G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Energy Homeostasis and Obesity Pathogenesis

G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Energy Homeostasis and Obesity Pathogenesis

1st Edition - January 10, 2013
  • Editor: Ya-Xiong Tao
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123869333
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123869524

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Description

Obesity is an epidemic with enormous health, economic and social burdens. Current drugs for obesity treatment are far from ideal in terms of efficacy and side effects. Reviews in this volume of Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science summarize current status in studies of a number of G protein-coupled receptors that were shown to be promising targets for obesity treatments. Some of these receptors also cause monogenic obesity in humans.

Key Features

  • Subject matter: obesity is an epidemic and G protein-coupled receptors are promising drug targets, with significant potential as new anti-obesity drugs
  • Chapters are written by leading experts

Readership

Molecular biologists and researchers in fields related to translational science

Table of Contents

  • Contributors

    Preface

    Chapter One. G Protein-Coupled Receptors as Regulators of Energy Homeostasis

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction to G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    2 Obesity and Current Treatments

    3 Regulation of Energy Homeostasis in the Central Nervous System

    4 Regulation of Energy Homeostasis by the GI Peptides

    5 Regulation of Energy Homeostasis by Peptides from Endocrine Pancreas

    6 Regulation of Energy Homeostasis by Orphan GPCRs

    7 Regulation of Energy Homeostasis by GPCRs in Domestic Animals

    8 Regulation of Energy Homeostasis by GPCRs in Lower Vertebrates

    9 Genetics of Human Obesity

    10 Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Two. Ghrelin Receptor in Energy Homeostasis and Obesity Pathogenesis

    1 Overview of the Ghrelin Receptor

    2 The Ghrelin Receptor and Energy Metabolism

    3 Strategies for Treatment of Obesity and Diabetes

    4 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Three. Obestatin Receptor in Energy Homeostasis and Obesity Pathogenesis

    1 Two Proposed Obestatin Receptors

    2 Obestatin and its Receptor(s) in Energy Homeostasis

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Four. Melanocortin-3 Receptors and Metabolic Homeostasis

    1 Introduction

    2 The “Leptin-Melanocortin” Pathway: A Canonical Pathway Linking Energy Stores with Neural Outputs Regulating Adaptation to Energy Requirements

    3 The Central Nervous Melanocortin System

    4 Cloning of the Melanocortin Receptors

    5 Melanocortin-3 Receptors in Metabolic Homeostasis

    6 Conclusions and Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Five. Melanocortin-4 Receptor in Energy Homeostasis and Obesity Pathogenesis

    1 The Melanocortin-4 Receptor Gene (MC4R)

    2 From Rodent MC4R Models to Human Obesity

    3 Mutations in the MC4R Confer a Major Gene Effect for the Development of Obesity

    4 Phenotypes Detected in MC4R Mutation Carriers

    5 MC4R Mutations in Population-Based Study Groups

    6 Functional Analyses

    7 Nonsynonymous MC4R Polymorphisms that Confer Protection from Obesity

    8 Genome-Wide Association Studies: SNPs Downstream of the MC4R Gene

    9 Synthetic Association at the MC4R Locus?

    10 Relevance of MC4R Mutations for Phenotypes Related to Body Weight Regulation

    11 Therapeutic Implications for MC4R Mutation Carriers

    12 Conclusions and Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Six. G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor in Energy Homeostasis and Obesity Pathogenesis

    Abbreviations

    1 Introduction

    2 Estrogen Signaling: Estrogens and ERs

    3 Estrogenic Action in the Brain: Central Regulation of Energy Homeostasis

    4 Estrogen Action in Adipose Tissue: Regulation of Lipogenesis/Lipolysis and Adiposity

    5 Estrogens Interact with Leptin

    6 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Seven. Free Fatty Acid Receptor GPR120 and Pathogenesis of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    1 Introduction

    2 Molecular Cloning and Localization of GPR120

    3 Physiology of GPR120

    4 Pharmacology of the GPR120

    5 GPR120 Mutations in Human Obesity

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter Eight. The Role of Cholecystokinin Receptors in the Short-Term Control of Food Intake

    1 Control of Food Intake: A General Overview

    2 CCK: Historical Prospective

    3 Molecular Forms of CCK

    4 CCK Receptors

    5 Physiological Responses Evoked by CCK

    6 The Role of CCK1 Receptors in the Short-Term Control of Food Intake by CCK

    7 CCK: Mechanism of Action

    8 Interaction Between CCK and Other Satiety Peptides

    9 The Possible Role of the ENS of the Gut in the Short-Term Regulation of Food Intake by CCK

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter Nine. Adiponectin Receptors in Energy Homeostasis and Obesity Pathogenesis

    1 Introduction

    2 Expression

    3 Physiology

    4 Signaling Pathways

    5 Regulation by Leptin and Insulin

    6 Regulation by Steroid Hormones

    7 Pathology

    8 Conclusion and Future Studies

    References

    Chapter Ten. The Role of Bombesin and Bombesin-Related Peptides in the Short-term Control of Food Intake

    1 Introduction

    2 Historical Perspective

    3 Distribution of Bombesin and Bombesin-Related Peptides

    4 Physiological Responses Evoked by Bombesin and Bombesin-Related Peptides

    5 Bombesin and Bombesin-Related Peptides Receptors

    6 The Role of Bombesin and Bombesin-Related Peptides in the Short-Term Control of Food Intake

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 400
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: January 10, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123869333
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123869524

About the Serial Volume Editor

Ya-Xiong Tao

Dr. Ya-Xiong Tao is currently Associate Professor of Physiology at Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine in Auburn, Alabama, USA. He has been working on several G protein-coupled receptors, including gonadotropin receptors regulating reproduction, and melanocortin receptors regulating energy and glucose homeostasis. He has published extensively in peer-reviewed biomedical journals and obtained funding for his research from National Institutes of Health, American Diabetes Association and American Heart Association, among others. He has delivered numerous lectures at universities and research institutes in USA. Canada, and China. He is visiting or guest professors at four universities and research institute in China. He has edited four volumes in Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science and is editing a volume of Advances in Pharmacology. He teaches several courses, including Physiology, Receptorology, and Molecular Endocrinology, for veterinarian and graduate students.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL, USA