Geology of Tin Deposits

Geology of Tin Deposits

1st Edition - January 1, 1979

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  • Author: R.G. Taylor
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444597908

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Developments in Economic Geology, 11: Geology of Tin Deposits focuses on the principles, methodologies, and approaches involved in the study of the geology of tin deposits. The book first tackles metallogenic provinces, primary tin deposits, and tin in the geochemical cycle. Topics include tin distribution, deposits associated with anorogenic granites and passive and/or batholithic magmatic environments, deposits related with terrestrial acid lava flows, classification of provinces and province analysis, and plate tectonics and tin provinces. The manuscript then ponders on the relationship between granitoids and tin concentration, significant geological features of tin deposits and their application in search techniques, and observations on large low grade tin ores. Concerns include tonnage-grade curves of various deposit types, porphyry tin deposits, geochemical prospecting, vein analysis, tin distribution and concentration mechanisms in the igneous environment, and trace element specialization. The text takes a look at the transport of tin in the formation of ore deposits, mineralogy and aspects of the crystal chemistry of tin, aspects of secondary deposits, and economic and management considerations. The publication is a dependable reference for researchers interested in the geology of tin deposits.

Table of Contents

  • Preface and Acknowledgements

    Chapter 1. Introduction

    1.1 General Background


    Chapter 2. Metallogenic Provinces

    2.1 Distribution

    2.2 Classification of Provinces and Province Analysis

    2.3 Plate Tectonics and Tin Provinces


    Chapter 3. Primary Tin Deposits

    3.1 Classification of Deposits

    3.2 Deposits Associated with Terrestrial Acid Lava Flows

    3.3 Deposits Associated with Subvolcanic Regions

    3.4 Deposits Associated with Passive and/or Batholithic Magmatic Environments

    3.5 Deposits Associated with Granitoids of Deep Subvolcanic Character

    3.6 Deposits Associated with Anorogenic Granites

    3.7 Precambrian Pegmatite Style

    3.8 Bushveld Province


    Chapter 4. Tin in the Geochemical Cycle

    4.1 Tin Distribution


    Chapter 5. The Relationship Between Granitoids and Tin Concentration

    5.1 Major Element Specialisation

    5.2 Trace Element Specialisation

    5.3 Tin Distribution and Concentration Mechanisms in the Igneous Environment


    Chapter 6. Some Significant Geological Features of Tin Deposits and their Application in Search Techniques

    6.1 District Analysis - General

    6.2 Zoning

    6.3 Vein Analysis

    6.4 Pipes

    6.5 Alteration Environments

    Local Alteration Effects (i.e. Adjacent to Fractures, Veins, Pipes, etc.)

    Broad Scale Alteration Effects (i.e. Apogranite Environments).

    Greisenisation and Feldspathisation

    Argillisation and Tourmalinisation

    Alteration Effects (and Deposits) Associated with Ca-Rich Rocks

    Magnetite Rich (Iron Oxide) Types of Skarn

    Sulphide Rich Types of Skarn

    Alteration as a Source of Tin

    6.6 Geochemical Prospecting


    Chapter 7. Observations on Large Low Grade Tin Ores

    7.1 General

    7.2 Target Scale and Existing Low Grade Deposits

    7.3 Tonnage-Grade Curves of Various Deposit Types

    7.4 Greisen Environment

    7.5 Cupola Detection

    7.6 Porphyry Tin Deposits


    Chapter 8. Economic and Management Considerations

    8.1 Exploration Philosophy

    8.2 Drilling, Sampling and Estimation of Reserves

    Drilling and Sampling


    Estimation of Ore Reserves

    8.3 Metallurgical Problems


    Chapter 9. Aspects Of Secondary Deposits

    9.1 General

    9.2 Prospecting Philosophy and Approaches

    9.3 Distribution Plots

    9.4 Geophysical Aids

    9.5 Testing and Evaluation

    Problem 1. Irregular Distribution of Values

    Problem 2. Mechanical Errors Associated with the Drilling Process

    Problem 3. Tin Content of Sample


    Chapter 10. The Mineralogy and Aspects of the Crystal Chemistry of Tin

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Tin (II) Bonding

    10.3 Tin (IV) Bonding

    10.4 Catenation

    10.5 Mössbauer Studies

    Tin (II) Compounds

    Tin (IV) Compounds

    10.6 The System Sn

    10.7 Tin-Sulphur Systems

    The System Sn-S-O

    Systems Including Pb, Sb, Sn and S 348

    Pb-Sn-Sb-S Systems

    The System Pb-Sn-Sb-S-H2O

    Cylindrite, Incaite, Franckeite

    Systems Containing Cu-Fe-Zn-Sn-S

    The System Cu2Sns3-Cu2ZnSns, (Kesterite)

    Stannite-Stannoidite (Hexastannite)-Mawsonite-Rhodostannite-Isostannite

    Additional Sulphides Containing Tin

    10.8 Varlamofflte

    Other Oxidation Products Of Stannite

    10.9 Tin-Tantalum-Niobium Minerals

    Ixiolite, Pseudoixiolite, Olovotantalite and Wodginite

    Other Sn-Ta-Nb Minerals

    10.10 Nigerite

    10.11 Spinels

    10.12 Systems Containing Pd-Pt-Sn

    10.13 Tin Silicate Minerals



    10.14 Other Silicate Minerals with High Tin Content

    10.15 Tin Rich Borates

    Vonsenite (Breiskalite, Paigeite) - Ludwigite

    10.16 Tin-Oxygen Systems

    SnO2 (Cassiterite)


    Chapter 11. Transport of Tin in the Formation of Ore Deposits

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Chemical Transportation

    11.3 Concentration in Magmatic Processes

    Selective Diffusion

    Crystallochemical Enrichment/"Transport"

    Orthomagmatic Cassiterite

    Enrichment in Specific Primary Magmatic Mineral Phases

    Tin in the Mantle

    11.4 Concentration and Transportationn Processes Associated with Fluids Other than Silicate Melts (i.e. Aqueous Fluids, Vapours etc.)


    Appendix 1 - Notes on Selected Tin Provinces


    Bolivia (South America)

    Maly Khingan (Lesser Khingan, Lesser Hingan)

    Miao-Chang (Komsomol'sk District, Amur)

    Southern Maritime Territory (Primorye, Sikhote-Alin, Kavalerovsk Area - U.S.S.R.)

    Cornwall (United Kingdom)

    Chukotka (U.S.S.R.)

    Herberton - Mount Garnet, Australia

    East Kazakstan (U.S.S.R.)

    New England (New South Wales, Australia)

    North West Tasmania (Australia)

    Yakutia (Yana-Kolmya, Verkhoyansk Including Okhotsk)

    Cooktown (Australia)

    Erzgebirge (Czechoslovakia and German Democratic Republic)

    North East Tasmania (Blue Tier - Aberfoyle, Australia)

    South East Asia (Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia)

    Nigeria (Africa)

    Brazil (Rhondonia and Amapa)

    Central Africa (Katanga-Ruanda-Urundi-Tanganyika)

    Pilbara (West Australia)

    Swaziland (Africa)

    Southern Rhodesia - Zambia (Bikita Region - S.Rhodesia, Kamativi Region - S.Rhodesia, Chomo Region - Zambia)

    Bush Veld (South Africa)

    Appendix 2 - Naturally Occurring Tin Bearing Minerals

    Appendix 3 - Tin Deposits in the U.S.S.R.

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 556
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1979
  • Published: January 1, 1979
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444597908

About the Author

R.G. Taylor

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