Gas Separation by Adsorption Processes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780409900040, 9781483162669

Gas Separation by Adsorption Processes

1st Edition

Authors: Ralph T. Yang
eBook ISBN: 9781483162669
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 19th January 1987
Page Count: 632
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Description

Gas Separation by Adsorption Processes provides a thorough discussion of the advancement in gas adsorption process. The book is comprised of eight chapters that emphasize the fundamentals concept and principles. The text first covers the adsorbents and adsorption isotherms, and then proceeds to detailing the equilibrium adsorption of gas mixtures. Next, the book covers rate processes in adsorbers and adsorber dynamics. The next chapter discusses cyclic gas separation processes, and the remaining two chapters cover pressure-swing adsorption. The book will be of great use to students, researchers, and practitioners of disciplines that involve gas separation processes, such as chemical engineering.

Table of Contents


Preface

1. Introductory Remarks

1.1 Criteria for When to Use Adsorption Processes

1.2 Categorizations of Adsorptive Separation Processes

1.2.1 Based on Method of Adsorbent Regeneration

1.2.2 Based on Feed Composition

1.2.3 Based on Mechanism of Separation

1.3 Current Status and Future Prospects

2. Adsorbents and Adsorption Isotherms

2.1 Industrial Sorbents

2.1.1 Activated Carbon

2.1.2 Molecular-Sieve Carbon

2.1.3 Activated Alumina

2.1.4 Silica Gel

2.1.5 Zeolites

2.1.6 Selection of Sorbent

2.2 Equilibrium Adsorption of Single Gases

2.2.1 Three Approaches for Isotherm Models

2.2.2 Physical Adsorption Forces

2.2.3 Isotherms Based on the Langmuir Approach

2.2.4 Isotherms Based on the Gibbs Approach

2.2.5 The Potential Theory

3. Equilibrium Adsorption of Gas Mixtures

3.1 Langmuir-Type Equations and Correlation

3.1.1 Extended Langmuir Equation

3.1.2 Loading Ratio Correlation

3.1.3 Other Theories

3.2 The Potential-Theory Approach

3.2.1 Direct Extension of the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) Equation

3.2.2 Theoretical Basis for the Lewis Relationship

3.2.3 The Model of Grant and Manes

3.3 Other Thermodynamic Models

3.3.1 The Method of Lewis et al. for Binary Mixtures

3.3.2 The Method of Cook and Basmadjian for Binary Mixtures

3.3.3 The Adsorbed Solution Theory of Myers and Prausnitz

3.3.4 Nonideal Adsorbed Solution Models: Predictions of Activity Coefficients

3.3.5 Vacancy Solution Theory

3.3.6 Two-Dimensional Gas Model

3.3.7 Simplified Statistical Thermodynamic Model of Ruthven

3.3.8 Lattice Solution Model of Lee

3.3.9 Law-of-Mass-Action Models

3.4 Comparison of Models and Experiments

3.4.1 Comparison between Literature Data and Models

3.4.2 Comparison and Use of Models

3.5 Experimental Techniques

3.5.1 Constant-Volume Method

3.5.2 Dynamic Method

3.5.3 Gravimetric Method

3.5.4 Chromatographic Methods

4. Rate Process in Adsorbers

4.1 Governing Equations for Adsorbers

4.2 Transport Processes in Adsorbers

4.2.1 External Transport Processes: Film Coefficients

4.2.2 Internal (Intraparticle) Transport Processes

4.2.3 Dispersion in Packed Beds

4.3 Linear Driving Force and Other Approximations for Mass Transfer Rate

4.3.1 Applicability to Various Isotherms under Adsorber Conditions

4.3.2 Application of LDF to Cyclic Processes

4.3.3 Parabolic Concentration Profile within Particle

5. Adsorber Dynamics: Bed Profiles and Breakthrough Curves

5.1 Equilibrium Theory: Isothermal, Single-Sorbate

5.1.1 Shapes of Isotherms

5.1.2 Velocity of Concentration Front

5.1.3 Breakthrough Curves

5.1.4 Effects of Axial Dispersion

5.2 Nonequilibrium Theory: Isothermal, Single-Sorbate

5.2.1 The Rosen Model

5.2.2 The Thomas Model

5.2.3 Model for Zeolites

5.2.4 Other Models 156

5.3 Asymptotic (Constant-Pattern) Solutions

5.4 Nonisothermal or Adiabatic Adsorption

5.5 Desorption

5.5.1 Conditions for Regeneration with Cold Purge

5.5.2 Characteristic Purge Gas Temperature

5.5.3 Minimum Desorption Time and Gas Consumption

5.6 Multicomponent Adsorption and Desorption

5.6.1 Isothermal Equilibrium Theory

5.6.2 Adiabatic Equilibrium Theory

5.6.3 Nonequilibrium Systems and Conclusions

6. Cyclic Gas Separation Processes

6.1 Sorbent Regeneration

6.2 Temperature-Swing Adsorption and Inert Purge Cycle

6.2.1 Equilibrium-Theory Calculations

6.2.2 Nonequilibrium Models

6.2.3 Empirical Heat Transfer Model for Regeneration

6.2.4 Isothermal Inert Purge Cycle

6.3 Chromatography

6.4 Moving-Bed and Simulated Moving-Bed Processes

6.4.1 Hypersorption

6.4.2 Simulated Moving-Bed Process: Sorbex

6.5 Parametric Pumping and Cycling Zone Adsorption

6.5.1 Thermal Parametric Pumping

6.5.2 Pressure Parametric Pumping: Molecular Gate

6.5.3 Thermal Cycling Zone Adsorption

6.5.4 Pressure Cycling Zone Adsorption

7. Pressure-Swing Adsorption: Principles and Processes

7.1 Basic Concepts and Developments

7.1.1 Skarstrom Cycle and Guerin-Domine Cycle

7.1.2 Cocurrent Depressurization

7.1.3 Pressure Equalization

7.1.4 Pretreatment Beds

7.1.5 Purge by Strong Adsorptive

7.1.6 Temperature Equalization and Other Developments

7.2 Commercial Processes

7.2.1 Air Drying

7.2.2 Hydrogen Purification

7.2.3 Bulk Separation of Normal Paraffins

7.2.4 Air Separation: Oxygen Generation

7.2.5 Air Separation: Nitrogen Generation

8. Pressure-Swing Adsorption: Models and Experiments

8.1 Models for Skarstrom Cycle

8.1.1 Analytic Model

8.1.2 Numerical Models: Isothermal

8.1.3 Adsorption and Desorption during Pressure-Changing Steps

8.1.4 Other Numerical Models

8.2 Models for PSA-Parametric Pumping

8.2.1 Analytic Model

8.2.2 Numerical Models

8.3 Multibed Process for Bulk Separation of Binary and Multicomponent Mixtures

8.3.1 Experimental Method

8.3.2 Equilibrium Model, LDF Model, and Pore-Diffusion Model

8.3.3 Bulk PSA Separations

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
632
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1987
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483162669

About the Author

Ralph T. Yang