Gene Activity in Early Development

Gene Activity in Early Development

2nd Edition - January 1, 1976

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  • Author: Eric H. Davidson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323161701

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Gene Activity in Early Development, Second Edition is devoted to gene activity in early development, considering the estimates of RNA and protein synthesis rates, complexities, and amounts. A quantitative treatment of some of the key classes of macromolecules in early embryos and oocytes is also offered. This edition is organized into eight chapters and begins with an overview of the variable gene activity theory of cell differentiation, emphasizing the transcription level regulation as the fundamental process underlying differentiation and development. The following chapters explore the genome regulation of embryogenesis, differential embryo cell function, and transcription and protein synthesis in early embryos. The reader is also introduced to direct measurements regarding the DNA sequences transcribed during early development and localization of morphogenetic determinants in egg cytoplasm. The book concludes with a discussion of the structure of lampbrush chromosomes and the synthesis of heterogeneous nuclear and messenger RNAs during oogenesis. This book will prove useful to students as well as established researchers interested in developmental genetics.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1 Introduction: The Variable Gene Activity Theory of Cell Differentiation

    Early Evidence for the Informational Equivalence of Differentiated Cell Genomes


    DNA Constancy and Nuclear Transplantation

    DNA Sequence Complements of Differentiated Cells Appear Identical

    Gene Amplification Cannot Explain Differentiation

    Direct Evidence for the Variable Gene Activity Theory of Cell Differentiation

    Only Minor Fractions of DNA Sequence Are Transcribed in Any Given Differentiated Cell Type

    Diverse Sets of Sequences Are Transcribed in Each Differentiated Cell Type

    Differentiated Cell Nuclei Contain Inactive (Nontranscribed) DNA

    Cytological Manifestations of Variable Genomic Activity

    Measurements of Specific Messenger RNA Accumulation

    Transcription Level Gene Regulation in Animal Cells

    Levels of Control

    DNA Sequence Organization and Transcription Level Regulation

    2 The Onset of Genome Control in Embryogenesis

    The First Species Hybrid Experiments and Their Conceptual Background

    Nineteenth Century Species Hybrid Experiments

    Origins of the Chromosome Theory of Cellular Inheritance

    Evidence for Delayed Onset of Embryo Genome Control from Echinoderm Species Hybrid Studies

    Morphogenesis in Echinoderm Species Hybrids

    Biosynthetic Processes in Echinoderm Species Hybrids

    Embryo Genome Control in the Development of Species Hybrids in Chordates

    Amphibian Hybrids

    Teleost and Ascidian Hybrids

    Interpretation of the Species Hybrid Experiments

    Development in Physically Enucleated Embryos

    "Chemical Enucleation": Development of Actinomycin-Treated Embryos

    Actinomycin Effects on Echinoderm Embryos

    Actinomycin Effects on Chordate Embryos

    Effects of Actinomycin and Other Treatments on Early Morphogenesis

    Delayed Morphogenetic Response to Experimental Treatments

    Interpretation of Morphogenetic Effects

    3 First Indices of Differential Embryo Cell Function

    Qualitative Changes in Patterns of Protein Synthesis Correlated with Developmental Stage

    Changes in Protein Synthesis Pattern Studied by High Resolution Gel Electrophoresis

    The Double Label Method

    Are Changes in Protein Synthesis Pattern in Early Embryos Post-transcriptional?

    First Morphological Indications of Differential Cell Function

    Intercellular Junctions in Early Embryos

    Other Early Cytodifferentiations

    Appearance of Histospecific Proteins

    Appearance of Histospecific Proteins before Organogenesis

    Differentiation of Primary Mesenchyme Cells in the Sea Urchin


    4 Quantitative Aspects of Protein Synthesis in Early Embryos: The Role of Maternal Components

    Absolute Rates of Protein Synthesis

    Free Amino Acid Pools in Sea Urchin Embryos

    Absolute Rates of Protein Synthesis in Sea Urchin Embryos

    Absolute Rates of Protein Synthesis in Amphibian Embryos

    Maternal Ribosomal and Transfer RNA’s

    Translational Capacities of Mature Oocytes and Early Cleavage Stage Embryos

    In Vitro Protein Synthesis on Embryo Ribosomes

    Injection of Exogenous Messenger RNA into Oocytes

    Direct Demonstration of Maternal Messenger RNA

    Protein Synthesis in Enucleated Egg Cytoplasm

    Isolation and Quantitation of Maternal Messenger RNA

    Postribosomal Particles Containing Maternal Messenger RNA

    Fertilization and the Utilization of Maternal Message in Sea Urchin Embryos

    Increase in Polysomes following Fertilization

    Mechanisms of Maternal Messenger RNA Mobilization

    Changes in Protein Synthesis Rate during Early Development in Other Organisms

    Variations in the Effect of Fertilization on Protein Synthesis Rate

    Relative Protein Synthesis Rates in Mammalian Embryos and in Hydrated Artemia Embryos

    Synthesis and Inheritance of Some Specific Embryonic Proteins

    Nucleosomes and the Requirement for Histones during Early Development

    Histone Gene Clusters in the Sea Urchin

    Quantitative Aspects of Histone Synthesis during Sea Urchin Embryogenesis

    Qualitative Alterations in Histone Synthesis during Early Development

    Quantitative Aspects of Histone Synthesis in Xenopus

    DNA Polymerases

    RNA Polymerases

    Microtubule Proteins

    5 Transcription in Early Embryos

    RNA Synthesis in Amphibian Embryos

    Accumulation of Labeled RNA Species

    RNA Synthesis and Turnover Kinetics for the Case of Constant Precursor Specific Activity

    Synthesis Rates and Steady State Quantities of the Heterogeneous RNAs of Xenopus Embryos

    Apparent Change in the Relative Rate of Nuclear RNA Synthesis at Blastula Stage

    Ribosomal RNA Synthesis in Xenopus Embryos

    Mitochondrial RNA Synthesis in Xenopus Embryos

    Transcriptional Rates and Patterns in Sea Urchin Embryos

    The Heterogeneous Nuclear RNA of Sea Urchin Embryos

    Synthesis and Decay Kinetics of Heterogeneous Nuclear RNA in Sea Urchin Embryos

    Synthesis and Decay Kinetics for a Case of Changing Precursor Specific Activity: Calculation of Messenger RNA Synthesis Rates

    Classes of Messenger RNA in Sea Urchin Embryos

    Mitochondrial RNA Synthesis in Sea Urchin Embryos

    Synthesis of Ribosomal and Transfer RNA in Sea Urchin Embryos

    Transcription in Mammalian Embryos

    Ribosomal RNA Synthesis in Early Mammalian Embryos

    Synthesis of Heterogeneous RNAs in Mammalian Embryos

    Transfer RNA Synthesis and Messenger RNA Synthesis in Mammalian Embryos

    RNA Synthesis in the Embryos of Other Species

    Ribosomal RNA Synthesis in Various Embryos

    Generalization and a Paradox Regarding Classes of Newly Synthesized Embryonic RNA

    6 RNA Sequence Complexity and Structural Gene Transcription in Early Embryos

    Sequence Complexity and the Quantitative Analysis of Renaturation Experiments

    Definition of Sequence Complexity

    Basic Relations between Renaturation Rate Constant and Sequence Complexity

    Renaturation of Repetitive Sequences

    Kinetics of Disappearance of Single Strand Nucleotides and RNA Hybridization in DNA Excess

    RNA Excess Hybridization Kinetics

    Sequence Complexity of Oocyte RNA

    Single Copy Sequence Complexity of Oocyte RNA’s

    Complexity of Repetitive Sequence Transcripts in Oocyte RNA

    Oocyte Repetitive Sequence Transcripts in Early Embryos

    Repetitive and Nonrepetitive Sequence Transcripts in the Newly Synthesized RNAs of Early Embryos

    Absence of Detectable Interspersed Repetitive Sequence Transcripts in Messenger RNA

    Interspersed Repetitive Sequence Transcripts in Embryo Nuclear RNA

    The Complexity of Embryo Nuclear RNA and Developmental Changes in the Pattern of Nuclear RNA Transcription

    Complexity of Mammalian Embryo RNA

    Complexity of Repetitive Sequences Transcribed during Embryogenesis

    Competition Hybridization Experiments with Embryo RNA’s

    The Complexity of Polysomal Messenger RNA in Early Embryos

    Complexity of Polysomal Messenger RNA in Sea Urchin Gastrulae

    Prevalent and Complex Classes of Embryo Messenger RNA

    Changes in Structural Gene Sets Active at Various Stages of Sea Urchin Development

    7 Localization of Morphogenetic Determinants in Egg Cytoplasm

    Classical Definition of the Localization Phenomenon

    Embryo Cell Lineage

    Morphogenetic Potentialities of Isolated Blastomeres and Sets of Blastomeres

    Localization in the Eggs of Ctenophores

    Localization of Determinants for Comb Plate Cilia

    Localization of Determinants for Photocyte Differentiation

    Cytoplasmic Localization in the Eggs of Ilyanassa and Certain Other Molluscs

    Classic Experiments on the Morphogenetic Significance of Polar Lobe Cytoplasm

    Morphogenetic Determinants in the Polar Lobe Cytoplasm of Ilyanassa Eggs

    Cytological Observations on Polar Lobes

    Effects of Polar Lobe Removal on Macromolecular Biosynthesis

    Does the Polar Lobe Contain a Specific Set of Maternal Messenger RNA's?

    Localization of Germ Cell Determinants

    Classic Experiments on Localization of Germ Cell Determinants

    Evidence for Germ Cell Determinants in Amphibian Eggs

    Polar Granules in Amphibian Eggs

    Evidence for Germ Cell Determinants in Drosophila Eggs

    Polar Granules in Drosophila Eggs

    A Phylogenetic Survey: How Universal Is Cytoplasmic Localization?

    Failure to Demonstrate Precise Cytoplasmic Localizations in Eggs of a Turbellarian Flatworm

    Localization in Cephalopod Molluscs

    Localization in Dipteran Insects

    Cytoplasmic Localization in Sea Urchin Eggs

    Localization of Capacity to Form Histospecific Enzymes in Ascidian Embryos

    Localization of Axial Determinants in Amphibian Egg Cytoplasm

    Absence of Evidence for Cytoplasmic Localization in Mammalian Eggs

    Phylogenetic Summary

    Interpretations of the Localization Phenomenon

    Classic Theories of Cytoplasmic Localization in Eggs

    "Regulative" and "Mosaic" Eggs

    Gradual Establishment of Localization Patterns

    Lability of Cytoplasmic Localization Patterns

    Tentative Conclusions and Speculations

    8 Lampbrush Chromosomes and the Synthesis of Heterogeneous Nuclear and Messenger RNA's during Oogenesis

    Structure and Transcription in the Lampbrush Chromosomes of Amphibian Oocytes

    DNA Content and Structure of Lampbrush Chromosomes

    Specificity of Lampbrush Chromosome Loops

    DNA Content of Lampbrush Chromosome Loops

    Transcription Units in Lampbrush Chromosomes

    Estimates of Complexity and Synthesis Rate for Lampbrush Chromosome RNA from Structural Evidence

    The Occurrence of Lampbrush Chromosomes

    Stages of Oogenesis and Duration of the Lampbrush Phase in Amphibians

    Phylogenese Occurrence of Lampbrush Chromosomes and General Conclusions

    Meroistic Oogenesis in Insects and the Role of Germ-Line Gene Expression

    Accessory Cell Functions in Meroistic Oogenesis

    Structure and Origin of Nurse Cell-Oocyte Complexes in Holometabolous Insects

    Synthesis of Oocyte RNA in Nurse Cells

    Chromosomal Elements Containing DNA Used Only for Gametogenesis

    Analogies between Oocyte Lampbrush Chromosome Loops and Lampbrush Loops in Drosophila Spermatocytes

    Synthesis of Ribosomal and Transfer RNAs in the Oocyte Nucleus

    Low Molecular Weight Stable RNA’s

    Amplification of Genes for 18 S and 28 S Ribosomal RNA’s

    Synthesis Rates for Ribosomal RNA in Amphibian Oocytes

    Lampbrush Chromosomes and the Synthesis of Heterogeneous Nuclear RNA and Messenger RNA during Oogenesis

    Character of Lampbrush Chromosome RNA

    Heterogeneous Nuclear RNAs Synthesized in Mature Oocyte Nuclei

    Complexity of Oocyte Nuclear RNA’s

    Heterogeneous Repetitive Sequence Transcripts Accumulated in Lampbrush Stage Oocytes

    Synthesis and Accumulation of Messenger RNA's during Oogenesis

    Examples of Structural Gene Products Translated during Oogenesis and Required in Embryogenesis

    Is the Main Function of Lampbrush Chromosomes the Synthesis of Maternal Messenger RNA Precursors?



Product details

  • No. of pages: 468
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1976
  • Published: January 1, 1976
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323161701

About the Author

Eric H. Davidson

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