Future Energy - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780080994246, 9780080994222

Future Energy

2nd Edition

Improved, Sustainable and Clean Options for our Planet

Editors: Trevor Letcher
eBook ISBN: 9780080994222
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080994246
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 13th December 2013
Page Count: 738
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Description

As the demand for global energy increases, fact-based evaluations of alternative energy sources are needed in order to address the growing interest in how energy is produced, provided, and transported in sustainable ways. Future Energy, Second Edition provides scientists and decision makers with the knowledge they need to understand the relative importance and magnitude of various energy production methods in order to make the energy decisions needed for sustaining development and dealing with climate change. The second edition of Future Energy looks at the present energy situation and extrapolates to future scenarios related to global warming and the increase of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This thoroughly revised and updated edition contains over 30 chapters on all aspects of future energy, each chapter updated and expanded by expert scientists and engineers in their respective fields providing an unbiased and balanced view of the future of energy.

Key Features

  • Provides readers with an up-to-date overview of available energy options, both traditional and renewable, as well as the necessary tools to make informed decisions regarding selection, use, and environmental impacts.
  • Covers a wide spectrum of future energy resources presented in a single book with chapters written by experts of the particular field
  • Eleven new chapters including chapters on: solar heating, energy resources in developing nations and frontiers in oil and gas, Arctic drilling and unconventional oil and gas sources, thorium in nuclear fission, ethanol and other options for future transport fuel, fracking, smart grids, new batteries, environmental issues and the energy options for China

Readership

Students, professionals and researchers in energy engineering and the energy industry, as well as policymakers in government

Table of Contents

Preface

List of Contributors

Part I: Introduction

Chapter 1. Introduction with a Focus on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change

1.1 Why is it Important to Consider Our Future Energy Options?

1.2 The Need for a Sustainable, Safe and Non-polluting Energy Source

1.3 Climate Change

1.4 Atmospheric Pollution and Climate Change

1.5 What are Our Options for Electricity Generation?

1.6 What are Our Options for Transport Fuel?

1.7 The Situation in the World Today

1.8 How Can We Reduce the Stranglehold of Fossil Fuels?

References

Part II: Fossil Fuels (Energy Sources)

Chapter 2. Conventional Oil and Gas

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

2.3 Hydrocarbon Recovery, Reserves, Production and Consumption

2.4 Global Warming and the Hydrocarbon Economy

2.5 Conclusion

References

Chapter 3. Coal Processing and Use for Power Generation

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Coal Reserves, Production and Use

3.3 Coal Properties

3.4 Processing of Coal Before Combustion

3.5 Clean Coal Technologies

3.6 Role of Coal in the Energy Mix for the Future

3.7 Conclusions

References

Chapter 4. Frontier Oil and Gas: Deep-Water and the Arctic

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Deep-Water

4.3 Arctic

4.4 Clathrate Hydrates

4.5 Geothermal-Geopressurised Natural Gas

References

Chapter 5. Unconventional Oil and Gas: Oilsands

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Bitumen Production from Oilsands

5.3 Transport Fuel Production from Bitumen

5.4 Bitumen Characterisation

5.5 Bitumen Upgrading Processes

5.6 Future of Oilsands

References

Chapter 6. Shale-Hosted Hydrocarbons and Hydraulic Fracturing

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Shale-Hosted Hydrocarbons

6.3 Extraction Methods

6.4 The Future of Shale-Hosted Hydrocarbons: Production Projections

6.5 Conclusions

References

Chapter 7. Coal Bed Methane: Reserves, Production and Future Outlook

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Properties and Origin of Coal Bed Gas

7.3 CBM Availability and Production

7.4 Drilling and Extraction Techniques

7.5 Environmental Issues of CBM Extraction

7.6 Future Outlook

References

Chapter 8. Methane Hydrates

8.1 Background

8.2 Estimates of Gas Hydrate Resources

8.3 Gas Hydrate Exploration

8.4 Gas Hydrate Production Technology

8.5 Conclusions

References

Part III: Nuclear Power (Energy Sources)

Chapter 9. Nuclear Fission

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Nuclear Reactor Technology

9.3 Managing Irradiated Fuel

9.4 Thorium as an Alternative Fuel

9.5 Practicalities of Nuclear Energy

9.6 Conclusions

References

Chapter 10. Nuclear Fusion

10.1 What is Nuclear Fusion

10.2 Desirable Characteristics of Fusion Power

10.3 Why Fusion Power is Difficult

10.4 Approaches to Fusion Reactors

10.5 Economics of Fusion Energy

10.6 Prospects for Fusion Energy

References

Part IV: Transport Energy (Energy Sources)

Chapter 11. Biofuels for Transport

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Biofuels for Transport

11.3 Biofuels in the World Today

11.4 Biofuel Policies and Perspectives

11.5 Sustainability Challenges

11.6 Scientific Challenges and Opportunities

11.7 Perspectives and Conclusions

References

Chapter 12. Transport Fuel: Biomass-, Coal-, Gas- and Waste-to-Liquids Processes

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Overview of Alternative Carbon Feed-to-Liquid (XTL) Processes

12.3 Direct Liquefaction

12.4 Indirect Liquefaction

12.5 Environmental Footprint of Liquefaction

12.6 Future Energy

References

Chapter 13. Transport Fuel – LNG and Methane

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Sources of Natural Gas

13.3 Natural Gas Extraction

13.4 Natural Gas Reserves

13.5 Utilisation of Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel

13.6 Regional Trends in NGVs

13.7 Prospects for the Future Use of Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel

13.8 Conclusions

References

Part V: Transport Energy (Energy Storage)

Chapter 14. Transport Energy – Lithium Ion Batteries

14.1 Background

14.2 Lithium Ion Battery Types and Materials

14.3 Overview of Battery Performance and Expectations

14.4 Future Technologies

14.5 Conclusions

References

Part VI: Renewables (Energy Sources)

Chapter 15. Wind Energy

15.1 The Global Resource

15.2 Resource Assessment

15.3 Wind Turbine Technology

15.4 Power System Integration

15.5 Environmental Impact

15.6 Future Developments and Research Requirements

References

Chapter 16. Tidal Current Energy: Origins and Challenges

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Tidal Current Drivers

16.3 Devices

16.4 Anchors and Fixings

16.5 Biofouling

16.6 Conclusions

References

Recommended Reading

Chapter 17. Wave Energy

17.1 Background, Context and Drivers of Wave Energy

17.2 What Is Ocean Wave Energy?

17.3 The Energy Resource and How It Is Measured

17.4 Forecasting and Prediction

17.5 Challenges and Benefits

17.6 Converter Types

17.7 Device Rating

17.8 Modern Devices

17.9 Economics of Wave Energy

17.10 Alternative Output

17.11 Future

References

Chapter 18. Solar Energy: Photovoltaics

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Electrical Operating Characteristics

18.3 PV Physics

18.4 PV Cell Design

18.5 Field Performance

18.6 Barriers to Growth

References

Chapter 19. Solar Energy – Concentrating Solar Power

19.1 Introduction – Concept and Basic Characteristics

19.2 State of the Art

19.3 Cost and Market

References

Chapter 20. Solar Energy – Water Heating

20.1 Solar Water Heater Basics

20.2 Market Assessment

20.3 The Future of Solar Water Heating

20.4 Summary

References

Chapter 21. Hydroelectric Power

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Hydropower Resources

21.3 Technology

21.4 Sustainability Issues

21.5 Cost Issues

21.6 Integration into the Broader Energy System

21.7 Future Deployment

References

Chapter 22. Geothermal Energy

22.1 Heat Flow and Subsurface Temperatures

22.2 Tectonic Controls

22.3 Types of Geothermal Systems

22.4 Worldwide Geothermal Potential

22.5 Worldwide Geothermal Development

22.6 Methods for Electrical Generation

22.7 Direct Use of Geothermal Energy

22.8 Environmental Challenges

22.9 Recent Progress in Geothermal Energy Usage

22.10 The Future

22.11 Sources of Additional Information

Acknowledgements

References

Part VII: New Possible Energy Options

Chapter 23. Hydrogen: An Energy Carrier

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Hydrogen

23.3 Basic Elements Needed for Hydrogen Utilisation

23.4 Current Status

23.5 Now and the Future Around the World

References

Recommended Websites

Chapter 24. Fuel Cells: Energy Conversion Technology

24.1 Introduction

24.2 SOFC Power System

24.3 Electrical Losses

24.4 SOFC Materials

24.5 Research Trend

24.6 Challenges

24.7 Concluding Remarks

References

Part VIII: Environmental and Related Issues

Chapter 25. Environmental Impacts of Energy Production, Distribution and Transport

25.1 Introduction to Energy Sources

25.2 Energy Life Cycles

25.3 Upstream Component

25.4 Fuel Cycle

25.5 Operation Stage

25.6 Downstream Component

References

Chapter 26. CO2 Capture and Sequestration

26.1 Background of CO2 Capture and Sequestration

26.2 CO2 Properties

26.3 CO2 Emissions from the Electricity Sector

26.4 CO2 Capture from Electricity

26.5 CO2 Capture from Industrial Processes

26.6 CO2 Transport

26.7 CO2 Storage

26.8 Cost of CO2 Capture and Storage

26.9 Status of CCS

26.10 CCS Potential

26.11 CCS Challenges and Enablers

26.12 The Future

References

Chapter 27. Overview of Energy Storage Technologies

27.1 In a Nutshell

27.2 Energy Production and Transmission

27.3 Energy Consumption

27.4 Overview of Storage Technologies

27.5 Research and Developments

27.6 Conclusions

References

Chapter 28. Smart Grids: An Optimised Electric Power System

28.1 Chapter Scope

28.2 Traditional Power Systems

28.3 The New Smart Grid Power System Model

28.4 Smart Grid Building Blocks

28.5 A Summary of Smart Grid Financial Benefits

28.6 Challenges in Evaluating Smart Grid Investments

28.7 Other Smart Grid Issues

28.8 Societal Benefits: Energy Efficiency, Energy Conservation, Energy-Saving Devices and Emissions Reductions

References

Chapter 29. Energy Resources in Developing Nations

29.1 Concept and Context

29.2 Energy Resources

29.3 Implication of Resources Exploitation on Water and Food Resources

29.4 Conclusions

References

Chapter 30. The Transition to Future Energy

30.1 Introduction

30.2 Sustainable Energy for All

30.3 Major Challenges Require Transition of Energy System

30.4 The Gap Between Science and Society

30.5 The Fourth ‘P’ of Sustainable Practice – Connecting Disciplines

30.6 Chapter Summary – Society Must Lead

References

Chapter 31. Energy Options and Predictions for China

31.1 Background

31.2 Energy and Emission Scenarios

31.3 Key Energy Factors to Go to the Energy Transition and Low Emission Pathway

31.4 Uncertainties Analysis

31.5 Summary

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
738
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780080994222
Hardcover ISBN:
9780080994246

About the Editor

Trevor Letcher

Trevor M Letcher is Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. He is a past Director of the International Association of Chemical Thermodynamics and his research involves the thermodynamics of liquid mixtures and energy from landfill. He was awarded the South African Chemical Institute’s Gold medal in 1999 and in 2000 he was awarded the South African Gold medal by the South African Association for the Advancement of Science. He has published over 250 papers in peer review journals and has edited, co-edited and written eleven books in his research and related fields. His latest books include Unraveling Environmental Disasters (2012), Materials for a Sustainable Future (2012), Waste (2011), Heat Capacities (2010), Climate Change (2009) and Future Energy (2008).

His leisure activities involve regular hikes with the Mendip Ramblers, woodwork (long case clocks) and wood turning, gardening at home and on his allotment, theatre, reading and playing golf.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa