Gray's Anatomy - 41st Edition - ISBN: 9780702052309, 9780702068515

Gray's Anatomy

41st Edition

The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice

Editor in Chief: Susan Standring
eBook ISBN: 9780702068515
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 25th September 2015
Page Count: 1584

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Table of Contents


Preface Commentary: The continuing relevance of anatomy in current surgical practice and research, R Shane Tubbs



Historical introduction: A brief history of Gray’s Anatomy, Ruth Richardson

Anatomical nomenclature

Bibliography of selected titles


Section Editor: Caroline B Wigley

1 Basic structure and function of cells, Abraham L Kierszenbaum

2 Integrating cells into tissues, Caroline B Wigley

3 Nervous system, Helmut Kettenmann

4 Blood, lymphoid tissues and haemopoiesis, Andrew JT George

5 Functional anatomy of the musculoskeletal system, Michael A Adams

6 Smooth muscle and the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems, Jeremy PT Ward

7 Skin and its appendages, John A McGrath, Joey E Lai-Cheong


1.1 Fluorescence microscopy in cell biology today, Dylan M Owen

1.2 Stem cells in regenerative medicine, Jonathan M Fishman, Paolo De Coppi, Martin A Birchall

1.3 Merkel cells, Ellen A Lumpkin

1.4 Metaplasia, Jonathan MW Slack, Leonard P Griffiths, David Tosh

1.5 Electron microscopy in the twenty-first century, Roland A Fleck

1.6 The reaction of peripheral nerves to injury, Rolfe Birch


Video 1.1 – Mitosis in a cell with fluorescently-labelled chromosomes and microtubules, Jonathon Pines, Daisuke Izawa

Video 1.5.1 – Diagnostic histopathology by electron microscopy, Roland A Fleck

Video 1.5.2 – Serial block face scanning electron microscopy(SBFSEM), Roland A Fleck


Section Editor: Patricia Collins

8 Preimplantation development, Alison Campbell, Patricia Collins

9 Implantation and placentation, Eric Jauniaux, Graham J Burton

10 Cell populations at gastrulation, Patricia Collins

11 Embryonic induction and cell division, Patricia Collins

12 Cell populations at the start of organogenesis, Patricia Collins

13 Early embryonic circulation, Patricia Collins

14 Pre- and postnatal development, Patricia Collins, Girish Jawaheer

15 Development of the limbs, Cheryll Tickle


2.1 Human anatomy informatics, Jonathan BL Bard, Paul N Schofield

2.2 An evolutionary consideration of pharyngeal development, Anthony Graham, Victoria L Shone


Video 8.1 – Human in vitro fertilization and early development, Alison Campbell

Video 9.1 – Ultrasound features of the maternal placental blood flow, Eric Jauniaux

Video 14.1 – Ultrasound features of the fetus at 26 weeks, Jonathan D Spratt, Patricia Collins


Section Editor: Alan R Crossman

16 Overview of the nervous system, Alan R Crossman, Richard Tunstall

17 Development of the nervous system, Zoltán Molnár

18 Ventricular system and subarachnoid space, Jacob Bertram Springborg, Marianne Juhler

19 Vascular supply and drainage of the brain, Paul D Griffiths

20 Spinal cord: internal organization, Monty Silverdale

21 Brainstem, Duane E Haines

22 Cerebellum, Jan Voogd

23 Diencephalon, Ido Strauss, Nir Lipsman, Andres M Lozano

24 Basal ganglia, Tipu Aziz, Erlick AC Pereira

25 Cerebral hemispheres, Guilherme C Ribas


3.1 The resting human brain and the predictive potential of the default mode network, Stefano Sandrone


Video 18.1 – Interactive 3D rotation of the subarachnoid space, Jose C Rios

Video 18.2 – Interactive 3D rotation of the ventricles and cisterns, Jose C Rios

Video 19.1 – Rotational angiography of an intracranial aneurysm, Paul D Griffiths

Section 4 – HEAD AND NECK

Section Editor: Michael Gleeson

26 Head and neck: overview and surface anatomy, Michael Gleeson, Richard Tunstall

Head and Neck

27 External skull, Sue Black

28 Intracranial region, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda

29 Neck, John C Watkinson, Michael Gleeson

30 Face and scalp, Simon Holmes

Upper Aerodigestive Tract

31 Oral cavity, Barry KB Berkovitz

32 Infratemporal and pterygopalatine fossae and temporomandibular joint, Barrie T Evans

33 Nose, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, Claire Hopkins

34 Pharynx, Stephen McHanwell

35 Larynx, Stephen McHanwell

36 Development of the head and neck, Gillian M Morriss-Kay

Special Senses

37 External and middle ear, Michael Gleeson

38 Inner ear, David N Furness

39 Development of the ear, Susan Standring

40 Development of the eye, Jane C Sowden

41 Orbit and accessory visual apparatus, John G Lawrenson, Ronald H Douglas

42 Eye, Ronald H Douglas, John G Lawrenson


4.1 Surgery of the skull base, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda

4.2 The role of three-dimensional imaging in facial anatomical assessment, Vikram Sharma, Bruce Richard

4.3 Anatomy of facial ageing, Bryan C Mendelson, Chin-Ho Wong


Video 28.1 – 3D surface rotation of the sella turcica in the horizontal plane, Michael D Luttrell

Video 28.2 – 3D surface rotation of the sella turcica in the multiaxial plane, Michael D Luttrell

Video 28.3 – 3D surface rotation of the sella turcica in the vertical plane, Michael D Luttrell

Video 30.1 – Pan-facial fractures, Simon Holmes

Video 30.2 – Postoperative cranio-orbital imaging, Simon Holmes

Video 30.3 – A comminuted zygomatic fracture (plus Le Fort I) pattern, Simon Holmes

Video 30.4 – A comminuted zygomatic fracture pattern – post reduction, Simon Holmes

Video 32.1 – Temporomandibular joint arthroscopy demonstrating intracapsular anatomy of the joint, Gary Warburton

Video 32.2 – Endoscopic anatomy of the infratemporal and pterygopalatine fossae, Carl H Snyderman, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda

Video 4.2.1 – 3D anatomical imaging of the face, Vikram Sharma

Section 5 – THE BACK

Section Editor: Neel Anand

43 Back, Eli M Baron, Richard Tunstall

44 Development of the back, Bodo EA Christ, Martin Scaal

45 Spinal cord and spinal nerves: gross anatomy, Eli M Baron


5.1 Minimally invasive surgical corridors to the lumbar spine, Y Raja Rampersaud


Section Editor: Rolfe Birch

46 Pectoral girdle and upper limb: overview and surface anatomy , Rolfe Birch, Richard Tunstall

47 Development of the pectoral girdle and upper limb, Cheryll Tickle

48 Shoulder girdle and arm, Simon M Lambert

49 Elbow and forearm, Leela C Biant

50 Wrist and hand, Alistair C Ross


6.1 Injuries of the supraclavicular brachial plexus, Rolfe Birch

6.2 Nerves at risk from musculoskeletal injury, Rolfe Birch

6.3 Thoracic outlet syndromes, Rolfe Birch


Video 46.1 – Upper limb surface anatomy, Rolfe Birch

Video 50.1 – Movements of the hand, Rolfe Birch

Video 50.2 – Wrist block: surface anatomy, Dominic Harmon

Section 7 – THORAX

Section Editor: Jonathan D Spratt

51 Thorax: overview and surface anatomy, Jonathan D Spratt, Richard Tunstall

52 Development of the thorax, Andrew Bush (lungs), Patricia Collins (thoracic walls), Antoon FM Moorman (heart)

53 Chest wall and breast, Thomas Collin, Julie Cox

Lungs and Diaphragm

54 Pleura, lungs, trachea and bronchi, Horia Muresian

55 Diaphragm and phrenic nerves, Marios Loukas

Heart and Mediastinum

56 Mediastinum, Horia Muresian

57 Heart, Marios Loukas

58 Great vessels, Marios Loukas


7.1 Technical aspects and applications of diagnostic radiology, Jonathan D Spratt

7.2 Endobronchial ultrasound, Natalie M Cummings


Video 52.1 – Animation of the pattern of contraction of the early heart tube, Antoon FM Moorman


Section Editor (Abdomen): Mark D Stringer

Section Editors (Pelvis): Ariana L Smith and Alan J Wein

59 Abdomen and pelvis: overview and surface anatomy, Mark D Stringer, Ariana L Smith, Alan J Wein,Richard Tunstall

60 Development of the peritoneal cavity, gastrointestinal tract and its adnexae, Patricia Collins

61 Anterior abdominal wall, Michael J Rosen, Clayton C Petro, Mark D Stringer

62 Posterior abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, Alexander G Pitman, Donald Moss, Mark D Stringer

63 Peritoneum and peritoneal cavity, Paul H Sugarbaker

Gastrointestinal Tract

64 Abdominal oesophagus and stomach, Hugh Barr, L Max Almond

65 Small intestine, Simon M Gabe

66 Large intestine, Peter J Lunniss

Abdominal Viscera

67 Liver, J Peter A Lodge

68 Gallbladder and biliary tree, Mark D Stringer

69 Pancreas, Mohamed Rela, Mettu Srinivas Reddy

70 Spleen, Andy Petroianu

71 Suprarenal (adrenal) gland, Nancy Dugal Perrier

Urogenital System

72 Development of the urogenital system, Patricia Collins, Girish Jawaheer, Richard M Sharpe

73 True pelvis, pelvic fl oor and perineum, John OL Delancey

74 Kidney and ureter, Thomas J Guzzo, Drew A Torigian

75 Bladder, prostate and urethra, Serge Ginzburg, Anthony T Corcoran, Alexander Kutikov

76 Male reproductive system, Marc Goldstein, Akanksha Mehta

77 Female reproductive system, Lily A Arya, Nadav Schwartz


8.1 The neurovascular bundles of the prostate, Robert P Myers

8.2 Real-time microscopy of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract and the hepatobiliary–pancreatic system during endoscopy, Martin Götz


Video 63.1 – Surgical exploration of the peritoneal cavity, Paul H Sugarbaker

Video 75.1 – Laparoscopic view of bladder fi lling and emptying in relation to the rectovesical pouch, Serge Ginzberg, Anthony T Corcoran, Alexander Kutikov

Video 75.2 – Laparoscopic view of anterior abdominal wall and ligaments, Serge Ginzberg, Anthony T Corcoran, Alexander Kutikov


Section Editor: R Shane Tubbs

78 Pelvic girdle and lower limb: overview and surface anatomy, Nihal Apaydin, Richard Tunstall

79 Development of the pelvic girdle and lower limb, Cheryll Tickle

80 Pelvic girdle, gluteal region and thigh, Mohammadali M Shoja

81 Hip, Donald A Neumann

82 Knee, Brion Benninger

83 Leg, Robert J Spinner, Benjamin M Howe

84 Ankle and foot, Anthony V D’Antoni


9.1 Nerve biomechanics, Kimberly S Topp

9.2 Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the pelvis, Andry Vleeming, Frank H Willard

9.3 Articularis genus, Stephanie J Woodley


Video 78.1 – Lower limb surface anatomy, Rolfe Birch

Video 84.1 – Ankle block: surface anatomy, Dominic Harmon



Section 2

2.1 Human oocyte undergoing fertilization, cell division, blastocyst development and hatching in vitro

Section 3

3.1 MRI head: axial T2-weighted

3.2 MRI head: coronal T2-weighted

3.3 MRI head: sagittal T2-weighted

Section 4

4.1 CT neck: axial post-IV contrast

4.2 CT neck: coronal post-IV contrast

Section 7

7.1 CT chest, abdomen and pelvis: axial post-IV contrast

7.2 CT chest, abdomen and pelvis: coronal post-IV contrast

7.3 CT chest, abdomen and pelvis: sagittal post-IV contrast

Section 8

8.1 MRI male pelvis: axial T1-weighted

Section 9

9.1 MRI male pelvis: coronal T1-weighted


Historical bibliography: References cited in earlier editions, up to and including the thirty-eighth edition


In 1858, Drs. Henry Gray and Henry Vandyke Carter created a book for their surgical colleagues that established an enduring standard among anatomical texts. After more than 150 years of continuous publication, Gray’s Anatomy remains the definitive, comprehensive reference on the subject, offering ready access to the information you need to ensure safe, effective practice.

This 41st edition has been meticulously revised and updated throughout, reflecting the very latest understanding of clinical anatomy from field leaders around the world. The book’s traditional lavish art programme and clear text have been further honed and enhanced, while major advances in imaging techniques and the new insights they bring are fully captured in new state-of-the-art X-ray, CT, MR, and ultrasonic images.

The completely reconfigured accompanying eBook version is richly enhanced with additional content and media, covering all the body regions, cell biology and embryogenesis. This unlocks a whole new level of related information, interactivity and understanding, in keeping with the spirit of innovation that has characterized Gray’s Anatomy since its inception.

Key Features

  • Presents the most detailed and dependable coverage of anatomy available anywhere.
  • Regional organization collects all relevant material on each body area together in one place, making access to core information easier for clinical readers.
  • Anatomical information is matched with key clinical information where relevant.
  • Numerous clinical discussions emphasize considerations that may affect medical care.


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2015
25th September 2015
eBook ISBN:


"This book has really excellent content. It’s the first point of call for a query, better than standard textbooks. Good authorage and editorial input is evident. A new edition of Gray’s always has to live up to its historical place in the medical world. The new edition updates content, is well presented, readable and accurate. This is supported by quality illustrations. A book for those wanting a reference source for anatomy which is reliable and current."
BMA Book Awards 2009 - judges comments

About the Editor in Chief

Susan Standring

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor of Anatomy, Head of Anatomy and Human Sciences, King's College London, London, UK