Genetically Modified Plants

Genetically Modified Plants

Assessing Safety and Managing Risk

1st Edition - July 7, 2009

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  • Authors: Roger Hull, G. Tzotzos, Graham Head
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080920764
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123741066

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Description

A transgenic organism is a plant, animal, bacterium, or other living organism that has had a foreign gene added to it by means of genetic engineering. Transgenic plants can arise by natural movement of genes between species, by cross-pollination based hybridization between different plant species (which is a common event in flowering plant evolution), or by laboratory manipulations by artificial insertion of genes from another species. Methods used in traditional breeding that generate transgenic plants by non-recombinant methods are widely familiar to professional plant scientists, and serve important roles in securing a sustainable future for agriculture by protecting crops from pest and helping land and water to be used more efficiently.There is worldwide interest in the biosafety issues related to transgenic crops because of issues such as increased pesticide use, increased crop and weed resistance to pesticides, gene flow to related plant species, negative effects on nontarget organisms, and reduced crop and ecosystem diversity. This book is intended to provide the basic information for a wide range of people involved in the release of transgenic crops. These will include scientists and researchers in the initial stage of developing transgenic products, industrialists, and decision makers. It will be of particular interest to plant scientists taking up biotechnological approaches to agricultural improvement for developing nations.

Key Features

* Discusses traditional and future technology for genetic modification
* Compares conventional non-GM approaches and genetic modification
* Presents a risk assessment methodology for GM techniques
* Details mitigation techniques for human and environmental effects

Readership

plant scientists studying genetically modified crops; agricultural engineers; agronomists; researchers; industrialists; lawyers; students; regulators

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION
    Conventional Approach
    Improvement
    Effects
    Risk Assessment Methodologies
    Technology

    Chapter 2. RISK SOURCE CHARACTERISATION
    Properties of donor organism
    Properties of recipient organism
    DNA
    Selectable Markers

    Chapter 3. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT
    Release sites
    Performance
    Biological Properties
    Impact on Human Health
    Impact on Animals
    Impact on the Environment
    Case Studies

    Chapter 4. RISK ASSESSMENT & RISK MANAGEMENT ? HUMAN HEALTH
    Allergies
    Unintentional Toxins
    Resistance of Microbes to Antibiotics
    Mitigation and Containment Approaches
    Case Studies

    Chapter 5. RISK ASSESSMENT & RISK MANAGEMENT ? ENVIRONMENT
    Agricultural Environment
    Peri-agricultural and ?natural? environment
    Spread of Transgenes to non-GM crops
    Gene Flow to Weeds and Feral Crop Species
    Impact on Biodiversity of Crop Species and Wild Flora and Fauna
    Generation of ?Superweeds?
    Case Studies
    Stewardship Procedures
    Co-existence of GM and non-GM crops
    Testing for GM
    Modifying Agronomic Practices

    Chapter 6. REGULATORY SYSTEMS
    Current framework of GM regulation
    International Conventions and Agreements
    Major Regulatory Systems
    Major Sources of Information.

    Chapter 7 THE POLITICS OF GM TECHNOLOGY
    Development of Regulation of GM Crops
    Risk Perception
    Understanding the Scientific Process
    Bioethical Aspects
    Roles of NGOs, the media and industry.

    Chapter 8 THE FUTURE OF GM TECHNOLOGY
    The Future of GM Products
    Technology
    Evolution of Regulatory Structures

    Appendices
    Further Reading List
    Useful Internet Sites

Product details

  • No. of pages: 256
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2009
  • Published: July 7, 2009
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080920764
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123741066

About the Authors

Roger Hull

Roger Hull
Roger Hull graduated in botany from Cambridge University and undertook his graduate studies in plant virus diagnostics and epidemiology at London University. He lectured on agricultural botany there and at Makerere University in Uganda. In 1965 he moved to fundamental studies of plant viruses, first at Cambridge in the United Kingdom and then at the John Innes Institute (now Centre) in Norwich. He spent a sabbatical year (1974) at University of California, Davis, where he learnt the fundamentals of the newly developing molecular biology technology. He applied to this to plant virus characterisation, diagnostics and virus control, especially in tropical crops such as rice and plantain bananas. He retired in 1997 but continued research, lecturing and book writing. Dr Hull was an honorary professor at University of East Anglia in the UK and Peking and Fudan Universities in China, a Doctoris Honoris Causa at the University of Perpignan in France, and a Fellow of the American Phytopathological Society. He has published over 250 peer-reviewed papers on plant virology and more than 40 reviews in scientific journals, and has authored five books. In retirement Roger Hull also became involved in promoting the uptake of transgenic technology by developing countries as one approach to alleviating food insecurity. He was on the International faculty of the e-learning diploma course training decision makers, mainly in developing countries, in plant biotechnology regulation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Retired from John Innes Centre, Norwich, United Kingdom

G. Tzotzos

George Tzotzos received his education in the UK where he obtained two PhD degrees at the University of Bristol (School of Chemistry) and the Open University (Dept. of Health, Life & Chemical Sciences). Until 2011, he worked at the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO). More recently, he was affiliated at the Vale Institute of Sustainable Development (Belém, PA, Brazil) as a principal researcher (pesquisador titular) in charge of the Biotechnology and Biodiversity research group. During his tenure at UNIDO, he established and managed an international biosafety training network with partners at the Universities of Concepción (Chile), Gent (Belgium), and Marche (Italy). He organised and taught in numerous GMO risk assessment workshops. His academic and publication records can be seen at: ORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9258-4338 Loop: https://loop.frontiersin.org/people/193663/publications

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Researcher, Biotechnology and Biodiversity Group, Vale Institute of Sustainable Development, Belém, PA, Brazil

Graham Head

Dr. Graham Head is the Global Head of Resistance Management at Bayer Crop Science in St Louis, MO. Graham received his B.Sc. Honours degree in Zoology from Monash University in Australia and his Ph.D. in Ecology and Population Genetics from Princeton University. He has spent 23 years working on agricultural biotechnologies first at Monsanto Company and now at Bayer Crop Science in a variety of roles ranging from Discovery to Regulatory Sciences. Two areas of focus throughout his career have been assessing the environmental impacts of biotechnology and designing effective resistance management strategies for agricultural pests. He has over 100 peer-reviewed publications and represents Bayer Crop Science on a number of industry expert groups.

Affiliations and Expertise

Bayer Crop Science (formerly Monsanto LLC), St. Louis, MO, United States

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