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Handbook for Radio Engineering Managers - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780408004244, 9781483165097

Handbook for Radio Engineering Managers

1st Edition

Author: J. F. Ross
eBook ISBN: 9781483165097
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1980
Page Count: 964
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Handbook for Radio Engineering Managers deals with management, organization, engineering economy, safety practices, fires, environmental aspects, specifications, and contract administration of projects. The text explains project management concerning initiation of the planning and design stages, establishment of controls, staffing supervision, installation work, commissioning, and turnover to the operating and maintenance staff. Engineering economy involves cost/benefit analysis, preparation of budget for new installations, maintenance, and repairs. The book also discusses safety practices such as staff responsibilities, aid facilities, electrical or radio equipment, radiation hazards, maintenance of mast and towers. The text discusses fires in radio installations, fire detecting facilities, transformer problems, lighting hazards, and electric shock hazards. The environmental aspects in radio engineering include equipment or materials performance, corrosion, structural failures, environmental obligations in mast or tower design, as well as radio frequency spectrum management. The radio engineering manager should also be knowledgeable regarding specifications and contract administration covering radio engineering specifications, inspection, acceptance tests, and contract administration. The methods and practices explained in the book are applicable for large, medium, or small sized stations or project. The book is a useful reference for radio station managers, radio station technicians, radio engineers, electrical engineers, and for administrators of radio stations or other communications facilities.

Table of Contents

Section 1 Management and Organisation


Chapter 1 Project Management

Fundamentals of Programme Management

Desirable Attributes of a Programme


Project Activities

Management Information

Release of Information

Contract Payments

Commercial Considerations

Engineering Resources

Chapter 2 Project Control

Control of System Basics

Project Objectives

Allocation of Resources


Programme Review

Corrective Action

Programme Comparisons

Computer Programs for Network Analysis

Computer Program Features

Chapter 3 Project Programming

The Project Programme

The Critical Path

Programming Methods

Master Network Functions

Network Appreciation

Monitoring the Programme

Progress Review



Chapter 4 Design Programmes

Requirements of a Design/Decision Programme

Decision Making

Problems of Decision/Design

Co-ordination with other Groups

Preparation of Design/Decision Programme

Design Freeze: Change Procedure

Degree of Uncertainty

Chapter 5 Planning and Tender Schedule Stages

Aim of Planning Operations

Benefits of Time/Cost System

The Need for Monitoring and Reporting

Planning Staff

Engagement of Consultants

Type of Contract

Programme Stages

The Provisional Year

Intermediate Year

Final Planning and Tender Schedule Year

Contract Stages and Action Required

Programmes for Standard Equipment

Programmes for Stations or Systems

Project Proposals

Chapter 6 External Plant Programmes

The Design Programme

Manufacturing Programme

Programme Servicing

Erection and Installation Programme

Installation Resources

Programme Preparation

Expenditure Programme

Chapter 7 Internal Equipment Programmes

The Programme

Programme Content

Ductwork, Conduit and Cabling

Auxiliary Equipment

Activity Durations

Chapter 8 Site Installation and Construction


Installation Staff

Site Inspections

Chapter 9 PERT/Cost Techniques

Management Reports

Project Status Reporting

Form of Presentation

Chapter 10 Trend Analysis

The Moving Annual Trend

The Moving Average

Rate of Expenditure

Accomplishment Analysis


Crash Cost

The Cost Slope

Re-allocation of Resources

Total Project Costs

Chapter 11 Productivity and Efficiency

Utilisation of Resources

Human Factors

Factors Determining High Productivity

Computers and Resources

Manpower Sources

Engineering Efficiency

Chapter 12 Engineering Budgets and Costing

Restrictions of Annual Budgets

Planning and Implementation

The Co-ordination Procedure

Materials Purchasing Budget

Flexibility in Budgeting

Budgetary Control


Benefits of Costing Facilities

Chapter 13 Engineering Organisation

Organisation Requirements

Organisation Design

Organisation Planning

Project Type Organisation

Section Type Organisation

Matrix Type Organisation

Integrative and Co-ordinative Relationships


The Matrix Chart

Line and Staff

Line and Staff Relationship

Duties of Staff

Staff Assistance

Delegation and Responsibility

Limits of Authority

Principles of Delegation

Position Descriptions

Importance of Position Descriptions

Senior Engineering Managers


Position Statement

General Features of Duties

Position Classifications

Section 2 Engineering Economy


Chapter 14 Economic Studies

Characteristics of Radio Installations

Value of Economic Studies

The Basic Questions

The Objective of Cost Studies

Rate of Return

Demand for Capital

Cost Comparisons

Rate of Return Studies


Cost/Benefit Analysis

Chapter 15 Capital Costs

Economic Life

Cost Considerations


Estimating First Cost

Types of Estimates

Main Factors in Estimating

Causes of Deviations

Typical First Cost Examples

Chapter 16 Maintenance and Operating Costs

Cost Factors

Need for Co-ordination

Adding New Equipment

Estimating Future Charges

Maintenance Programme Factors

Preventative Maintenance

Corrective Maintenance

Fault Analysis

Typical Maintenance and Operation Cost Examples

Chapter 17 Retirement

Reasons for Retirement

Retirement Cost

Replacement Based on Annual Costs

Life of Equipment or Plant

Optimal Replacement Age, Re-Use of Equipment or Plant

Chapter 18 Depreciation

Value Depreciation

Straight Line Depreciation

Fixed Percentage Depreciation

Sinking Fund Depreciation

Annuity Method

Sum-of-the-Year's Digits Method

Typical Depreciation Examples

Chapter 19 Cost Comparison Studies

Broadband Radio Relay System and Coaxial Cable

Parallel and Standby Transmitters

Staffed and Unstaffed Transmitter

Power Supplies for a Radio Relay Station

Transmission Lines

Section 3 Safety Practice


Part 1 Philosophy and Responsibility

Chapter 20 Philosophy and Plans

Safety Engineering Philosophy

Interpretation of Safety Rules

Classification of Accidents

Lessons to be Learned

Emergency Organisation Plans

Development of Emergency Plans

Storm Emergencies

Bomb Threat

Shut-Down Procedures

Countermeasures Against Failure in Communication Networks

Chapter 21 Staff Responsibilities

The Engineer

The Station Manager

Supervisory Staff

The Problem of the Small Station

Organisation Chart

Safety Rules

First Aid Rules

Instructing Workmen

Qualifications and Fitness of Employees

Visitors to Radio Stations

Chapter 22 Aids and Facilities

Safety Aids


Emergency Exits

Working Alone

Fire Extinguishing Facilities

Part 2 Operations and Maintenance

Chapter 23 Electrical and Radio Equipment

Working Near High Voltage Equipment

Earthing Procedure

Earthing High Voltage Capacitors

Isolating Transmission Lines and Antennas

Battery Systems

Portable Electrical Tools

Care of Glass Envelope Components

Chapter 24 Mechanical Plant

Compressed Air Plant

Refrigeration Plant

Lifting Hoists

Workshop Machinery

Chapter 25 Radiation Hazards

Radiation Classifications

Biological Effects

Effects of Frequency

Safe Continuous Exposure Level

Safe Non-Continuous Exposure Level

Effects of Peak Powers

Power Densities

Power Density Measurement


Safety Precautions


Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet Radiation

Typical Safety Instruction

Chapter 26 Maintenance of Masts and Towers

Methods and Procedures

Mast and Tower Inspection Equipment

Guy Inspection Equipment

Ladder Fall Arresters

Maintenance Platform

Safety Belts

Marking and Lighting of Structures

Typical Safety Rules

Damage to Structures in Service

Part 3 Installation and Construction

Chapter 27 Designing for Safety

Analysis for Safe Design


Unsafe Voltages

Working on Live Equipment

Levels of Illumination

Bonding Earthing and Shielding in Buildings

Shielded Matching and Combining Huts

Switchyard and Mast Enclosures

Chapter 28 Installation of Equipment and Plant

Safety Features in Transmitter Design

Oil Filled Equipment

Guarding Exposed Live Parts

High Current Filament Leads

Safe Distances

Clearance of Conductors Above Ground

Clearance of Conductors from Walls

Chapter 29 Protection

Equipment Protection

Earthing of Equipment

Protection by Disconnection

Protection Against Lightning

Emergency Shut-Down Switches

Circuit Breakers, Switches and Fuses

Station Site Enclosure

Chapter 30 Installation and Construction Hazards

Materials and Equipment Handling

Handling Harmful Substances

Construction Site Workshop

Hazards in The Use of Mechanical Aids

Explosive Powered Tools

Welding Hazards

Blasting Operations

Electro-Explosive Devices

Warning Signs

Failure of Structures During Erection

Section 4 Fires in Radio Installations


Chapter 31 Fire Hazards

Spread of Fire

Fire Prevention



Chapter 32 Organisation

Management Involvement

Fire Fighting Organisation

Staff Training

Bomb Threat

Equipment Required

Chapter 33 Equipment and Buildings

Design Considerations


Ducts and Chases

Underfloor Cabling

Storage of Flammable Liquids

Domestic Type Radio and Television Equipment

Protection Requirements

Chapter 34 Detection and Facilities

Fire Detection

Planning Facilities

Dry Pipe Sprinkler System


Reducing Fire Protection Needs


Isolation of Power

Oil Filled Components

Typical Facilities

Specification Example

Chapter 35 Electric Shock Hazards

Electrical Conductivity of Water

Safe Distance from Energised Equipment

Use of Sprays

Portable Fire Extinguishers

Chapter 36 The Transformer Problem

Non-flammable Coolants

Oil Deterioration

Breathing Arrangements

Acid Levels


Short Circuits and Re-Cycling

Transformer Protection

Oil Circuit Breakers

Protection of Wall Openings

Chapter 37 Lightning Hazards

Lightning Phenomenon

Discharge Paths

The Earthing Problem

Earth System Behaviour

Current Carrying Capacity

Protection Economics

Probability of Being Struck

Isoceraunic Maps

Cone of Protection

Chapter 38 Lightning Protection

Structure Protection

Earthing Systems

Radial System

Cage System

Counterpoise System

Buried Plate System

Grid System

Star System

Earth Conductor Materials

Equipment on Structures

Guy Insulators

Building Protection

Equipment Protection

Safety of Operating Staff

Horn Gaps

Lightning Protectors

Minimising Steep Wave Effects

Lightning Conductors

Power Mains Feeders

Co-Axial Cables

EMP Protection

Chapter 39 Case Studies

Transmitting Stations


Fires Caused by Lightning

Section 5 Environmental Aspects in Radio Engineering


Chapter 40 Reliability

Reliability Factors

Deterioration and Failure


Factors, Temperature

Ultra-Violet Radiation


Atmospheric Contaminants



Wind Induced Vibration

Fungal Attack





Chapter 41 Performance of Materials and Equipment



Plastic Cables

Ceramic and Glass Insulators

Insulating Oils

Silica Gel


Contactors and Relays

Silver Migration

Printed Circuit Boards

Transformer Boxes


Wooden Poles and Drums

Masts and Towers

Paint Failure


Outdoor Transmitting Equipment

Chapter 42 Corrosion

Rate of Corrosion

Dissimilar Metals

Corrosion Protection

Aeration Corrosion

Transmitter Water Cooling Systems

Water Quality

Removal of Scale

Corrosion of Metals

The Use of Targets

Care of Water Cooling Systems

Chapter 43 Failure of Structures

Factors Involved in Failures

Probability of Failure

Fundamentals of Safe Construction

Lessons to be Learned

Design Considerations

Safety Assessment

Aerodynamic Stability of Structures and Antennas

Shape of Materials

Wind and Wind Loading


Structural Failure Examples

Chapter 44 Environmental Oblivations in Mast and Tower Design

Quality of the Environment

The Designer's Responsibility

Aesthetic Considerations

Design Techniques

Engineering Penalties

Environmental Impact Statement

Chapter 45 Radio Frequency Spectrum Management

The Spectrum as a Resource

Progress in International Control

The Radio Regulations

The International Radio Consultative Committee

The International Frequency Registration Board

Space Radiocommunications

Electromagnetic Compatibility

Spectrum Planning

Spectrum Surveillance

The Role of the Monitoring Service

Section 6 Specifications and Contract Administration


Chapter 46 Specifications

Engineering Specifications

The Schedule

Principles of Specification Writing

Types of Clauses

Assembling Material for the Specification

Planning the Specification

Main Sections of the Specification

Revision of Specifications

Chapter 47 Typical Radio Engineering Specifications

Bonding and Earthing for High Power Broadcast Station

Building Complex and Support Facilities

Medium Frequency Broadcast Transmitters

Broadband Radiocommunication Relay Equipment for Telephony and/or Television

Dual Channel Television Transmitting Antenna

System Performance Calculations

Engineering Practices, Design and Workmanship

Chapter 48 Inspections and Acceptance Tests

Inspection Standard

Minor and Incidental Defects

Levels of Severity

Classification of Defects

Acceptance Testing of Systems


The Standards

Typical Inspection and Acceptance Tests

Site and Facility Inspections and Studies

Chapter 49 Contract Administration

Roles of the Engineer, Legal Adviser and Accountant

Types of Contracts

The Lump Sum Contract

The Schedule of Rates Contract

The Cost Plus Contract

The Turnkey Contract

The Contract Documents


The Contractor Selection

The Project Engineer

The Resident Engineer

The Consulting Engineer


Arbitration of Disputes

Contract Cancellation

Appendix Economic Comparison Tables: Compound Interest Factors



No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1980
1st January 1980
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

J. F. Ross

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