Geothermal Reservoir Engineering

Geothermal Reservoir Engineering

1st Edition - January 28, 1983

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  • Author: Malcomm Grant
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323152914

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Description

Geothermal Reservoir Engineering offers a comprehensive account of geothermal reservoir engineering and a guide to the state-of-the-art technology, with emphasis on practicality. Topics covered include well completion and warm-up, flow testing, and field monitoring and management. A case study of a geothermal well in New Zealand is also presented. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book opens with an overview of geothermal reservoirs and the development of geothermal reservoir engineering as a discipline. The following chapters focus on conceptual models of geothermal fields; simple models that illustrate some of the processes taking place in geothermal reservoirs under exploitation; measurements in a well from spudding-in up to first discharge; and flow measurement. The next chapter provides a case history of one well in the Broadlands Geothermal Field in New Zealand, with particular reference to its drilling, measurement, discharge, and data analysis/interpretation. The changes that have occurred in exploited geothermal fields are also reviewed. The final chapter considers three major problems of geothermal reservoir engineering: rapid entry of external cooler water, or return of reinjected water, in fractured reservoirs; the effects of exploitation on natural discharges; and subsidence. This monograph serves as both a text for students and a manual for working professionals in the field of geothermal reservoir engineering. It will also be of interest to engineers and scientists of other disciplines.

Table of Contents


  • Foreword

    Preface

    Acknowledgments

    1. Geothermal Reservoirs

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 The Development of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering

    1.3 Definitions

    1.4 The World's Geothermal Resources

    1.5 Organization of the Book

    1.6 References and Units

    2. Conceptual Models of Geothermal Fields and Systems

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Conductive Systems

    2.3 Convective Systems: Liquid Dominated

    2.4 Convective Systems: Vapor Dominated

    2.5 Concepts of Changes under Exploitation

    2.6 Developing a Conceptual Model of a Geothermal Reservoir

    2.7 Summary

    3. Simple Quantitative Models

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Simplifications and Concepts of Storage

    3.3 Pressure Transient Models

    3.4 Simple Lumped-Parameter Model

    3.5 Steam Reservoir with Immobile Water

    3.6 Reserves

    3.7 Fractured Media

    3.8 Chemical Flow Models

    3.9 Applicability of the Models

    4. Well Completion and Warm-up

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Measurements during Drilling

    4.3 The Completed Well

    4.4 The Completion Test

    4.5 Warm-up

    4.6 The "Static" Well

    4.7 Vapor-Dominated Systems

    4.8 Summary

    5. Flow Testing

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Initiating Discharge

    5.3 Measurement and Measurement Techniques

    5.4 Pressure and Temperature Profiles in Flowing Wells

    5.5 Interpretation of Output Data

    5.6 Injection

    5.7 Summary

    6. Case Study: A History of Well BR2, Broadlands Geothermal Field, New Zealand

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 The Drilling and Testing Period (May-August 1966)

    6.3 The Discharge Period, 1966-1971

    6.4 Shutdown and Pressure Recovery August 1971 -December 1980

    6.5 Conclusion

    7. Quantifying Reservoir Properties

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Inference from Fluid Distribution

    7.3 Interference Testing

    7.4 Long-Term Reservoir Tests

    7.5 Other Tests

    7.6 Svartsengi, Iceland

    7.7 Raft River

    7.8 East Mesa

    7.9 Summary

    8. Long-Term Behavior: The Observed Response of Fields to Exploitation

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Larderello and Other Italian Fields

    8.3 Reykjavik and Selfoss, Iceland

    8.4 Wairakei

    8.5 The Geysers, California

    8.6 Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    8.7 Broadlands, New Zealand

    8.8 Kawerau

    8.9 Ahuachapan

    8.10 Summary

    9. Field Monitoring and Management

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Measurements

    9.3 Changes in Well Performance

    9.4 Decline Curves and Trend Analysis

    9.5 Sophisticated Reservoir Models

    9.6 Optimization

    10. Current Geothermal Reservoir Problems

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Fractured Reservoirs, Re-injection, and Tracer Returns

    10.3 Surface Activity: Natural and Disturbed

    10.4 Subsidence

    10.5 Conclusion

    Appendix 1. Pressure Transient Analysis

    A1.1 Introduction

    A1.2 Basic Solution

    A1.3 Wellbore Storage and Skin

    A1.4 Injection

    A1.5 Two-Phase Flow

    A1.6 Pseudopressure

    A1.7 Variable Flow Rate

    A1.8 Fractured Media

    A1.9 Wellbore Thermal and Flow Effects

    A1.10 Barometric and Tidal Effects; Use of Water Levels

    A1.ll Temperature Transients

    A1.12 Changes in Permeability

    Appendix 2. Equations of Motion and State

    A2.1 Introduction

    A2.2 Conservation Equations

    A2.3 Darcy's Law

    A2.4 Constitutive Relations

    A2.5 Pressure-Temperature-Depth Relations in Boiling Fluid

    Appendix 3. Conversions, Notations, and Properties

    A3.1 Steam Tables

    A3.2 Notation

    A3.3 Unit Conversions

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 384
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1983
  • Published: January 28, 1983
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323152914

About the Author

Malcomm Grant

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