Gut Microbiome and Behavior

Gut Microbiome and Behavior

1st Edition - October 25, 2016

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  • Editors: John F. Cryan, Gerard Clarke
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128039762
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128039496

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Gut Microbiome and Behavior, the latest volume in the International Review of Neurobiology series, provides a comprehensive overview of the gut microbiome on the brain and behavior, fully encapsulating the latest research in the field and defining the scope of this influence to outline potential mechanisms and possible implications.

Key Features

  • Contains the expertise of contributors in the field who discuss the gut microbiome and its effect on the brain and behavior
  • Defines the scope of the influence of the gut microbiome and the potential mechanisms and implications
  • Charts the way forward in this frontier area of research


Neuroscientists, Psychiatrists, Neurogastroenterologists, Microbiologists, Nutritionists, and researchers within developmental Biology and Medicine

Table of Contents

  • Preface: The Gut Microbiome and Behavior under the microscope: Where to focus?

    • Setting the Stage
    • Brain Regions of Interest
    • Zooming in on the Gut Microbiome and Behavior at the Extremes of Life
    • The Gut Microbiome Though the Aperture of Stress
    • Resolving the Question of Mechanisms
    • Vision for the Future

    Chapter One: Role of the Intestinal Microbiota in Host Responses to Stressor Exposure

    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Stress and the Stress Response
    • 3 Stressor Exposure and the Intestinal Microbiota
    • 4 Role of the Microbiota in the Body's Response to Stress
    • 5 Conclusions

    Chapter Two: The Influence of Prebiotics on Neurobiology and Behavior

    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Prebiotics
    • 3 Neurobiological Changes Associated with Prebiotic Intake
    • 4 Prebiotic-Mediated Changes in Behavior
    • 5 Mechanistic Considerations
    • 6 Conclusion

    Chapter Three: Gut Microbiome and Behavior: Focus on Neuroimmune Interactions

    • Abstract
    • 1 Microbiota–Brain Axis
    • 2 Microbiota and Immune Signaling Influence Behavior
    • 3 Probiotics Attenuate Stress- and Immune-Related Changes in Behavior
    • 4 Future Directions

    Chapter Four: Neuropeptides, Microbiota, and Behavior

    • Abstract
    • 1 Neuropeptides Transcend Boundaries
    • 2 Signaling Pathways in Gut–Brain Communication
    • 3 Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides in Gut Microbiota–Host Communication
    • 4 Microbiota Controls of the Availability of Amino Acids Required for Neuropeptide Synthesis
    • 5 Interaction of the Gut Microbiota with Neuroactive Gut Hormones
    • 6 Control of Neuropeptide Activity via Gut Microbiota-Dependent Autoantibodies
    • 7 Control of Peptide Signaling Through a Gut Microbiota–BBB Interaction
    • 8 Cerebral Neuropeptides Mediating the Impact of the Gut Microbiota on Brain Function and Behavior
    • 9 Conclusion: The Gut Microbiota–Neuropeptide Network
    • Acknowledgments

    Chapter Five: Microbes and Oxytocin: Benefits for Host Physiology and Behavior

    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Oxytocin: A Multifunctional Neuropeptide
    • 3 Parallels Between Gut Bacteria and Oxytocin Effects
    • 4 Direct Evidence for Oxytocin-Depended Gut Bacteria Beneficial Effects
    • 5 Oxytocin and Gut Bacteria: An Advanced Quorum-Sensing Mechanism of Mammals?
    • 6 Probiotic Bacteria-Induced Endogenous Oxytocin for Therapy

    Chapter Six: Intestinal Barrier and Behavior

    • Abstract
    • 1 The Intestinal Barrier: An Overview
    • 2 Can an Altered Barrier Function Disrupt Behavioral Responses?
    • 3 Stressors Affecting Both Behavior and Gut Barrier Function
    • 4 Concluding Remarks

    Chapter Seven: Toxoplasma gondii—A Gastrointestinal Pathogen Associated with Human Brain Diseases

    • Abstract
    • 1 The Biology of Toxoplasma Infection
    • 2 Epidemiology of Toxoplasma Infection
    • 3 Chronic Toxoplasma Infection of Humans and Experimental Animals
    • 4 Toxoplasma Exposure and Neuropsychiatric Disorders
    • 5 Toxoplasma and Intestinal Inflammation
    • 6 Current Status of Anti-Toxoplasma Medications
    • 7 Ongoing Research Needs
    • 8 Conclusions

    Chapter Eight: Exercise and Prebiotics Produce Stress Resistance: Converging Impacts on Stress-Protective and Butyrate-Producing Gut Bacteria

    • Abstract
    • 1 Stress and Health
    • 2 Gut Microbial Organisms and Their Metabolites Are Emerging Mediators of the Health Impacts of Stress
    • 3 Prebiotic Diets and Exercise Can Promote Stress-Protective Probiotic Bacteria
    • 4 Prebiotic Diets and Exercise Promote Resistance Against the Behavioral and Neurobiological Consequences of Inescapable Stress Through Unique and Overlapping Mechanisms
    • 5 The Stress-Protective Effects of Prebiotics and Exercise May Be Age Dependent

    Chapter Nine: Circadian Rhythm and the Gut Microbiome

    • Abstract
    • 1 Circadian Rhythms in Health
    • 2 Circadian Rhythms in Disease
    • 3 Circadian Rhythms and the Intestinal Microbiota
    • 4 Conclusion

    Chapter Ten: Sleep and Microbes

    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction: History
    • 2 Sleep Physiology
    • 3 Bacterial Challenge Affects Sleep
    • 4 Sleep Loss Promotes Intestinal Bacterial Translocation
    • 5 Cecal Ligation
    • 6 Bacterial Components Driving Sleep Responses
    • 7 Sleep Responses to Virus Challenge
    • 8 Sleep Responses to Other Microbes
    • 9 Mechanisms
    • 10 Are Sleep Responses to Microbes Adaptive?
    • 11 Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments

    Chapter Eleven: Cognitive Function and the Microbiome

    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Development of the Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis
    • 3 Cognition in Gastroenterology
    • 4 Cognition in Extraintestinal Manifestations
    • 5 Microbiota and Cognition
    • 6 Probiotics and Cognition
    • 7 Future Directions
    • 8 Conclusions

    Chapter Twelve: The Intestinal Microbiota in the Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 The General Appeal of the Microbiota as Putative Pathogenetic Factor in IBS
    • 3 Factors Known to Precipitate or Exacerbate IBS also Induce Intestinal Dysbiosis
    • 4 Evidence of Dysbiosis in IBS Patients
    • 5 Proof of Principle that Intestinal Dysbiosis Alters Function in the Gut and Brain
    • 6 Future Directions

    Chapter Thirteen: Gut-to-Brain Axis in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Central Role for the Microbiome

    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 The Rodakis Case
    • 3 Microbiome in ASD: Correlation Studies
    • 4 From Correlation to Causation
    • 5 Possible Mechanisms of Microbiome–Brain Axis in Autism
    • 6 Conclusion

    Chapter Fourteen: The Microbiome of the Built Environment and Human Behavior: Implications for Emotional Health and Well-Being in Postmodern Western Societies

    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Global Trends Toward Urbanization
    • 3 Shift in the Human Microbiome During the First and Second Epidemiological Transitions
    • 4 Differences Between the Microbiomes of the Outdoor Environment and the Built Environment
    • 5 The Microbiome of the Built Environment, Immunoregulation, and Human Behavior
    • 6 Inflammation Anergic Macrophages
    • 7 Regulatory Macrophages
    • 8 Urban Upbringing and City Living Affect Neural Social Stress Processing
    • 9 Conclusions

    Chapter Fifteen: The Importance of Diet and Gut Health to the Treatment and Prevention of Mental Disorders

    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Diet and Mental Health Across the Lifespan
    • 3 The Importance of Diet for Gut Health Across the Lifespan
    • 4 Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment of Mental Health Disorders
    • 5 Conclusion

Product details

  • No. of pages: 432
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2016
  • Published: October 25, 2016
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128039762
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128039496

About the Serial Volume Editors

John F. Cryan

John F. Cryan
Professor Cryan is a professor at the Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience and APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

Affiliations and Expertise

Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Ireland

Gerard Clarke

Gerard Clarke
Dr Gerard Clarke is a Lecturer in the Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Science and a Principal Investigator in APC Microbiome Ireland at University College Cork. His research interests include translational biomarkers of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders, the impact of the gut microbiome on brain and behaviour across the life span and microbial regulation of tryptophan metabolism. Target human populations of his research include those with major depression and anxiety as well as gastrointestinal disorders with high psychiatric comorbidities such as irritable bowel syndrome.

Affiliations and Expertise

Lecturer, Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Science and Principal Investigator, APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

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