

    Grid System

    Star System

    Earth Conductor Materials

    Equipment on Structures

    Guy Insulators

    Building Protection

    Equipment Protection

    Safety of Operating Staff

    Horn Gaps

    Lightning Protectors

    Minimising Steep Wave Effects

    Lightning Conductors

    Power Mains Feeders

    Co-Axial Cables

    EMP Protection

    Chapter 39 Case Studies

    Transmitting Stations


    Fires Caused by Lightning

    Section 5 Environmental Aspects in Radio Engineering


    Chapter 40 Reliability

    Reliability Factors

    Deterioration and Failure


    Factors, Temperature

    Ultra-Violet Radiation


    Atmospheric Contaminants



    Wind Induced Vibration

    Fungal Attack





    Chapter 41 Performance of Materials and Equipment



    Plastic Cables

    Ceramic and Glass Insulators

    Insulating Oils

    Silica Gel


    Contactors and Relays

    Silver Migration

    Printed Circuit Boards

    Transformer Boxes


    Wooden Poles and Drums

    Masts and Towers

    Paint Failure


    Outdoor Transmitting Equipment

    Chapter 42 Corrosion

    Rate of Corrosion

    Dissimilar Metals

    Corrosion Protection

    Aeration Corrosion

    Transmitter Water Cooling Systems

    Water Quality

    Removal of Scale

    Corrosion of Metals

    The Use of Targets

    Care of Water Cooling Systems

    Chapter 43 Failure of Structures

    Factors Involved in Failures

    Probability of Failure

    Fundamentals of Safe Construction

    Lessons to be Learned

    Design Considerations

    Safety Assessment

    Aerodynamic Stability of Structures and Antennas

    Shape of Materials

    Wind and Wind Loading


    Structural Failure Examples

    Chapter 44 Environmental Oblivations in Mast and Tower Design

    Quality of the Environment

    The Designer's Responsibility

    Aesthetic Considerations

    Design Techniques

    Engineering Penalties

    Environmental Impact Statement

    Chapter 45 Radio Frequency Spectrum Management

    The Spectrum as a Resource

    Progress in International Control

    The Radio Regulations

    The International Radio Consultative Committee

    The International Frequency Registration Board

    Space Radiocommunications

    Electromagnetic Compatibility

    Spectrum Planning

    Spectrum Surveillance

    The Role of the Monitoring Service

    Section 6 Specifications and Contract Administration


    Chapter 46 Specifications

    Engineering Specifications

    The Schedule

    Principles of Specification Writing

    Types of Clauses

    Assembling Material for the Specification

    Planning the Specification

    Main Sections of the Specification

    Revision of Specifications

    Chapter 47 Typical Radio Engineering Specifications

    Bonding and Earthing for High Power Broadcast Station

    Building Complex and Support Facilities

    Medium Frequency Broadcast Transmitters

    Broadband Radiocommunication Relay Equipment for Telephony and/or Television

    Dual Channel Television Transmitting Antenna

    System Performance Calculations

    Engineering Practices, Design and Workmanship

    Chapter 48 Inspections and Acceptance Tests

    Inspection Standard

    Minor and Incidental Defects

    Levels of Severity

    Classification of Defects

    Acceptance Testing of Systems


    The Standards

    Typical Inspection and Acceptance Tests

    Site and Facility Inspections and Studies

    Chapter 49 Contract Administration

    Roles of the Engineer, Legal Adviser and Accountant

    Types of Contracts

    The Lump Sum Contract

    The Schedule of Rates Contract

    The Cost Plus Contract

    The Turnkey Contract

    The Contract Documents


    The Contractor Selection

    The Project Engineer

    The Resident Engineer

    The Consulting Engineer


    Arbitration of Disputes

    Contract Cancellation

    Appendix Economic Comparison Tables: Compound Interest Factors


Product details

  • No. of pages: 964
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1980
  • Published: January 1, 1980
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483165097

About the Author

J. F. Ross

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