Hair Analysis in Clinical and Forensic Toxicology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128017005, 9780128017104

Hair Analysis in Clinical and Forensic Toxicology

1st Edition

Authors: Pascal Kintz Alberto Salomone Marco Vincenti
eBook ISBN: 9780128017104
Paperback ISBN: 9780128017005
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 10th July 2015
Page Count: 392
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Description

Hair Analysis in Clinical and Forensic Toxicology is an essential reference for toxicologists working with, and researching, hair analysis. The text presents a review of the most up-to-date analytical methods in toxicological hair analysis, along with state-of-the-art developments in the areas of hair physiology, sampling, and pre-treatments, as well as discussions of fundamental issues, applications, and results interpretation.

Topics addressed include the diagnosis of chronic excessive alcohol drinking by means of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), the early detection of new psychoactive substances, including designer drugs, the development of novel approaches to screening tests based on mass spectrometry, and the detection of prenatal exposure to psychoactive substances from the analysis of newborn hair.

Key Features

  • Unites an international team of leading experts to provide an update on the cutting-edge advances in the toxicological analysis of hair
  • Demonstrates toxicological techniques relating to a variety of scenarios and exposure types
  • Ideal resource for the further study of the psychoactive substances, drug-facilitated crimes, ecotoxicology, analytical toxicology, occupational toxicology, toxicity testing, and forensic toxicology
  • Includes detailed instructions for the collection, preparation, and handling of hair, and how to best interpret results

Readership

Professional toxicologists working in forensic and clinical laboratories, analytical chemists, lawyers and judges.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword
  • List of Contributors
  • Chapter 1. Anatomy and Physiology of Hair, and Principles for its Collection
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Hair Anatomy and Physiology
    • 1.3 Classification of Hair Types
    • 1.4 Hair Growth Rates
    • 1.5 Hair Color
    • 1.6 Mechanisms of Drug Incorporation
    • 1.7 Incorporation from the Bloodstream, Sebum and Sweat
    • 1.8 Incorporation from External Contamination
    • 1.9 Dose–Response Relationship
    • 1.10 Melanin Binding
    • 1.11 Sample Collection Protocols
    • 1.12 Collection Procedure
    • 1.13 Discussion
    • 1.14 Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 2. Hair Sample Preparation, Extraction, and Screening Procedures for Drugs of Abuse and Pharmaceuticals
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Sample Preparation
    • 2.3 Analyte Extraction
    • 2.4 Screening Strategies
    • 2.5 Concluding Remarks
    • References
  • Chapter 3. External Contamination: Still a Debate?
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 External Contamination: Commonly Encountered Drugs
    • 3.3 Alcohol: FAEE and EtG
    • 3.4 Concluding Remarks
    • References
  • Chapter 4. Alcohol Biomarkers in Hair
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Alcohol Amount, Drinking Pattern, and Minor Metabolites of Ethanol in Hair
    • 4.3 Ethyl Glucuronide
    • 4.4 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters
    • 4.5 Combined Use of EtG and FAEEs
    • 4.6 Comparison of EtG and FAEE in Hair with Other Alcohol Markers
    • 4.7 Practical Applications of EtG and FAEE in Hair
    • 4.8 Cocaethylene
    • 4.9 Outlook
    • References
  • Chapter 5. Clinical Applications of Hair Analysis
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Hair Analysis in Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health
    • 5.3 Clinical Applications of Hair Cortisol Analysis
    • 5.4 Future Clinical Applications of Hair Testing
    • References
  • Chapter 6. Experiences in Child Hair Analysis
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Age as a Factor of Influence of Drug Distribution
    • 6.3 Differences in Children’s Hair versus Adults
    • 6.4 Case Reports
    • 6.5 Conclusion and Perspectives
    • References
  • Chapter 7. Hair Analysis for the Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Organic Pollutants
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 The Challenge of Assessing Environmental Exposure
    • 7.3 Sample Pretreatment
    • References
  • Chapter 8. Workplace Drug Testing
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Ideal Matrix in the Workplace Scenario
    • 8.3 Evidence that a Hair Drug Test Detects More Users than Urine
    • 8.4 Procedures for Drug Testing Using Hair
    • 8.5 Accreditation
    • 8.6 Interpretation and Reporting
    • 8.7 Hair Analysis in the Workplace
    • 8.8 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 9. Forensic Applications of Hair Analysis
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Advantages of Hair Analysis
    • 9.3 Limitations of Hair Analysis
    • 9.4 Applications of Hair Analysis in Forensic Toxicology
    • References
  • Chapter 10. Doping, Applications of Hair Analysis
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Hair Testing for Positive Identification of Prohibited Substances
    • 10.3 Hair Testing as Additional Evidence in Presumptive Doping Cases
    • 10.4 Hair Testing for Doping Control in Animals
    • References
  • Chapter 11. Detection of New Psychoactive Substances
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 The Challenge of NPS Detection
    • 11.3 Ketamine
    • 11.4 Synthetic Cathinones
    • 11.5 Synthetic Cannabinoids
    • 11.6 Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • Chapter 12. New Challenges and Perspectives in Hair Analysis
    • 12.1 Introduction
    • 12.2 Conditioning Factors and Sources of Variability
    • 12.3 Innovative Technologies and Instrumental Advancements
    • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
392
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128017104
Paperback ISBN:
9780128017005

About the Author

Pascal Kintz

Docteur en pharmacie, docteur en toxicologie

Affiliations and Expertise

Ph.D., University L. Pasteur of Strasbourg, France

Alberto Salomone

Alberto Salomone

Affiliations and Expertise

Ph.D., Manager of the Forensic Toxicology Unit at the Regional Anti-doping Centre of Turin, Italy

Marco Vincenti

Marco Vincenti

Affiliations and Expertise

Ph.D., Professor of Analytical Chemistry, University of Turin, Italy.