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Genetically Modified Plants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123741066, 9780080920764

Genetically Modified Plants

1st Edition

Assessing Safety and Managing Risk

Authors: Roger Hull G. Tzotzos Graham Head
eBook ISBN: 9780080920764
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123741066
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 7th July 2009
Page Count: 256
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Description

A transgenic organism is a plant, animal, bacterium, or other living organism that has had a foreign gene added to it by means of genetic engineering. Transgenic plants can arise by natural movement of genes between species, by cross-pollination based hybridization between different plant species (which is a common event in flowering plant evolution), or by laboratory manipulations by artificial insertion of genes from another species. Methods used in traditional breeding that generate transgenic plants by non-recombinant methods are widely familiar to professional plant scientists, and serve important roles in securing a sustainable future for agriculture by protecting crops from pest and helping land and water to be used more efficiently.

There is worldwide interest in the biosafety issues related to transgenic crops because of issues such as increased pesticide use, increased crop and weed resistance to pesticides, gene flow to related plant species, negative effects on nontarget organisms, and reduced crop and ecosystem diversity. This book is intended to provide the basic information for a wide range of people involved in the release of transgenic crops. These will include scientists and researchers in the initial stage of developing transgenic products, industrialists, and decision makers. It will be of particular interest to plant scientists taking up biotechnological approaches to agricultural improvement for developing nations.

Key Features

  • Discusses traditional and future technology for genetic modification
    * Compares conventional non-GM approaches and genetic modification
    * Presents a risk assessment methodology for GM techniques
    * Details mitigation techniques for human and environmental effects

Readership

plant scientists studying genetically modified crops; agricultural engineers; agronomists; researchers; industrialists; lawyers; students; regulators

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION
Conventional Approach
Improvement
Effects
Risk Assessment Methodologies
Technology

Chapter 2. RISK SOURCE CHARACTERISATION
Properties of donor organism
Properties of recipient organism
DNA
Selectable Markers

Chapter 3. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT
Release sites
Performance
Biological Properties
Impact on Human Health
Impact on Animals
Impact on the Environment
Case Studies

Chapter 4. RISK ASSESSMENT & RISK MANAGEMENT ? HUMAN HEALTH
Allergies
Unintentional Toxins
Resistance of Microbes to Antibiotics
Mitigation and Containment Approaches
Case Studies

Chapter 5. RISK ASSESSMENT & RISK MANAGEMENT ? ENVIRONMENT
Agricultural Environment
Peri-agricultural and ?natural? environment
Spread of Transgenes to non-GM crops
Gene Flow to Weeds and Feral Crop Species
Impact on Biodiversity of Crop Species and Wild Flora and Fauna
Generation of ?Superweeds?
Case Studies
Stewardship Procedures
Co-existence of GM and non-GM crops
Testing for GM
Modifying Agronomic Practices

Chapter 6. REGULATORY SYSTEMS
Current framework of GM regulation
International Conventions and Agreements
Major Regulatory Systems
Major Sources of Information.

Chapter 7 THE POLITICS OF GM TECHNOLOGY
Development of Regulation of GM Crops
Risk Perception
Understanding the Scientific Process
Bioethical Aspects
Roles of NGOs, the media and industry.

Chapter 8 THE FUTURE OF GM TECHNOLOGY
The Future of GM Products
Technology
Evolution of Regulatory Structures

Appendices
Further Reading List
Useful Internet Sites

Details

No. of pages:
256
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2009
Published:
7th July 2009
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080920764
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123741066

About the Authors

Roger Hull

Roger Hull

Roger Hull graduated in botany from Cambridge University and undertook his graduate studies in plant virus diagnostics and epidemiology at London University. He lectured on agricultural botany there and at Makerere University in Uganda. In 1965 he moved to fundamental studies of plant viruses, first at Cambridge in the United Kingdom and then at the John Innes Institute (now Centre) in Norwich. He spent a sabbatical year (1974) at University of California, Davis, where he learnt the fundamentals of the newly developing molecular biology technology. He applied to this to plant virus characterisation, diagnostics and virus control, especially in tropical crops such as rice and plantain bananas. He retired in 1997 but continued research, lecturing and book writing. Dr Hull was an honorary professor at University of East Anglia in the UK and Peking and Fudan Universities in China, a Doctoris Honoris Causa at the University of Perpignan in France, and a Fellow of the American Phytopathological Society. He has published over 250 peer-reviewed papers on plant virology and more than 40 reviews in scientific journals, and has authored five books. In retirement Roger Hull also became involved in promoting the uptake of transgenic technology by developing countries as one approach to alleviating food insecurity. He was on the International faculty of the e-learning diploma course training decision makers, mainly in developing countries, in plant biotechnology regulation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Retired from John Innes Centre, Norwich, United Kingdom

G. Tzotzos

George Tzotzos received his education in the UK where he obtained two PhD degrees at the University of Bristol (School of Chemistry) and the Open University (Dept. of Health, Life & Chemical Sciences). Until 2011, he worked at the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO). More recently, he was affiliated at the Vale Institute of Sustainable Development (Belém, PA, Brazil) as a principal researcher (pesquisador titular) in charge of the Biotechnology and Biodiversity research group. During his tenure at UNIDO, he established and managed an international biosafety training network with partners at the Universities of Concepción (Chile), Gent (Belgium), and Marche (Italy). He organised and taught in numerous GMO risk assessment workshops. His academic and publication records can be seen at: ORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9258-4338 Loop: https://loop.frontiersin.org/people/193663/publications

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Researcher, Biotechnology and Biodiversity Group, Vale Institute of Sustainable Development, Belém, PA, Brazil

Graham Head

Dr. Graham Head is the Global Head of Resistance Management at Bayer Crop Science in St Louis, MO. Graham received his B.Sc. Honours degree in Zoology from Monash University in Australia and his Ph.D. in Ecology and Population Genetics from Princeton University. He has spent 23 years working on agricultural biotechnologies first at Monsanto Company and now at Bayer Crop Science in a variety of roles ranging from Discovery to Regulatory Sciences. Two areas of focus throughout his career have been assessing the environmental impacts of biotechnology and designing effective resistance management strategies for agricultural pests. He has over 100 peer-reviewed publications and represents Bayer Crop Science on a number of industry expert groups.

Affiliations and Expertise

Bayer Crop Science (formerly Monsanto LLC), St. Louis, MO, United States

Reviews

"Overall, the authors have done a highly commendable job of compiling, organizing, and explaining in clear, unbiased language what is involved in getting a GM product through the current national and international regulatory schemes."     -- Professor Kent J. Bradford, Seed Biotechnology Center, University of California, Davis, CA, USA

Ratings and Reviews