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Geotechnology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080196022, 9781483187679


1st Edition

An Introductory Text for Students and Engineers

Author: A. Roberts
eBook ISBN: 9781483187679
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 366
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Geotechnology: An Introductory Text for Students and Engineers focuses on the principles, methodologies, approaches, and applications of geotechnology. The publication first elaborates on engineering in earth materials and behavior of earth materials under static load. Discussions focus on rheological properties of earth materials, elastic materials, plane strain, stress, systematic description of geological factors, engineering classification of rocks and rock masses, classification of soils for engineering purposes, and soil and rock mechanics. The text then examines time-dependent behavior of earth materials, failure criteria for soils and rocks, engineering properties of soils, fluids in soils and rocks, and laboratory measurement of load, stress, and strain in earth materials. The manuscript examines the gathering and recording of data on geology, rock structure, and rock classification, application of models to geotechnology, response of earth materials to dynamic loads, and observation of mass deformations in geotechnology. The publication is a vital source of data for students, engineers, and researchers wanting to explore geotechnology.

Table of Contents


1. Engineering in Earth Materials

The Scope of Geotechnology

Soil Mechanics

Rock Mechanics

The Classification of Earth Materials

Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes

Consistency Limits

Liquid Limit

Plastic Limit

The Unified Soil Classification

Engineering Classification of Rocks and Rock Masses

Terzaghi's Rock Classification

USBM Classification

Coates' Rock Classification

Deere and Miller's Classification System

Rock-Quality Designation


Ege's Stability Index

Franklin Point Load Index

Systematic Description of Geological Factors

Appraisal of Rock Mass Structure

The Range of Problems in Geotechnology

2. The Behavior of Earth Materials Under Static Load

Some Fundamental Concepts


Normal and Shear Stress Components

Principal Stresses,

Stress in Three Dimensions


Infinitesimal Strain

Finite Strain

The Strain Ellipsoid

Pure Shear and Simple Shear

Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Strain

Plane Stress

Plane Strain

Springs, Dashpots, and Weights

Elastic Materials

Young's Modulus

Bulk Modulus

Modulus of Rigidity

Poisson's Ratio

Rheological Properties of Earth Materials

Rheological Models

Elastic Behavior in Real Earth Materials

Rock Hysteresis

Stress-Strain Relationships in Soils

3. Time-Dependent Behavior of Earth Materials

Creep in Rocks

The Creep Laws in Rock Materials

The Effect of Stress on the Strain Rate

Practical Implications of Creep in Earth Materials

Pressure-Relief Technique in Elastic and Near-Elastic Rocks

Creep in Plastic Rocks

Effects of Temperature on Creep

Creep of Ice and Frozen Ground

Creep in Soils

4. Failure Criteria for Soils and Rocks

More Fundamental Concepts

Structural Failure


Mohr's Circle of Stress


Maximum Shear Strength

Theories of Failure

Failure of Elastic Materials

Failure of Earth Materials

Criteria of Failure

Mohr's Theory of Failure

Determination of the Mohr Failure Envelope

The Coulomb Criterion of Failure for Soils


Internal Friction

The Coulomb-Navier Criterion of Failure for Rocks

The Griffith Brittle Failure Criterion

5. The Engineering Properties of Soils

Pore Fluid Pressure

Effective Stress

The Determination of Soil Strength

The Shear Box Test

Triaxial Compression Test for Soils

The Unconflned Compressive Strength of Soils

The Vane Shear Test for Soils

Consolidation of Soils

Normally Consolidated Clays

Over Consolidated Clays

Settlement of Foundations



Relative Density of Soils

Expansion and Shrinkage in Clay Soils



Weathering of Clay Rocks

6. Fluids in Soils and Rocks


Held Water

Soil Suction

"Held Water" in Rocks


The Flow of Groundwater


Laboratory Determination of the Coefficient of Permeability for Soils

Laboratory Determination of the Permeability of Rocks

The Determination of Permeability Coefficients in the Field

Pumping-in Test

Lugeon Test

Pumping-Out Test

Fluid Potential

Determination of Fluid Potential

Flow Nets

Seepage in Earth and Rock Masses

Seepage Pressures

7. The Laboratory Measurement of Load, Stress, and Strain in Earth Materials

The Measurement of Load

Pressure Gauges

Load Cells

Proving Rings

The Determination of Stress

The Measurement of Strain

Dial Gauges

Mechanical Extensometers

Electrical Strain Gauges

Electrical Resistance Strain Gauges

Measurement of Strains on Rock Samples During Triaxial and Creep Tests

Photoelastic Strain Measurement

Basic Principles of Photoelasticity

Plane Polariscope

Crossed-Circular Polariscope

Viewing Equipment for Photoelastic Transducers

Simple Viewer

Precision Viewers

Photoelastic Transducers

Linear Photoelastic Strain Gauges

The Uniaxial Photoelastic Disc Transducer

Biaxial Photoelastic Transducers-The Biaxial Strain Gauge

Reading Photoelastic Transducers Using the Precision Viewers

Making the Unit Count

Reading Fractional Fringe Orders

Locating the Optimum Point of Reference

Determination of the Principal Stress Ratios

Calibration of Strain Gauges

8. The Strength of Rock Materials

Rock Materials and Rock Masses

Failure Mechanisms in Rock Materials

The Griffith Failure Criterion

The Brittle-Plastic Transition in Rock Materials

Yield and Flow of Rock Materials

Tresca's Criterion

Von Mises' Criterion

Triaxial Compression Tests on Rock Materials

The Effects of Pore Fluids in Rocks

Uniaxial Compression Tests on Rock Materials

The Effects of End-Contact Conditions

The Effects of End-Restraint Conditions

The Effects of Size and Proportions of the Test-Piece

The Effects of Pore Fluids and Porosity in the Uniaxial Testing of Rocks

The Effects of the Duration and Rate of Loading

The Effects of the Testing Machine

The Effects of Non-Isotropy of the Rock Material

The Effects of Heterogeneity

The Number of Samples Tested

Compression Tests on Irregularly-Shaped Rock Samples

Determination of Compressive Strength From Drilling Tests on Rock

The Tensile Strength of Rocks

Determination of Uniaxial Tensile Strength

Indirect Tensile Tests on Rock Materials

The Tensile Strength of Rocks in Bending

The Unconfined Shear Strength of Rocks

Comparative Tests of Rock Strength

Moh's Scale of Hardness

Hardness Tests

Indentation Hardness

The Point Load Index

Rebound Hardness Tests on Rock Materials

Shore Scleroscope Hardness Test

Schmidt Rebound Test-Hammer

Impact Tests on Rock Materials

The Hopkinson Bar

The ASTM Rock Toughness Test

Protodiakonov Impact Toughness

The Expanding-Bolt Rock Tester

The Cerchar Rock Resistance Index

The Specific Energy Concept

9. The Engineering Properties of Rock Masses

Correlation of Material Properties with Mass Strength

Natural and Induced Mass Deformations

Natural Deformations

Induced Deformations

Competent and Incompetent Rock

The Effect of Scale on Rock Strength

Field Tests on Soils and Rocks (Static Loading)

Bearing Capacity

Theories of Bearing Pressure

Safe Bearing Capacities

Field Determination of Bearing Capacity

The Plate Bearing Test on Soils

Plate Bearing Tests on Rocks

Strata Penetration Tests

Borehole Rock Penetrometer

Soil Penetrometer

In situ Deformability Tests

Flat-Jack Deformability Tests

Pressure-Chamber Tests

Borehole Rock Deformability Tests

Borehole Dilatometers

Borehold Jacks

Comparison of Borehole Deformability Meters

Methods of Applying Load in Field Tests

Cable Jacking Tests

The Direct Measurement of Strength of Rock Masses

In situ Shear Tests

Torsion Shear Test for Rocks

In situ Rock Compression Tests

The Determination of Pillar Support Strength in situ

Residual Strength of Rock Masses

Indirect Observation of the Strength of Rock Masses

The "Hydrofrac" Technique

Observation of Acoustic Emission from Stressed Rock

10. Determination of the State of Stress in Rock Masses

In situ Stress Measurement

Stresses in the Earth's Crust

Stress Distribution Around Excavations in Rock

Principles of Rock Stress Measurement

The Stress-Relief Technique

Borehole Deformation Meters

The USBM Single-Component Borehole Deformation Gauge

The USBM Three-Component Borehole Deformation Gauge

Borehole Inclusion Stressmeters

Rigid Inclusions

Hast's Stressmeter

Photoelastic Glass-Insertion Stressmeters

Determination of the Complete State of Stress by Measurements in a Single Borehole

The Leeman (CSIRJ Three-Component Gauge

The LNEC (Lisbon) Single Borehole Stress-Gauge

Low-Modulus, Solid Inclusions

The USGS Solid-Inclusion Borehole Probe

Determination of Rock Stress Using Hydraulic Pressure Cells

The Flat-Jack Technique

Borehole Hydraulic Pressure Cells

Determination of in situ Rock Stress at Depth

Determination of the in situ State of Stress in Non-Elastic Earth Materials

Pressure Cells

Fluid Inclusions in Rock Salt

Indirect Measurement of Rock Stress

Geophysical Techniques

Qualitative Observations of High-Stress Zones

Measurement of Stress by Hydraulic Fracture

Choice of in situ Stress Measurement Technique

11. Strata Pressures and Support Loads

Earth Pressure

Retaining Walls

Trench Supports

"Arching" in Unconsolidated Earth Materials

Relative Yield

Stress Distribution Around Excavations at Depth in Rock

Design of Tunnel Linings

Flexible Buried Cylinders

Buried Tunnels at Shallow Depth

Effects of Construction Procedure

Flexible Lining

Rigid Lining

Tunnels in Homogeneous, Massive, Elastic Rock

Excavations in Massive Elasto-Plastic Earth Materials

Interaction Between Earth Material and Excavation Support Structures

Earth Pressure Cells

Loads on Excavation Support Structures

Pillar Loads

Location of Abutment Zones

Determination of the Extent of the Fractured Zone

Loads in Concrete Tunnel Linings

Prop and Strut Loads

Tension in Rock Bolts and Cables

12. The Observation of Mass Deformations in Geotechnology

Photographic Techniques


Direct Surveying Techniques

Earth Strain Measurements

Direct Measurement of Earth Strain

Mass-Deformation Extensometers

Convergence Recorders

Stope Stability Meter

Measurement of "Ride"

Rock Stability Alarms

Tape Extensometers

Borehole Extensometers

Water Level Apparatus

Borehole Sonde Techniques

Idel Sonde

Slope Meter

Fracture Plane Location

Choice of Strain Transducer for Underground Measurements

Interpretation of Measurements

13. The Response of Earth Materials to Dynamic Loads

Dynamic Phenomena in Geotechnology

Shock Waves

Elastic Waves

Body Waves

Surface Waves

Stress Waves in Rocks

Wave Velocity and Particle Velocity

Laboratory Measurement of Velocities

Field Measurement of Velocities

Determination of Dynamic Elastic Moduli

Pulse Method

Resonance Method

Wave Velocities in Soils

Field Determination of Dynamic Elastic Moduli

The Strength of Rocks Under Dynamic Loading

Characteristic Impedance

Dispersion and Attenuation

Fatigue Behavior of Rock

Behavior of Soils Under Dynamic Load

Structural Changes of Rocks Under Dynamic Load

14. The Application of Models to Geotechnology

Experimental Geology

Tests on Natural Rock Materials

Equivalent Material Models

Classification of Materials for Structural Modeling

Scale Models of Underground Strata Movement

Ideal Continuous and Discontinuous Models

Block Models

Photoelastic Models

Determination of Stresses and Stress Trajectories from Photoelastic Models

Combined Physical Material-Photoelastic Models

Laminated Photoelastic Models

Gelatin Models

Three-Dimensional Photoelastic Models

Mathematical Models

Analog Computers

Finite Element Models

Discontinuous Mathematical Models

Assessment of the Results from Model Studies

15. Gathering and Recording Data on Geology, Rock Structure and Rock Classification

Recording Discontinuities

Optical Data Processing

Methods of Recording Joint Data

Spherical Projections

Stereographic Projection

Equal-Area Projection

Logging Rock Boreholes for Engineering Purposes

Geophysical Logging

Resistivity Log

Spontaneous Potential Log

Microlog and Lateralog

Radioactive Logging

Temperature Log

Observation of Dip

Optical Scanning in Boreholes

Observation of Mechanical Properties

Drilling and Sampling Techniques

Geophysical Exploration in Advance of Geotechnical Projects

Seismic Exploration

Geophysical Studies of Strata Continuity

Offset Shooting

Gravimetric Measurements

Recording the Log of Cored Boreholes



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© Pergamon 1977
1st January 1977
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

A. Roberts

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