Gap Junctions in the Brain

Gap Junctions in the Brain

Physiological and Pathological Roles

1st Edition - August 30, 2012

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  • Editor: Ekrem Dere
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124159013
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124159273

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Description

Gap junctions between glial cells or neurons are ubiquitously expressed in the mammalian brain and play a role in brain development including cell differentiation, cell migration and survival, and tissue homeostasis, as well as in human diseases including hearing loss, neuropathies, epilepsy, brain trauma, and cardiovascular disease. This volume provides neuroscience researchers and students with a single source for information covering the physiological, behavioral and pathophysiological roles of gap junctions in the brain. In addition, the book also discusses human disease conditions associated with mutations in single gap junction connexion genes, making it applicable to clinicians doing translational research. Finally, it includes reviews of pharmacological studies with gap junction blockers and openers, summarizing information obtained from phenotyping gap junctions mouse mutants.

Key Features

  • Serves as the most current and comprehensive reference available covering the physiological, behavioral and pathophysiological roles of gap junctions in the brain
  • Chapters summarize knowledge of the basic physiology of gap junctions in the brain, as well as of human disease conditions associated with mutations in single gap junction connexin genes
  • Includes reviews of pharmacological studies with gap junction blockers and openers, summarizing information obtained from phenotyping gap junctions mouse mutants

Readership

Researchers in neuroscience, neuropsychology, psychiatry and biology

Table of Contents

  • About the Editor

    List of Contributors

    PART I: The Physiology of Gap Junctions in the Brain

    Chapter 1. Gap Junctions in the Brain

    Introduction

    Structural Aspects of Gap Junctions

    Types of Gap Junction

    Cellular and Brain Regional Expression Patterns of Specific Connexins

    Gap Junction Pharmacology

    Synchronization and Rhythmic Oscillation of Neural Activity

    Gap Junction-Related Human Diseases

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 2. Physiology and Function of Glial Gap Junctions in the Hippocampus

    The Connexin Gene Family

    Intercellular Communication Mediated By Connexins

    Hemichannel Functions of Connexins

    Non-Channel Functions of Connexins

    Expression Pattern of Glial Connexins in the Hippocampus: Molecular, Subcellular and Cellular Heterogeneity

    Heterocellular Coupling and Panglial Coupling Compartments

    Functions of Glial Gap Junctions: Controlling Neurogenesis and Neuronal Activity

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    PART II: Gap Junctions Between Astrocytes, Neurons, and Glia–Neuron Interactions

    Chapter 3. Pathophysiology of Gap Junctions in the Brain

    Introduction

    Gap Junctions: Nomenclature and General Properties

    Gap Junction Coupling in the Brain

    Cell-Specific Expression of Connexins in Brain Tissues

    Modulation and Regulation of Electrical Synapses

    Neurotransmitter Modulation and Connexin Phosphorylation

    Gap Junction-Related Neurological Diseases

    Gap Junctions and Behavior

    Pharmacology of Gap Junctions

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 4. Astroglial Calcium Signaling and Calcium Waves

    Introduction

    Glial Calcium Excitability

    Astroglia: Homeostatic Cells of the Brain

    Calcium Signaling in Astrocytes

    Astroglial Calcium Waves

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 5. Distribution and Function of Gap Junction Coupling in Cortical GABAergic Neurons

    Neuronal Gap Junctions and Connexins

    A Premise on Inferior Olive Excitatory Neurons: a Privileged Site in the Study of Neuronal Gap Junctions in Mammals

    Connexin36, Gap Junctions and Electrical Coupling in Neocortical Gabaergic Neurons

    Connexin36, Gap Junctions and Electrical Coupling in Hippocampal Gabaergic Interneurons

    Functional Properties of Connexin36 and Connexin36-Based Gap Junctions and their Role in Gabaergic Interneuronal Networks

    REFERENCES

    PART III: The Role of Gap Junctions in Brain Development

    Chapter 6. Functions of Gap Junctions in the Developing Neocortex

    Introduction

    Gap Junctions, Connexons, Connexins and their Distribution in Neocortical Neural Cell Types

    Role of Gap Junctions in the Ventricular Zone and during Migration of Neurons

    Role of Gap Junctions in the Subplate

    Gap Junctions between Neocortical Gabaergic Inhibitory Interneurons

    Gap Junctions between Immature Neocortical Pyramidal Cells

    Gap Junctions between Neocortical Glial Cells

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    PART IV: Gap Junctions and Neuronal Synchronization

    Chapter 7. Involvement of Gap Junctions in the Generation of the Hippocampal Formation Theta Rhythm in Rats

    Introduction

    Gap Junctions, Oscillations and Synchrony

    Oscillations and Synchrony in the Limbic Cortex In Vivo

    Oscillations and Synchrony in the Limbic Cortex In Vitro

    Gap Junctions and Theta Oscillations in Rat In Vitro Hippocampal Formation Slices

    Gap Junctions and Theta Oscillations in Rat Ex Vivo Hippocampal Formation Slices

    Gap Junctions and Hippocampal Theta Oscillations in Rat In Vivo Preparation

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 8. Gap Junctions and Neuronal Synchronization in the Olivocerebellar System

    Introduction

    Gap Junctions Between Olivary Cells

    Gap Junctions Between Molecular Interneurons

    Gap Junctions Between Golgi Cells

    Gap Junctions and Purkinje Cells

    Gap Junctions in Cerebellar and Vestibular Nuclei

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    PART V: Gap Junctions and Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Diseases

    Chapter 9. Gap Junctions in the Basal Ganglia

    Introduction

    Distribution of Gap Junctions in Basal Ganglia Nuclei

    Putative Roles of Gap Junctions in Basal Ganglia Neuronal Networks

    Gap Junctional Communication in Basal Ganglia Pathologies

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 10. Connexin Mutations in Pelizaeus–Merzbacher-Like Disease, Oculodentodigital Dysplasia and Related Diseases

    Introduction

    Disease Manifestations of GJC2 Mutations

    Disease Manifestations of GJA1 Mutations

    Connexins Expressed by Astrocytes and Oligodendrocytes

    Roles of Glial Connexins in Central Nervous System Glia

    Pathogenesis of Connexin47-Associated Diseases

    Pathogenesis of Connexin43-Associated Diseases

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 11. Gap Junctions in Cerebellar Development and Pathology

    Introduction

    A Brief Primer on Anatomical and Developmental Aspects of the Cerebellum

    Gap Junctions in the Cerebellum

    Connexin-Linked Cerebellar Pathologies

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 12. Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease

    Introduction

    Clinical and Pathological Features of X-Linked Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease

    Genetics and Neurobiology of X-Linked Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease

    Therapeutic Challenges and Perspectives in X-Linked Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 13. Gap Junctions Regulate Seizure Activity – But in Unexpected Ways

    Introduction

    Gap Junction Structure and Distribution of Connexin Subtypes

    Experimental Studies Investigating Gap Junction Regulation of Seizure Activity

    Mathematical Models of Gap Junction Effects

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 14. Gap Junction-Mediated Neuroprotection

    Introduction

    Are Gap Junctions Protective or Destructive?

    Channel Mechanisms of Neuroprotection or Neuronal Injury

    Non-Channel Mechanisms

    Cellular Mechanisms

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    PART VI: Gap Junctions and Behavior

    Chapter 15. Possible Actions of Gap Junctional Coupling in Reward-Seeking Behaviors

    Introduction

    Changes in Gap Junctional Communication Associated with Changes in Nervous System Activity

    Changes in Gap Junctional Communication Associated with Changes in Behavior

    Changes in Gap Junctional Communication Associated with Changes in Reward-Seeking and Addictive Behaviors

    From Correlations to Mechanisms

    Conclusion

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 16. Behavioral Pharmacology of Gap Junctions

    Properties of Gap Junction Blockers

    Physiological Effects of Gap Junction Blockers Relevant to Behavior

    Behavioral Effects of Gap Junction Blockers

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 17. Behavioral Genetics of Gap Junctions

    Introduction

    Learning and Memory

    Motor Function

    Emotional Behavior

    Addictive Behavior

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    REFERENCES

    Color Plates

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 304
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: August 30, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124159013
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124159273

About the Editor

Ekrem Dere

Ekrem Dere is full professor for the Pathophysiology of Cerebral Aging at the Pierre et Marie Curie University in Paris, France. His former team at the University in Düsseldorf, Germany, has provided the first behavioral evidence demonstrating that gap junctions in the brain play an important role in various behavioral processes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Physiological Psychology, University of Düsseldorf, Germany

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