Gene Regulatory Mechanisms in Development and Evolution: Insights from Echinoderms

Gene Regulatory Mechanisms in Development and Evolution: Insights from Echinoderms

1st Edition - January 17, 2022

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  • Editor: Charles A. Ettensohn
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128171882
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128171875

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Description

Sea urchins and other echinoderms, which have been studied intensively by developmental biologists for more than a century, are currently among the most prominent models for elucidating the genomic regulatory processes that control embryogenesis and the evolution of those processes.  This volume contains reviews from the world’s leading researchers who are using echinoderms to address these questions. Chapters focus on gene regulatory networks that drive the differentiation and morphogenesis of major embryonic tissues such as the skeleton, muscle, nervous system, immune system, pigment cells, and germ line, and on evolutionary insights from comparative studies of these networks across echinoderms and other taxa. Other chapters comprehensively review the architecture and evolution of the cell signaling pathways that establish the early embryonic axes and on recent evolutionary changes in gene networks that have led to dramatic changes in the life history modes of echinoderms. This volume provides a comprehensive, current picture of exciting research at the interface between developmental genomics and evolution from one of the research communities leading this work.

Key Features

  • Contributions from leading investigators who use echinoderms as model organisms
  • Up-to-date reviews of developmental gene regulatory networks
  • Current work at the interface between developmental genomics and evolution

Readership

Developmental biologists, evolutionary biologists

Table of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Chapter One: Perspectives on divergence of early developmental regulatory pathways: Insight from the evolution of echinoderm double negative gate
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Echinoderm mesoderm specification pathways
  • 3: Evolution of echinoderm double negative gate
  • 4: Stepwise and gradual modification behind the drastic divergence of hesC function
  • 5: Overview of early developmental innovations in other organisms
  • 6: Conclusions and further insights
  • References
  • Chapter Two: Development of a larval nervous system in the sea urchin
  • Abstract
  • 1: Development and anatomy of the sea urchin larval nervous system
  • 2: Patterning the anterior neurectoderm (ANE)
  • 3: Neurogenesis in the ANE
  • 4: Patterning the ciliary band domain
  • 5: Neural specification in and near the ciliary band
  • 6: Patterning the endomesoderm
  • 7: Specification of neurons originating along the gut
  • 8: A functional nervous system in the larva
  • 9: Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter Three: Post-transcriptional regulation of factors important for the germ line
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Multiple transcripts from the same gene
  • 3: The differential regulation of mRNAs encoding germline factors
  • 4: Translational regulation of the germ line and their factors
  • 5: Turnover of germline proteins
  • 6: What does all this mean in terms of the germline vs somatic cell fates?
  • References
  • Chapter Four: Extreme phenotypic divergence and the evolution of development
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Studying developmental evolution
  • 3: Life history and the evolution of development
  • 4: Evolution of developmental processes within Heliocidaris
  • 5: Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter Five: Lessons from a transcription factor: Alx1 provides insights into gene regulatory networks, cellular reprogramming, and cell type evolution
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: The alx1 gene and protein
  • 3: Alx1 and gene regulatory network (GRN) architecture
  • 4: Alx1 and other developmental and evolutionary processes
  • 5: Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter Six: Pigment cells: Paragons of cellular development
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Pigment cells are a distinct mesodermal lineage
  • 3: Pigment cell precursors transition to mesenchyme, migrate, and re-insert in epithelium
  • 4: Sp1 and NCAM
  • 5: Pigment cells and archenteron formation
  • 6: Localized maternal factors in the egg lead to short range signals that cause differentiation of pigment cells
  • 7: A network of interacting genes controls pigment cell differentiation
  • 8: Detailed descriptions of lineage specific genes provide insights into the enigmatic functions of pigment cells
  • 9: Pigment cells as immunocytes
  • 10: Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter Seven: Dorsal-ventral axis formation in sea urchin embryos
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: DV morphological differences during planktotrophic sea urchin embryogenesis
  • 3: Oxidase activity is related to the sea urchin dorsoventral axis
  • 4: Molecular mechanisms patterning the planktotrophic sea urchin DV axis
  • 5: DV patterning in lecithotrophic sea urchins
  • 6: Evolution of DV patterning in sea urchins
  • 7: Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter Eight: Micromere formation and its evolutionary implications in the sea urchin
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Micromere formation in the sea urchin embryo
  • 3: Unique properties of the micromere
  • 4: Mechanism of micromere formation through asymmetric cell division
  • 5: Unique transcriptional and translational activity of the micromere and its descendants
  • 6: Conclusions and perspectives
  • Acknowledgment
  • References

Product details

  • No. of pages: 250
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: January 17, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128171882
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128171875

About the Serial Volume Editor

Charles A. Ettensohn

Charles A. Ettensohn
Dr. Charles A. Ettensohn, Professor of Biological Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University (Pittsburgh, USA), is one of the world’s leading researchers using sea urchins and other echinoderms as experimental models to study mechanisms of embryogenesis. Over the past 30 years his laboratory has made major contributions to developmental biology. His current work focuses on the architecture, function, and evolution of developmental gene regulatory networks, with the overarching goal of elucidating the genetic control of anatomy. Dr. Ettensohn has authored more than 80 peer-reviewed articles, co-organized multiple international conferences on echinoderm development, and currently serves on the editorial boards of BMC Genomics, Genesis, and Faculty of 1000 (Biology).

Affiliations and Expertise

Charles A. Ettensohn, Professor of Biological Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University (Pittsburgh, USA)

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