An Introductory Text for Students and Engineers

1st Edition - January 1, 1977

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  • Author: A. Roberts
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483187679

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Geotechnology: An Introductory Text for Students and Engineers focuses on the principles, methodologies, approaches, and applications of geotechnology. The publication first elaborates on engineering in earth materials and behavior of earth materials under static load. Discussions focus on rheological properties of earth materials, elastic materials, plane strain, stress, systematic description of geological factors, engineering classification of rocks and rock masses, classification of soils for engineering purposes, and soil and rock mechanics. The text then examines time-dependent behavior of earth materials, failure criteria for soils and rocks, engineering properties of soils, fluids in soils and rocks, and laboratory measurement of load, stress, and strain in earth materials. The manuscript examines the gathering and recording of data on geology, rock structure, and rock classification, application of models to geotechnology, response of earth materials to dynamic loads, and observation of mass deformations in geotechnology. The publication is a vital source of data for students, engineers, and researchers wanting to explore geotechnology.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. Engineering in Earth Materials

    The Scope of Geotechnology

    Soil Mechanics

    Rock Mechanics

    The Classification of Earth Materials

    Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes

    Consistency Limits

    Liquid Limit

    Plastic Limit

    The Unified Soil Classification

    Engineering Classification of Rocks and Rock Masses

    Terzaghi's Rock Classification

    USBM Classification

    Coates' Rock Classification

    Deere and Miller's Classification System

    Rock-Quality Designation


    Ege's Stability Index

    Franklin Point Load Index

    Systematic Description of Geological Factors

    Appraisal of Rock Mass Structure

    The Range of Problems in Geotechnology

    2. The Behavior of Earth Materials Under Static Load

    Some Fundamental Concepts


    Normal and Shear Stress Components

    Principal Stresses,

    Stress in Three Dimensions


    Infinitesimal Strain

    Finite Strain

    The Strain Ellipsoid

    Pure Shear and Simple Shear

    Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Strain

    Plane Stress

    Plane Strain

    Springs, Dashpots, and Weights

    Elastic Materials

    Young's Modulus

    Bulk Modulus

    Modulus of Rigidity

    Poisson's Ratio

    Rheological Properties of Earth Materials

    Rheological Models

    Elastic Behavior in Real Earth Materials

    Rock Hysteresis

    Stress-Strain Relationships in Soils

    3. Time-Dependent Behavior of Earth Materials

    Creep in Rocks

    The Creep Laws in Rock Materials

    The Effect of Stress on the Strain Rate

    Practical Implications of Creep in Earth Materials

    Pressure-Relief Technique in Elastic and Near-Elastic Rocks

    Creep in Plastic Rocks

    Effects of Temperature on Creep

    Creep of Ice and Frozen Ground

    Creep in Soils

    4. Failure Criteria for Soils and Rocks

    More Fundamental Concepts

    Structural Failure


    Mohr's Circle of Stress


    Maximum Shear Strength

    Theories of Failure

    Failure of Elastic Materials

    Failure of Earth Materials

    Criteria of Failure

    Mohr's Theory of Failure

    Determination of the Mohr Failure Envelope

    The Coulomb Criterion of Failure for Soils


    Internal Friction

    The Coulomb-Navier Criterion of Failure for Rocks

    The Griffith Brittle Failure Criterion

    5. The Engineering Properties of Soils

    Pore Fluid Pressure

    Effective Stress

    The Determination of Soil Strength

    The Shear Box Test

    Triaxial Compression Test for Soils

    The Unconflned Compressive Strength of Soils

    The Vane Shear Test for Soils

    Consolidation of Soils

    Normally Consolidated Clays

    Over Consolidated Clays

    Settlement of Foundations



    Relative Density of Soils

    Expansion and Shrinkage in Clay Soils



    Weathering of Clay Rocks

    6. Fluids in Soils and Rocks


    Held Water

    Soil Suction

    "Held Water" in Rocks


    The Flow of Groundwater


    Laboratory Determination of the Coefficient of Permeability for Soils

    Laboratory Determination of the Permeability of Rocks

    The Determination of Permeability Coefficients in the Field

    Pumping-in Test

    Lugeon Test

    Pumping-Out Test

    Fluid Potential

    Determination of Fluid Potential

    Flow Nets

    Seepage in Earth and Rock Masses

    Seepage Pressures

    7. The Laboratory Measurement of Load, Stress, and Strain in Earth Materials

    The Measurement of Load

    Pressure Gauges

    Load Cells

    Proving Rings

    The Determination of Stress

    The Measurement of Strain

    Dial Gauges

    Mechanical Extensometers

    Electrical Strain Gauges

    Electrical Resistance Strain Gauges

    Measurement of Strains on Rock Samples During Triaxial and Creep Tests

    Photoelastic Strain Measurement

    Basic Principles of Photoelasticity

    Plane Polariscope

    Crossed-Circular Polariscope

    Viewing Equipment for Photoelastic Transducers

    Simple Viewer

    Precision Viewers

    Photoelastic Transducers

    Linear Photoelastic Strain Gauges

    The Uniaxial Photoelastic Disc Transducer

    Biaxial Photoelastic Transducers-The Biaxial Strain Gauge

    Reading Photoelastic Transducers Using the Precision Viewers

    Making the Unit Count

    Reading Fractional Fringe Orders

    Locating the Optimum Point of Reference

    Determination of the Principal Stress Ratios

    Calibration of Strain Gauges

    8. The Strength of Rock Materials

    Rock Materials and Rock Masses

    Failure Mechanisms in Rock Materials

    The Griffith Failure Criterion

    The Brittle-Plastic Transition in Rock Materials

    Yield and Flow of Rock Materials

    Tresca's Criterion

    Von Mises' Criterion

    Triaxial Compression Tests on Rock Materials

    The Effects of Pore Fluids in Rocks

    Uniaxial Compression Tests on Rock Materials

    The Effects of End-Contact Conditions

    The Effects of End-Restraint Conditions

    The Effects of Size and Proportions of the Test-Piece

    The Effects of Pore Fluids and Porosity in the Uniaxial Testing of Rocks

    The Effects of the Duration and Rate of Loading

    The Effects of the Testing Machine

    The Effects of Non-Isotropy of the Rock Material

    The Effects of Heterogeneity

    The Number of Samples Tested

    Compression Tests on Irregularly-Shaped Rock Samples

    Determination of Compressive Strength From Drilling Tests on Rock

    The Tensile Strength of Rocks

    Determination of Uniaxial Tensile Strength

    Indirect Tensile Tests on Rock Materials

    The Tensile Strength of Rocks in Bending

    The Unconfined Shear Strength of Rocks

    Comparative Tests of Rock Strength

    Moh's Scale of Hardness

    Hardness Tests

    Indentation Hardness

    The Point Load Index

    Rebound Hardness Tests on Rock Materials

    Shore Scleroscope Hardness Test

    Schmidt Rebound Test-Hammer

    Impact Tests on Rock Materials

    The Hopkinson Bar

    The ASTM Rock Toughness Test

    Protodiakonov Impact Toughness

    The Expanding-Bolt Rock Tester

    The Cerchar Rock Resistance Index

    The Specific Energy Concept

    9. The Engineering Properties of Rock Masses

    Correlation of Material Properties with Mass Strength

    Natural and Induced Mass Deformations

    Natural Deformations

    Induced Deformations

    Competent and Incompetent Rock

    The Effect of Scale on Rock Strength

    Field Tests on Soils and Rocks (Static Loading)

    Bearing Capacity

    Theories of Bearing Pressure

    Safe Bearing Capacities

    Field Determination of Bearing Capacity

    The Plate Bearing Test on Soils

    Plate Bearing Tests on Rocks

    Strata Penetration Tests

    Borehole Rock Penetrometer

    Soil Penetrometer

    In situ Deformability Tests

    Flat-Jack Deformability Tests

    Pressure-Chamber Tests

    Borehole Rock Deformability Tests

    Borehole Dilatometers

    Borehold Jacks

    Comparison of Borehole Deformability Meters

    Methods of Applying Load in Field Tests

    Cable Jacking Tests

    The Direct Measurement of Strength of Rock Masses

    In situ Shear Tests

    Torsion Shear Test for Rocks

    In situ Rock Compression Tests

    The Determination of Pillar Support Strength in situ

    Residual Strength of Rock Masses

    Indirect Observation of the Strength of Rock Masses

    The "Hydrofrac" Technique

    Observation of Acoustic Emission from Stressed Rock

    10. Determination of the State of Stress in Rock Masses

    In situ Stress Measurement

    Stresses in the Earth's Crust

    Stress Distribution Around Excavations in Rock

    Principles of Rock Stress Measurement

    The Stress-Relief Technique

    Borehole Deformation Meters

    The USBM Single-Component Borehole Deformation Gauge

    The USBM Three-Component Borehole Deformation Gauge

    Borehole Inclusion Stressmeters

    Rigid Inclusions

    Hast's Stressmeter

    Photoelastic Glass-Insertion Stressmeters

    Determination of the Complete State of Stress by Measurements in a Single Borehole

    The Leeman (CSIRJ Three-Component Gauge

    The LNEC (Lisbon) Single Borehole Stress-Gauge

    Low-Modulus, Solid Inclusions

    The USGS Solid-Inclusion Borehole Probe

    Determination of Rock Stress Using Hydraulic Pressure Cells

    The Flat-Jack Technique

    Borehole Hydraulic Pressure Cells

    Determination of in situ Rock Stress at Depth

    Determination of the in situ State of Stress in Non-Elastic Earth Materials

    Pressure Cells

    Fluid Inclusions in Rock Salt

    Indirect Measurement of Rock Stress

    Geophysical Techniques

    Qualitative Observations of High-Stress Zones

    Measurement of Stress by Hydraulic Fracture

    Choice of in situ Stress Measurement Technique

    11. Strata Pressures and Support Loads

    Earth Pressure

    Retaining Walls

    Trench Supports

    "Arching" in Unconsolidated Earth Materials

    Relative Yield

    Stress Distribution Around Excavations at Depth in Rock

    Design of Tunnel Linings

    Flexible Buried Cylinders

    Buried Tunnels at Shallow Depth

    Effects of Construction Procedure

    Flexible Lining

    Rigid Lining

    Tunnels in Homogeneous, Massive, Elastic Rock

    Excavations in Massive Elasto-Plastic Earth Materials

    Interaction Between Earth Material and Excavation Support Structures

    Earth Pressure Cells

    Loads on Excavation Support Structures

    Pillar Loads

    Location of Abutment Zones

    Determination of the Extent of the Fractured Zone

    Loads in Concrete Tunnel Linings

    Prop and Strut Loads

    Tension in Rock Bolts and Cables

    12. The Observation of Mass Deformations in Geotechnology

    Photographic Techniques


    Direct Surveying Techniques

    Earth Strain Measurements

    Direct Measurement of Earth Strain

    Mass-Deformation Extensometers

    Convergence Recorders

    Stope Stability Meter

    Measurement of "Ride"

    Rock Stability Alarms

    Tape Extensometers

    Borehole Extensometers

    Water Level Apparatus

    Borehole Sonde Techniques

    Idel Sonde

    Slope Meter

    Fracture Plane Location

    Choice of Strain Transducer for Underground Measurements

    Interpretation of Measurements

    13. The Response of Earth Materials to Dynamic Loads

    Dynamic Phenomena in Geotechnology

    Shock Waves

    Elastic Waves

    Body Waves

    Surface Waves

    Stress Waves in Rocks

    Wave Velocity and Particle Velocity

    Laboratory Measurement of Velocities

    Field Measurement of Velocities

    Determination of Dynamic Elastic Moduli

    Pulse Method

    Resonance Method

    Wave Velocities in Soils

    Field Determination of Dynamic Elastic Moduli

    The Strength of Rocks Under Dynamic Loading

    Characteristic Impedance

    Dispersion and Attenuation

    Fatigue Behavior of Rock

    Behavior of Soils Under Dynamic Load

    Structural Changes of Rocks Under Dynamic Load

    14. The Application of Models to Geotechnology

    Experimental Geology

    Tests on Natural Rock Materials

    Equivalent Material Models

    Classification of Materials for Structural Modeling

    Scale Models of Underground Strata Movement

    Ideal Continuous and Discontinuous Models

    Block Models

    Photoelastic Models

    Determination of Stresses and Stress Trajectories from Photoelastic Models

    Combined Physical Material-Photoelastic Models

    Laminated Photoelastic Models

    Gelatin Models

    Three-Dimensional Photoelastic Models

    Mathematical Models

    Analog Computers

    Finite Element Models

    Discontinuous Mathematical Models

    Assessment of the Results from Model Studies

    15. Gathering and Recording Data on Geology, Rock Structure and Rock Classification

    Recording Discontinuities

    Optical Data Processing

    Methods of Recording Joint Data

    Spherical Projections

    Stereographic Projection

    Equal-Area Projection

    Logging Rock Boreholes for Engineering Purposes

    Geophysical Logging

    Resistivity Log

    Spontaneous Potential Log

    Microlog and Lateralog

    Radioactive Logging

    Temperature Log

    Observation of Dip

    Optical Scanning in Boreholes

    Observation of Mechanical Properties

    Drilling and Sampling Techniques

    Geophysical Exploration in Advance of Geotechnical Projects

    Seismic Exploration

    Geophysical Studies of Strata Continuity

    Offset Shooting

    Gravimetric Measurements

    Recording the Log of Cored Boreholes


Product details

  • No. of pages: 366
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1977
  • Published: January 1, 1977
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483187679

About the Author

A. Roberts

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