Guide-Lines to Planning Atomic Spectrometric Analysis

Guide-Lines to Planning Atomic Spectrometric Analysis

1st Edition - January 1, 1982

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  • Author: B. Magyar
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444600622

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Description

Studies in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 4: Guide-Lines to Planning Atomic Spectrometric Analysis covers the physico-chemical background of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrometry (AES). This book is composed of six chapters and begins with an introduction to the criteria on choosing the best and most suitable method for solving a given analytical problem. The next chapters deal with the properties, generation, and absorption of electromagnetic radiation, as well as the theory of atomic spectra that require knowledge of X-ray. Other chapters discuss the broadening of atomic lines, which is important for understanding that calibration curves in AAS are always bent. A chapter examines the sensitivity of determination by AAS and AES. The last chapter describes the spectrometric measurement of atomic absorption and emission. This chapter also looks into the influence of the design of the monochromator upon the measured emission intensity and calibration curve by AAS. This book will prove useful to analytical chemists and researchers.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Chapter 1 Introduction

    1.1 Capacity and Comparison of the Most Important Physical Methods of Elemental Analysis

    1.1.1 Main Fields of Elemental Analysis

    1.1.2 Methods of Elemental Analysis

    1.1.3 Comparison of Capacity of Methods

    1.1.4 How to Choose the Most Suitable Method?

    1.2 Developments of Optical methods in Retrospect

    1.2.1 Spectroscopy

    1.2.2 Spectrometry

    1.3 Common Principle of Spectrometric Methods

    References to Chapter 1

    Chapter 2 The Electromagnetic Radiation

    2.1 Dualism of Electromagnetic Radiation

    2.1.1 The Wave Nature of the Electromagnetic Radiation

    2.1.2 The Corpuscular Nature of the Electromagnetic Radiation

    2.2 Generation of Electromagnetic Radiation

    2.2.1 Generation of "Bremsstrahlung"

    2.2.2 The Blackbody Radiation

    2.2.3 Generation of Spectral Radiation

    2.2.4 Generation of Laser Radiation

    2.3 Absorption of Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR)

    2.3.1 Particular forms of the Absorption Law

    2.3.2 The Integral Absorption and Absorption Coefficient of Atomic Lines

    References to Chapter 2

    Chapter 3 The Profile of Atomic Emission and Absorption Lines

    3.1 Causes of Broadening of Spectral Lines

    3.1.1 Natural Broadening

    3.1.2 Collision Broadening (Lorentz Broadening)

    3.1.3 Doppler Broadening

    3.2 Actual Ahape of Atomic Lines

    3.2.1 Combination of Natural, Lorentz and Doppler Broadenings

    3.2.2 Line Broadening by the Hyperfine Structure of Atoms

    3.2.3 Self-Absorption and Self-Reversal of Atomic Lines

    3.3 Analytical Consequences of Line Broadening

    References to Chapter 3

    Chapter 4 Atomic Spectra and Electronic Structure

    4.1 De Broglie’s Hypothesis

    4.2 Spectral Series

    4.3 The Atom-Building Principles

    4.4 Elucidation of Spectroscopic Terms Belonging to a Given Electron Configuration

    4.4.1 The (LS) Type of Coupling (Russel-Saunders Coupling)

    4.4.2 The (jj) Type of Coupling

    4.4.3 Hund's Rules (HR) for the Ground State of the Atom

    4.5 Atoms in an External Magnetic Field

    4.5.1 The Normal Zeeman Effect

    4.5.2 Anomalous Zeeman Effect

    4.5.3 The Paschen-Back Effect

    4.6 Selection Rules and Energy-Level Diagrams of Multi-Electron Atoms

    4.7 Hyperfine Structure of Atomic Lines

    References to Chapter 4

    Chapter 5 Characteristics of Atom Reservoirs and their Influence Upon the Sensitivities of Determinations by AAS and AES

    5.1 The Concept of a Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium, LTE

    5.2 The Sensitivity of Determinations by AAS and AES

    5.3 Characteristics of Atom Reservoirs

    5.3.1 Flames

    5.3.2 Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)

    5.3.3 Graphite Cuvette

    5.3.4 Non-Tube Shaped Electrothermal Atomizers

    5.4 Introduction of Liquid Samples into the Atom Reservoirs

    5.4.1 Pneumatic Nebulizers

    5.4.2 Ultrasonic Nebulization and its Comparison with Pneumatic Nebulization

    5.4.3 Discrete Sampling Devices for Flames

    5.4.4 Introduction of Liquid Samples into Electrothermal Atomizers

    5.5 Estimation of the Sensitivities of Determinations by AAS

    5.6 Comparison of Estimated and Measured Sensitivities of Determinations by AAS

    5.6.1 Sensitivities of Determinations by ICP-AAS

    5.6.2 Sensitivities of Determinations by Flame AAS

    5.6.3 Comparison of the Different Atom Reservoirs Used in AAS and Conclusions

    5.7 Relative Emission Sensitivity (RES) of Determinations by Flame- and ICP Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    References to Chapter 5

    Chapter 6 Spectrometry Measurement of Atomic Absorption and Emission

    6.1 Influence of the Design of Spectrometers Upon the Measured Intensity

    6.2 Radiation Detection and Signal Processing

    6.3 Influence of the Spectral Band Width of the Monochromator Upon the Sensitivity of Determinations by AAS

    6.4 Background Correction in AAS

    6.4.1 Origins of Non-Specific Absorption and Correction Methods

    6.4.2 Background Compensation with a Polychromatic Reference Beam

    6.4.3 Optical Systems of AA-Spectrometers Designed for Continuum Source Background Correction

    6.4.4 Absorption-Zeeman-Effect Atomic Absorption (A-ZE/AA)

    6.4.5 Comparison of the Compensating Powers of A-ZE/AA and the Polychromatic Reference Beam Method

    6.4.6 Optical Systems for the ICP-AES

    References to Chapter 6

    Appendices

    Appendix 1: Physical Constants and Conversion Factors

    Appendix 2: Symbols and Abbreviations

    Appendix 3: Atomic Transitions and Practical Sensitivities of Determinations by Flame AAS

    Appendix 4: Alternative Analytical Lines for Determinations by AAS

    Appendix 5: Practical Sensitivities c1% or Detection Limits qL of Determinations by Graphite Furnace AAS

    Appendix 6: Limits of Detection by ICP-AES

    Appendix 7: Application Notes

    References to Appendix 7

    Subject Index

Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1982
  • Published: January 1, 1982
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444600622

About the Author

B. Magyar

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