I. Introduction. II. Dust Explosions. Fundamentals. The strong effect of confinement. Scaling. Model analysis. Correlation with existing data and analysis. Discussion of the scaling law. Testing methods. Hartmann apparatus. Hartmann pressure bomb. Intermediate-scale vessels. Cubic meter vessels. Large scale testing. Other special apparati. Problems in testing. Control methods. Venting, small to intermediate scale. Venting, large scale. Inerting. Deluge. Suppression. Dust explosions in grain elevators. Case histories. The National Academy of Sciences study, and some recommendations. Closure. III. Reactive Gas Explosions. Terminology: explosion, deflagration detonation. Differences between deflagration and detonation. Turbulent flame propagation. Organization of chapter. Scaling. Scaling of vented gas deflagrations. Scaling of blast wave, from reactive gas explosions. Basic properties of slow burns in gaseous systems. Heat of combustion. Laminar burning velocity. Flammability limits. Autoignition temperature. Ignition energy and quenching distance. Confined and vented gaseous deflagrations. Unvented gas deflagrations. Vented gas deflagrations. Detonation fundamentals. Determination of detonation parameters. Direct initiation of a detonation wave. The mechanism of direct initiation of detonation. Source characteristics. Detonation structure and dynamic parameters. Deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). Unconfined vapor cloud explosions (UVCEs). Direct initiation of an unconfined detonation. The direct initiation of methane-air mixtures. Direct initiation of hydrogen-air detonations. Blast effects produced by unconfined gas deflagrations. Spherical flame model by Strehlow et al. TNO hemisphere model. The multi-energy method. Blast effects produced by vapor cloud detonations. Experimental investigation on flame acceleration. IV. Hybrid Explosions. Fundamentals. Scaling. Test methods. Control methods. Closure.
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- © 1991
27th August 1991
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@qu:... an excellent treatise on the subject..
@source:Journal of Loss Prevention Process